ABSTRACT: Evaluate the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, reported either as a primary or secondary end point among patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) based on a meta-analysis of published studies.
English-language searches of PubMed, Ovid, and the Cochrane databases were completed. Reference sections of identified studies were also examined for additional relevant articles to review.
Studies of adult patients with OSAHS who reported pre- and post-CPAP treatment CRP were reviewed and analyzed. Two independent reviewers extracted data from 10 peer-reviewed studies, which were combined using a random effects meta-analysis model.
The CPAP treatment was found to lead to a significant reduction in CRP levels (17.8%, P = .002). This corresponds to an effect size of -0.485 (-0.731, -0.240). Sensitivity analysis was done to determine the impact of study design. Both case-control studies and case-series studies yielded a significant effect. Sensitivity analysis also yielded a significant effect for studies with average body mass index <30, studies where CPAP was employed over automatic positive airway pressure, and studies treating patients ≤ 3 months. Analysis of publication bias, however, revealed a likelihood of "missing" studies.
Although there is a significant lack of high-quality studies addressing this question, this analysis suggests that treatment with CPAP leads to a statistically significant reduction in CRP levels. However, the mean pre- and posttreatment CRP levels observed are considered "high risk" for cardiovascular morbidity. The clinical significance of this finding as it relates to cardiovascular risk reduction and the relationship between CRP and OSAHS requires further study.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 06/2012; 147(3):423-33. · 1.72 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the need for pH testing in diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).
Case series with planned data collection.
Tertiary care center.
On the basis of symptoms and/or abnormal endoscopic findings, more than 500 patients underwent 24-hour pharyngeal pH testing at a single center (using the Dx-pH probe) between January 2009 and June 2011. A total of 163 patients not on proton-pump inhibitors at the time of study and with complete data available for analysis (pH results, body mass index, smoking status, pretest reflux symptom index) were divided into 2 groups by positive (n = 70) and negative (n = 93) Ryan Score. The Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) was compared between groups and assessed overall against Ryan Score parameters at different pH thresholds. The diagnostic utility of an RSI ≥ 13 for prediction of Ryan Score was assessed.
No significant difference in RSI was seen between Ryan-positive (17.50 ± 11.47) and Ryan-negative (14.95 ± 11.43) patients (P = .161). Overall, RSI correlated poorly with percentage time spent below pH thresholds 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, and 5.0 and upright and supine Ryan parameters at these thresholds (as determined by linear regression analysis). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RSI ≥ 13 for Ryan positivity were 55.7%, 47.3%, 44.3%, and 58.7%, respectively.
Our findings show that in our population of otolaryngology patients, the diagnosis of LPR cannot be reliably made on the basis of symptoms alone. Diagnosis, and in particular treatment decisions, should ideally be made on the basis of a combination of symptoms, signs, and confirmatory testing.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 02/2012; 146(6):952-8. · 1.72 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) often suffers from poor patient compliance and hence poor symptom improvement. The aim of this study was to determine whether 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring was associated with higher rates of treatment compliance and symptom improvement compared with empirical treatment for LPR.
Retrospective, case-control study.
Tertiary care center.
Charts were reviewed from 170 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with LPR from January 2008 to March 2010. After clinical diagnosis, all patients were offered the option of empiric treatment with a proton pump inhibitor versus treatment based on a 24-hour oropharyngeal pH study using the Dx-pH system (Restech, San Diego, California). Treatment compliance and pretreatment and posttreatment reflux symptom index (RSI) scores were compared for the 2 groups. Only consecutive patients with complete data were included.
One-hundred and seventy patients were included in 2 groups. Group I consisted of 73 patients who underwent pH monitoring. Group II consisted of 70 patients treated empirically. Compliance with medication therapy (68.5% vs 50.0%, P = .019) and lifestyle modification (82.2 vs 25.7%, P = .0001) were greater among patients in group I. Symptom improvement was greater among patients in group I following treatment compared with patients in group II, with a significantly greater reduction in RSI (36.6% vs 24.4%, P = .023).
Among our patient population, treatment of LPR based on pH monitoring resulted in greater compliance, as well as greater symptom improvement, compared with empirical therapy alone.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 04/2011; 144(4):558-62. · 1.72 Impact Factor