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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE : To investigate the efficacy of diagnostic ultrasound and microbubble contrast (MB) on enhancing thrombolysis in combination with urokinase (UK) and to determine the optimal combination for thrombolysis in vitro.
Four types of standardized red thrombus were prepared in vitro, including 3-hour-old (3 h), 6-hour-old (6 h), 12-hour-old (12 h), and 24-hour-old (24 h). The major parameters for the designed experiments included transmit powers of ultrasound (factor A, 5%, 25%, 50%, 100%), MB volumes (factor B, 50 microL, 100 microL, 200 microL, 400 microL), UK concentrations (factor C, 100 U/mL, 200 U/mL, 400 U/mL, 800 U/mL), and lysis time (factor D, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min). An orthogonal array experimental design (OAD) based on four levels L16 (4(5)) of the above four parameters was employed to optimize the thrombolysis conditions. During the procedure of thrombolysis, the diagnostic ultrasound frequency was fixed at 1.82 MHz. The histopathological changes measured by HE staining and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were carried out to observe the clots before and after thrombolysis. The loss of clot weight before and after treatment was measured to determine the lysis efficiency (LE). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to assess the LE according to the L16 (4(5)) matrix.
The HE staining and SEM observation of thrombolysis under the following experimental conditions of 5% ultrasound transmit power, 400 microL MB volume, 800 U/mL UK concentration, and 40 min lysis time showed remarkable disaggregation of fibrin nets. The above four factors had significant impact on thrombus (all P < 0.05), among which UK concentrations (factor C) was the most significant one. The optimal scheme was determined as a C4-D4-A1-B4 mode, with UK concentration 800 U/mL, lysis time 40 min, transmit power 5%, and MB volume 400 microL, respectively. The LE curves for 3h clots were superior to the others. The lysis efficiencies for the clots showed significant differences among different type of thrombus (all P < 0.05).
1.82 MHz diagnostic ultrasound and microbubble contrast can be applied to augment thrombolysis in vitro even with a transmit power as low as 5%. Under the condition of fixed ultrasound frequency, the LE of thrombus increase with increased UK concentrations, lysis time and MB volumes, and decrease with increased thrombus ages.
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition 05/2012; 43(3):451-7.
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ABSTRACT: To improve the understanding of diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary The data of clinical features, laboratory Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) complicated with lymphoma.
findings, therapeutic response and follow-up of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome complicated with lymphoma from January 2006 to January 2011 in our single center were retrospectively analyzed.
Totally twelve inpatients with pSS complicated with lymphoma were diagnosed, which accounted for 1.29% of newly-diagnosed lymphoma inpatients during the same period. The characteristic immunologic changes were hyperimmunoglobulinemia, hypocomplementemia and decrease of CD4 T cell number. In our study, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was the most common type, and the main pathological subtype was diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Most of the patients were in advanced stages, Ann Arbor stage IIl-IV, at diagnosis. Extranodal involvement was common, most frequently in the livers and the lungs. All of the patients received combination chemotherapy. Most of the NHL patients received CHOP/R-CHOP-like regimens, and the Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patient received AVD regimen. The median follow-up time was 27 months (range 1-56 months). In terms of median survival time and overall survival there were no statistical significant differences between both low C3 and low C4 group and control group (P > 0.05). In terms of median survival time and overall survival there were no statistical significant differences between rituximab treatment group and control group (P > 0.05).
The patients with pSS complicated with lymphoma were not uncommon clinically. Hypocomplementemia could not be identified as a risk factor for the prognosis of pSS complicated with lymphoma in our study. Although expected prognosis of these patients was unfavorable, we found that treatment with rituximab combination chemotherapy could not improve the therapeutic effects and survival of patients with pSS complicated with lymphoma.
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition 05/2012; 43(3):467-9.
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ABSTRACT: To explore antitumor effects of plasmid pcDNA3. 1-MP encoding matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP:CHOL) in mice with EL4 lymphoma.
C57BL/6 mouse model with EL4 lymphoma was established. Sixty mice bearing EL4 lymphoma were divided randomly into five groups including Lip-MP, Lip-pVAX, Lip, ADM and NS groups, which were intravenously injected with liposome-pcDNA 3. 1-MP complex, liposome-pVAX complex, empty liposome, Adriamycin and normal saline respectively every three days. Tumor volumes and survival time were monitored. Microvessel density and tumor proliferative index in tumor tissues were determined by CD31, Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining, meanwhile the tumor apoptosis index was measured by TUNEL method.
From 6 days after treatments on, the tumor volume in Lip-MP group was much smaller than that in Lip-pVAX, Lip and NS group (P < 0.05). The median survival time of mice in Lip-MP group, 44 days after inoculation of tumor cells, was significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05), which was 39 days, 38.5 days and 34 days in Lip-pVAX, Lip and NS groups respectively. The MVD value in tumor tissues in Lip-MP group was less than that in Lip-pVAX, Lip and NS groups (P < 0.05). Ki67 staining revealed that Lip-MP complex apparently suppressed the proliferation of EL4 tumor cells in vivo (P < 0.05). TUNEL assays showed that apoptosis index of tumor cells in Lip-MP group, 10.60 +/- 1.71, was much higher than that in other three groups (P < 0.05).
Lip-MP complex, the plasmid encoding matrix protein of VSV (VSV-MP) encapsulated in cationic liposome, significantly inhibited the growth of tumor and prolonged the survival of mice bearing EL4 lymphoma, which may be related to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor cell proliferation.
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition 03/2011; 42(2):213-7.