[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with pulmonary fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this study, we investigated EMT of human pulmonary epithelial-derived cells (A549). A549 cells was either cultured by itself or co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) conditions. We evaluated the presence of EMT by determining the expression of EMT markers, E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin. To determine the role of TGF-β1 and IL-1β in EMT of the A549 cells, we analyzed the effects of blocking their activity with TGF-β1 inhibitor or IL-1β neutralizing antibody respectively. The A549 cells presented EMT when they were co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages. The EMT of the A549 cells co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages was exacerbated under hypoxia. In addition, the EMT were prevented by the addition of TGF-β1 type I receptor kinase inhibitor. The hypoxic condition increased the mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in A549 cells and THP-1 macrophages and that of IL-1β in THP-1 macrophages when each cells were co-cultured. Anti-IL-1β neutralizing antibody attenuated TGF-β1 secretion in co-culture media under hypoxic conditions. Thus, the IL-1β from THP-1 macrophages up-regulated the TGF-β1 from A549 cells and THP-1 macrophages, and then the TGF-β1 from both cells induced and promoted the EMT of A549 cells when they were co-cultured under hypoxia. Together, these results demonstrate that the interaction between type II pneumocytes and macrophages under hypoxia is necessary for the development of pulmonary fibrosis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2014; 453(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.10.022 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A high homocysteine (Hcy) level is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Hcy can be added to proteins through a process known as N-homocysteinylation. This is thought to be a potential cause of atherosclerosis induction. We previously reported that N-homocysteinylated apolipoprotein A-I (N-Hcy-apoA-I) was identified in normal human plasma. In this study, the effect of N-homocysteinylation on the functions of apoA-I was examined. A kinetic study using dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes indicated that N-Hcy-apoA-I showed increased lipid-binding activity compared to wild-type apoA-I. Two reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) particles of different sizes (approximately 8.2 nm and 7.6 nm in diameter) were produced by mixing apoA-I and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). However, an increased ratio of large to small particles was found in rHDL prepared with N-Hcy-apoA-I. The normal apoA-I antioxidant ability, estimated by the suppression of conjugated diene formation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by copper sulfate oxidation, was considerably impaired when using N-Hcy-apoA-I. Although N-Hcy-apoA-I functioned as an oxidant, no significant difference was observed in the cholesterol efflux capacity from THP-1 macrophages between wild-type apoA-I and N-Hcy-apoA-I. These results suggest that N-Hcy-apoA-I might be proatherogenic due to its oxidative behavior but not an attenuation of cholesterol efflux capacity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) count and left shift in predicting bacterial infections has been controversial. The aim of this study was to prove that WBC count and left shift reflect a course of bacterial infection.
Six patients in whom the onset of bacterial infection had been determined and successful treatment had been done were selected. Manual 100-cell differential counts were repeated at least every 24 hr.
WBC count and left shift divided a course of bacterial infection into five phases. In the first phase of bacterial infection (0-10 hr after the onset), WBC count decreased to fewer than reference range without left shift. In the second phase (about 10-20 hr), low WBC count continued and left shift appeared. In the third phase (one to some days), WBC count increased above reference range with left shift. In the fourth phase (some to several days), high WBC count continued without left shift. In the fifth phase, WBC count went down into reference range without left shift.
A combination of WBC count and left shift real-timely reflected a course of bacterial infection from the onset to healing. And we could judge which bacterial infection is adequately treated or not only by the above two routine laboratory tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An Ambler class A β-lactamase gene, bla(CIA-1), was cloned from the reference strain Chryseobacterium indologenes ATCC 29897 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The bla(CIA-1) gene encodes a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) that shared 68% and 60% identities with the CGA-1 and CME-1 β-lactamases, respectively. bla(CIA-1)-like genes were detected from clinical isolates. In addition to the metallo-β-lactamase IND of Ambler class B, C. indologenes has a class A ESBL gene, bla(CIA-1), located on the chromosome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In atherosclerotic artery walls, mast cells, an inflammatory cell, are activated and secrete some proteases including chymase. Chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease, cleaves the C-terminus of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) at Phe225. This cleavage reduces the ability of apoA-I to promote the efflux of cellular cholesterol. The aim of this study is to detect C-terminally truncated apoA-I in normal human serum. For this purpose, we generated a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes C-terminally truncated apoA-I by immunizing mice with a peptide that corresponds to human apoA-I amino acid residues 216-225. The monoclonal antibody, termed 16-4 mAb, selectively reacted with recombinant C-terminally truncated apoA-I, but not recombinant full-length apoA-I. A two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis also indicated that only two out of six spots that contained apoA-I fragments and had a molecular mass of 26 kDa after chymase digestion reacted with the 16-4 mAb. We detected an extremely small amount of C-terminally truncated apoA-I in normal human serum by concentrating the serum through affinity chromatography using a 16-4 mAb-conjugated resin, and then performing Western blot analysis. The 16-4 mAb could be useful to examine whether C-terminally truncated apoA-I is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our previous study to evaluate the effects of soluble silicon (Si) on bone metabolism, Si and coral sand (CS) as a natural Si-containing material suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which regulates both glucose and bone metabolism and increases adipogenesis at the expense of osteogenesis, leading to bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of bone-seeking elements, Si and stable strontium (Sr), and CS as a natural material containing these elements using obese diabetic KKAy mice.
Weanling male mice were fed diets containing 1% Ca supplemented with CaCO(3) as the control and CS, and diets supplemented with 50 ppm Si or 750 ppm Sr to control diet for 56 d. The mRNA expressions related to energy expenditure in the pancreas and kidney were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
At the end of feeding, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased significantly in three test groups, while pancreatic PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA expression levels increased significantly toward the normal level, improving the glucose sensitivity of β-cells and inducing a significant decrease in insulin expression. The renal PPARγ, PPARα, and adiponectin expression levels, histologic indices of diabetic glomerulopathy, and plasma indices of renal function were also improved significantly in the test groups.
Taken together, anti-osteoporotic trace minerals, Si and Sr, and CS containing them showed novel anti-diabetic effects of lowering blood glucose level, improving the tolerance to insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, and reducing the risk of glomerulopathy through modulation of related gene expression in the pancreas and kidney.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silicon is rich in the normal human aorta but decreases with age and the development of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that soluble silica (Si) and coral sand (CS), as a natural Si-containing material, would suppress high blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and clarify the observed antihypertensive mechanism by cell cultures by quantifying messenger RNA expressions in the aorta. In SHR fed diets containing 1% Ca supplemented with CaCO(3) as the control (CT) and CS in a Ca-deficient diet and containing 50 mg/kg Si in the CT diet for 8 weeks, systolic BP was significantly (P < .05) lowered by 18 mm Hg for the Si group and 16 mm Hg for the CS group compared with the control CT group with 207 mm Hg. Magnesium (Mg) uptake by rat aortic smooth muscle cells significantly increased (177%, P < .005) in cells cultured with a physiologic Mg level plus Si compared with those with no Si addition. Furthermore, the increase of systolic BP by the CT diet was significantly suppressed by 17 mm Hg (P < .001) in SHR fed the diet containing Mg along with Si, but not by the Mg-deficient diet with or without Si. Soluble silica and CS treatments suppressed the aortic gene expressions of angiotensinogen and growth factors related to vascular remodeling, whereas, Si stimulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the activation of which has anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive effects on vascular cells. These findings suggest that Si reduces hypertension in SHR by stimulating the intracellular Mg uptake and related gene expression in the aorta.
Nutrition research 02/2011; 31(2):147-56. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human serum, a portion of homocysteine (Hcy) exists as an N-linked form to the epsilon-amino group of protein lysine residues. N-homocysteinylated proteins differ structurally and functionally from native proteins. The present study strives to develop detection and potential semi-quantification methods for N-homocysteinylated apolipoprotein AI (N-Hcy-apoAI) in human serum.
Serum treated with or without cysteamine was supplied to isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by an immunoblot using an anti-apoAI antibody. Cysteamine treatment increased the isoelectric point for N-Hcy-apoAI, but not for unmodified apoAI, due to the presence of -SH group(s) derived from Hcy and the absence of a cysteine residue in the apoAI molecule. N-Hcy-apoAI was semi-quantified from the scanned immunoblot pattern via a computer.
After cysteamine treatment, N-Hcy-apoAI in the serum was identified by IEF at the position with a higher pI value compared with intact apoAI. The reproducibility (between assays) of the semi-quantification method was 19.1% CV (coefficient of variation) for an average ratio 5.9% of N-Hcy-apoAI to the whole apoAI in the serum. Approximately 1.0-7.4% of apoAI was N-homocysteinylated in the serum obtained from 27 healthy subjects. Neither the ratio of N-Hcy-apoAI nor its concentration, calculated by total apoAI concentration, indicated correlation with the so-called total (free and S-linked) Hcy concentration.
We directly found that a portion of apoAI in the serum undergoes homocysteinylation in an N-linkage manner, and used this to develop a potential semi-quantification method for N-Hcy-apoAI.