Neil M Bressler

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (247)1076.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For the management of retinal disease, the use of intravitreous injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor has increased. Recent reports have suggested that this therapy may cause sustained elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and may potentially increase the risk of glaucoma for patients with retinal disease. To assess the risk of sustained IOP elevation or the need for IOP-lowering treatments for eyes with diabetic macular edema following repeated intravitreous injections of ranibizumab. An exploratory analysis was conducted within a Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network randomized clinical trial. Study enrollment dates were from March 20, 2007, to December 17, 2008. Of 582 eyes (of 486 participants) with center-involved diabetic macular edema and no preexisting open-angle glaucoma, 260 were randomly assigned to receive a sham injection plus focal/grid laser treatment, and 322 were randomly assigned to receive ranibizumab plus deferred or prompt focal/grid laser treatment. The cumulative probability of sustained IOP elevation, defined as IOP of at least 22 mm Hg and an increase of at least 6 mm Hg from baseline at 2 consecutive visits, or the initiation or augmentation of ocular hypotensive therapy, through 3 years of follow-up. The mean (SD) baseline IOP in both treatment groups was 16 (3) mm Hg (range, 5-24 mm Hg). The cumulative probability of sustained IOP elevation or of initiation or augmentation of ocular hypotensive therapy by 3 years, after repeated ranibizumab injections, was 9.5% for the participants who received ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred focal/grid laser treatment vs 3.4% for the participants who received a sham injection plus focal/grid laser treatment (difference, 6.1% [99% CI, -0.2% to 12.3%]; hazard ratio, 2.9 [99% CI 1.0-7.9]; P = .01). The distribution of IOP and the change in IOP from baseline at each visit through 3 years were similar in each group. In eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema and no prior open-angle glaucoma, repeated intravitreous injections of ranibizumab may increase the risk of sustained IOP elevation or the need for ocular hypotensive treatment. Clinicians should be aware of this risk and should consider this information when following up with patients who have received intravitreous injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.
    Jama Ophthalmology 02/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.186 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate visual impairment (VI) and blindness avoided with intravitreal ranibizumab 0.3 mg treatment for central-involved diabetic macular edema (DME) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States. Population-based model simulating visual acuity (VA) outcomes over 2 years after diagnosis and treatment of DME. Visual acuity changes with and without ranibizumab were based on data from the RISE, RIDE, and DRCR Network trials. For the better-seeing eye, VA outcomes included VI, defined as worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye, and blindness, defined as VA of 20/200 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Incidence of 1 or both eyes with central-involved DME in 2010 were estimated based on the 2010 United States population, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and 1-year central-involved DME incidence rate. Sixty-one percent of incident individuals had bilateral DME and 39% had unilateral DME, but DME could develop in the fellow eye. Cases of VI and blindness avoided with ranibizumab treatment. Among approximately 102 million Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States 45 years of age and older in 2010, an estimated 37 274 had central-involved DME and VI eligible for ranibizumab treatment. Compared with no ranibizumab treatment, the model predicted that ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks would reduce the number of individuals with VI from 11 438 (95% simulation interval [SI], 7249-16 077) to 6304 (95% SI, 3921-8981), a 45% (95% SI, 36%-53%) reduction at 2 years. Ranibizumab would reduce the number of incident eyes with VA worse than 20/40 from 16 910 (95% SI, 10 729-23 577) to 9361 (95% SI, 5839-13 245), a 45% (95% SI, 38%-51%) reduction. Ranibizumab was estimated to reduce the number of individuals with legal blindness by 75% (95% SI, 58%-88%) and the number of incident eyes with VA of 20/200 or worse by 76% (95% SI, 63%-87%). This model suggests that ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks substantially reduces prevalence of VI and legal blindness 2 years after initiating treatment among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States with central-involved DME that has caused vision loss. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ophthalmology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.12.007 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of a topical, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, nepafenac 0.1%, in eyes with noncentral diabetic macular edema. Multicenter, double-masked randomized trial. Individuals with good visual acuity and noncentral-involved diabetic macular edema were randomly assigned to nepafenac 0.1% (N = 61) or placebo (nepafenac vehicle, N = 64) 3 times a day for 12 months. The primary outcome was mean change in optical coherence tomography retinal volume at 12 months. Mean baseline retinal volume was 7.8 mm. At 12 months, in the nepafenac and placebo groups respectively, mean change in retinal volume was -0.03 mm and -0.02 mm (treatment group difference: -0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.27 to 0.23, P = 0.89). Central-involved diabetic macular edema was present in 7 eyes (11%) and 9 eyes (14%) at the 12-month visit (P = 0.79), respectively. No differences in visual acuity outcomes were identified. One study participant developed a corneal melt after using nepafenac in the nonstudy eye, which had a history of severe dry eye. No additional safety concerns were evident. In eyes with noncentral diabetic macular edema and good visual acuity, topical nepafenac 0.1% 3 times daily for 1 year likely does not have a meaningful effect on optical coherence tomography-measured retinal thickness.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000403 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report 5-year results from a previously reported trial evaluating intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab with prompt versus deferred (for ≥24 weeks) focal/grid laser treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Among participants from the trial with 3 years of follow-up who subsequently consented to a 2-year extension and survived through 5 years, 124 (97%) and 111 (92%) completed the 5-year visit in the prompt and deferred groups, respectively. Random assignment to ranibizumab every 4 weeks until no longer improving (with resumption if worsening) and prompt or deferred (≥24 weeks) focal/grid laser treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity at the 5-year visit. The mean change in visual acuity letter score from baseline to the 5-year visit was +7.2 letters in the prompt laser group compared with +9.8 letters in the deferred laser group (mean difference, -2.6 letters; 95% confidence interval, -5.5 to +0.4 letters; P = 0.09). At the 5-year visit in the prompt versus deferred laser groups, there was vision loss of ≥10 letters in 9% versus 8%, an improvement of ≥10 letters in 46% versus 58%, and an improvement of ≥15 letters in 27% versus 38% of participants, respectively. From baseline to 5 years, 56% of participants in the deferred group did not receive laser. The median number of injections was 13 versus 17 in the prompt and deferral groups, including 54% and 45% receiving no injections during year 4 and 62% and 52% receiving no injections during year 5, respectively. Five-year results suggest focal/grid laser treatment at the initiation of intravitreal ranibizumab is no better than deferring laser treatment for ≥24 weeks in eyes with DME involving the central macula with vision impairment. Although more than half of eyes in which laser treatment is deferred may avoid laser for at least 5 years, such eyes may require more injections to achieve these results when following this protocol. Most eyes treated with ranibizumab and either prompt or deferred laser maintain vision gains obtained by the first year through 5 years with little additional treatment after 3 years. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ophthalmology 10/2014; 122(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.08.047 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess the development of vision-threatening lesions at least 3.5 years after initiating anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants A total of 75 patients (81 eyes) with CNV secondary to AMD who received intravitreous anti-VEGF treatment and were followed for at least 3.5 years after initiating treatment. Methods Retrospective record review of patients initiating anti-VEGF treatment between November 2005 and June 2008 at a university-based institution for whom at least 3.5 years of follow-up was available at the same institution. Main Outcome Measures Predominantly hemorrhagic lesions or geographic atrophy (GA). Results Among 75 patients (81 eyes; 59% were women; median age, 78 years), mean follow-up was 4.9 years and at least 6 years for 40%. Median visual acuity (VA) was 20/80 (interquartile range [IQR], 20/50–20/100) initially, 20/63 (IQR, 20/40–20/160) at 2 years, 20/80 (IQR, 20/40–20/200) at 3.5 years, and 20/63 (IQR 20/32–20/200) at 6 years. Six eyes (7%) had predominantly hemorrhagic lesions initially, whereas this developed in an additional 3 eyes (4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1% to 10%) in 3.5 years and in 1 additional eye (1%, 95% CI, 0.03% to 7%) at more than 3.5 years of follow-up. Initially, GA within or overlapping the boundary of the entire CNV was present in 4 eyes (5%) and outside this boundary in 8 eyes (10%). Geographic atrophy enlarged in each eye over time. The only eyes that developed GA outside the CNV boundary were those that had GA outside the lesion at baseline. Additional atrophy within the boundary of CNV defined at baseline, termed “atrophic disciform scars,” developed in 5 eyes (6%), all within 4 years of treatment initiation. Conclusions Longer-term follow-up of neovascular AMD managed with anti-VEGF therapy suggests that predominantly hemorrhagic lesions may develop within 3.5 years of initiating therapy and more than 3.5 years after initiating therapy. In contrast, new areas of GA beyond the boundaries of the CNV lesion as defined at initiation of anti-VEGF therapy seem unlikely to develop if there is no GA outside of the CNV lesion initially.
    Ophthalmology 10/2014; 122(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.046 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) treatment on patient-reported vision-related function, as assessed by 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) scores, in patients with visual impairment secondary to center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME).
    Ophthalmology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.008 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a leading cause of vision loss in persons with diabetes mellitus. Although there are national estimates for the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors among persons with diabetes, to our knowledge, no comparable estimates are available for DME specifically.
    Jama Ophthalmology 08/2014; 132(11). DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2854 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Neil M Bressler, Rohit Varma, Quan Doan
    Jama Ophthalmology 08/2014; 132(8):1030-1. DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2445 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding measurement variability and relationships between measurements obtained on different optical coherence tomography (OCT) machines is critical for clinical trials and clinical settings.
    Jama Ophthalmology 07/2014; 4(1). DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.1698 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, such as ranibizumab, have significantly improved the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This study used patient-level simulation modelling to estimate the number of individuals in Australia who would have been likely to avoid legal blindness or visual impairment due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration over a 2-year period as a result of intravitreal ranibizumab injections. The modelling approach used existing data for the incidence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Australia and outcomes from ranibizumab trials. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as visual acuity in the better-seeing eye of worse than 6/60 or 6/12, respectively. In 2010, 14 634 individuals in Australia were estimated to develop neovascular age-related macular degeneration who would be eligible for ranibizumab therapy. Without treatment, 2246 individuals would become legally blind over 2 years. Monthly 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab would reduce incident blindness by 72% (95% simulation interval, 70-74%). Ranibizumab given as needed would reduce incident blindness by 68% (64-71%). Without treatment, 4846 individuals would become visually impaired over 2 years; this proportion would be reduced by 37% (34-39%) with monthly intravitreal ranibizumab, and by 28% (23-33%) with ranibizumab given as needed. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, given either monthly or as needed, can substantially lower the number of cases of blindness and visual impairment over 2 years after the diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e101072. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101072 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To evaluate the effects of 0.3 mg or 0.5 mg of ranibizumab in eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2 without subretinal neovascularization.Methods:Ten eyes were randomized to either 0.3 mg or 0.5 mg ranibizumab group in 1 eye only. Study eye received ranibizumab at baseline and at Months 1 and 2. Injections at Months 3, 4, and 5 were at investigator's discretion. Participants were followed monthly through 6 months with best-corrected visual acuity, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography.Results:For study eyes at baseline, median best-corrected visual acuity letter score was 60 (20/64 Snellen equivalent) and central subfield retinal thickness was 181.5 m. Median number of injections was six. Median change in best-corrected visual acuity at Month 3 was 4 letters (range: -5 to 9 letters) at both doses in the study eye and 3 letters (range: -10 to 5 letters) in the untreated fellow eye. At Month 3, retinal leakage decreased 0.87 disk area and 0.76 disk area for 0.3 mg and 0.5 mg ranibizumab, respectively. Median change in central subfield retinal thickness was 1 m and -11 mu m for 0.3 mg and 0.5 mg ranibizumab, respectively.Conclusion:Ranibizumab (0.3 mg or 0.5 mg) decreases leakage secondary to macular telangiectasia type 2, but accompanying improvements in best-corrected visual acuity appear similar to improvements in the untreated fellow eye where retinal thickness is relatively unchanged.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 06/2014; 34(10). DOI:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000203 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe clinical and imaging findings in two eyes with new onset subtle neovascular age-related macular degeneration that was detected by the regular use of a home monitoring device based on preferential hyperacuity visual field testing.
    Retinal Cases & Brief Reports 06/2014; 9(1). DOI:10.1097/ICB.0000000000000085
  • Lee M Jampol, Neil M Bressler, Adam R Glassman
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/2014; 311(22):2269-2270. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.2536 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Some clinical trials that proved the benefits of anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME) based retreatment decisions on visual acuity and time-domain ocular coherence tomography (TD-OCT) central subfield thickness changes since the last treatment. This study assessed the impact of TD-OCT followed by spectral domain (SD)-OCT on as needed treatment decision-making in the management of DME with anti-VEGF medications. Methods: Patients previously treated for DME with anti-VEGF medications in the Retina Division of the Wilmer Eye Institute, following an IRB approved informed consent process, underwent clinical examination, TD- and SD-OCT imaging. Their retina specialists recorded whether additional anti-VEGF therapy was recommended and their level of certainty in the decision after performing a clinical examination and reviewing a TD-OCT, and then again after reviewing a SD-OCT. Results: Data were collected for 129 treatment decision pairs involving 67 eyes from 46 subjects. Non-concordant decisions occurred in 9 (7%) treatment decision pairs. In 7 of these (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2% to 11%), the addition of SD-OCT changed the retina specialist's decision from not recommending to recommending retreatment. The addition of SD-OCT increased the certainty of the retina specialist in 36% (95% CI: 27% to 45%) of all treatment decision pairs. Conclusions: SD-OCT does not appear to change the ultimate treatment decision or increase the level of certainty of the retina specialist relative to TD-OCT in most cases of DME under anti-VEGF management in clinical practice. The few non-concordant decisions appear to trend towards recommending more anti-VEGF therapy following SD-OCT.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 02/2014; DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-13049 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Understanding how individuals value health states is central to patient-centered care and to health policy decision making. Generic preference-based measures of health may not effectively capture the impact of ocular diseases. Recently, 6 items from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 were used to develop the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index health state classification, which defines visual function health states. OBJECTIVE To describe elicitation of preferences for health states generated from the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index health state classification and development of an algorithm to estimate health preference scores for any health state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nonintervention, cross-sectional study of the general community in 4 countries (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States). A total of 607 adult participants were recruited from local newspaper advertisements. In the United Kingdom, an existing database of participants from previous studies was used for recruitment. INTERVENTIONS Eight of 15 625 possible health states from the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index were valued using time trade-off technique. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A θ severity score was calculated for Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index-defined health states using item response theory analysis. Regression models were then used to develop an algorithm to assign health state preference values for all potential health states defined by the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index. RESULTS Health state preference values for the 8 states ranged from a mean (SD) of 0.343 (0.395) to 0.956 (0.124). As expected, preference values declined with worsening visual function. Results indicate that the Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index describes states that participants view as spanning most of the continuum from full health to dead. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Visual Function Questionnaire-Utility Index health state classification produces health preference scores that can be estimated in vision-related studies that include the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. These preference scores may be of value for estimating utilities in economic and health policy analyses.
    Jama Ophthalmology 01/2014; 133(3). DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.7639 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Neil M Bressler, Roy W Beck, Michael A Kass
    Jama Ophthalmology 01/2014; 132(1):11-2. DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.7874 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Voraporn Chaikitmongkol, Neil M Bressler
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography findings of an eye with diabetic macular edema that developed intraretinal fibrosis in an area previously occupied by lipid accumulating after the intravitreous ranibizumab treatment.
    Retinal Cases & Brief Reports 01/2014; 8(4):336-9. DOI:10.1097/ICB.0000000000000063
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Thickening of the center of the retina, diabetic macular edema (DME), is the most common cause of visual loss due to diabetes mellitus. Treatment of DME has improved dramatically, and the prompt diagnosis of DME and referral of these patients have become more critical. Nonetheless, awareness of and care for DME in the US population is uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE To characterize eye care and awareness of eye disease among persons with DME in the general US population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 2005 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 40 years or older with diabetes mellitus and fundus photographs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among persons with DME, (1) awareness that diabetes has affected their eyes; (2) report on the last time they visited a diabetes specialist; (3) report on their last eye examination with pupil dilation; and (4) prevalence of visual impairment. RESULTS In 2010, only 44.7% (95% CI, 27.0%-62.4%) of US adults 40 years or older with DME reported being told by a physician that diabetes had affected their eyes or that they had retinopathy; 46.7% (95% CI, 27.5%-66.0%), that they had visited a diabetes nurse educator, dietician, or nutritionist for their diabetes mellitus more than 1 year ago or never; and 59.7% (95% CI, 43.5%-75.9%), that they had received an eye examination with pupil dilation in the last year. Among persons with DME, 28.7% (95% CI, 12.7%-44.7%) were visually impaired (defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the eye with DME) based on visual acuity at the initial examination and 16.0% (95% CI, 2.5%-29.4%) based on best-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Many persons with diabetes mellitus in the United States are not getting care that can prevent visual impairment and blindness. Strategies to increase awareness are warranted, especially given the recent availability of improved therapies for DME.
    Jama Ophthalmology 12/2013; 132(2). DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.6426 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Jama Ophthalmology 12/2013; 132(2). DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.6209 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Few data are available on relative changes in vision-related function after treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME). OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of intravitreal ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, compared with laser on patient-reported visual function. DESIGN Phase 3, randomized, double-masked, 12-month study. SETTING Outpatient retina practices in Australia, Canada, and Europe. PARTICIPANTS Patients 18 years or older with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus and visual impairment due to DME. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to ranibizumab plus sham laser (n = 116), ranibizumab plus laser (n = 118), or sham injections plus laser (n = 111). Ranibizumab and sham injections were given for 3 consecutive months then as needed; laser plus sham laser treatment was given at baseline then as needed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25) scores at 0, 3, and 12 months for patients receiving 1 or more study treatments with 1 or more postbaseline NEI VFQ-25 assessments and last observation carried forward for missing data. RESULTS Mean baseline NEI VFQ-25 composite scores were 72.8, 73.5, and 74.1 in the ranibizumab, laser, and ranibizumab plus laser groups, respectively. At 12 months, the mean composite scores (95% CIs) improved by 5.0 (ranibizumab vs laser, 2.6 to 7.4; P = .01 vs laser) and 5.4 (ranibizumab plus laser vs laser alone, 3.3 to 7.4; P = .004 vs laser) from baseline in the ranibizumab and ranibizumab plus laser groups, respectively, compared with 0.6 (-1.8 to 3.0) for the laser group. Near activities scores improved by 9.0 (ranibizumab vs laser, 5.0 to 13.0; P = .01) and 9.1 (ranibizumab plus laser vs laser, 5.6 to 12.6; P = .006) compared with 1.1 (-3.0 to 5.2) for the laser group, whereas distance activities scores improved by 5.3 (ranibizumab vs laser, 1.8 to 8.9; P = .04) and 5.6 (ranibizumab plus laser vs laser, 2.3 to 9.0; P = .03) compared with 0.4 (-3.1 to 3.8) for the laser group. Patients with better baseline visual acuity or lower central retinal thickness had greater improvements with ranibizumab treatment compared with laser in composite and some subscale scores compared with patients with worse visual acuity or higher central retinal thickness. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These data provide vision-related, patient-reported outcome evidence that mirrors visual acuity outcomes and supports benefits from ranibizumab or ranibizumab plus laser treatment for patients with DME and characteristics similar to those enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687804.
    Jama Ophthalmology 08/2013; 131(10). DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4592 · 3.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,076.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Wilmer Eye Institute
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1989–2014
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Wilmer Eye Institute
      • • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Jaeb Center for Health Research
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 1999–2010
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2005
    • Emory University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Doheny Eye Institute
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2002
    • University College London
      • Institute of Ophthalmology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne - Université Paris 12
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 1985–1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Neuroscience Research Institute
      Santa Barbara, CA, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia