[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triglyceride lipases such as lipoprotein lipase, endothelial lipase, and hepatic lipase play key roles in controlling the levels of plasma lipoprotein. Accordingly, small-molecule modulation of these species could alter patient lipid profiles with corresponding health effects. Screening of these enzymes for small-molecule therapeutics has historically involved the use of lipid-based particles to mimic native substrates. However, particle-based artifacts can complicate the discovery of therapeutic molecules. As a simplifying solution, the authors sought to develop an approach involving a soluble and monomeric lipase substrate. Using purified bovine lipoprotein lipase as a model system, they show that the hydrolysis of resorufin butyrate can be fluorescently monitored to give a robust assay (Z' > 0.8). Critically, using parallel approaches, they show that resorufin butyrate is soluble and monomeric under assay conditions. The presented assay should be useful as a simple and inexpensive primary or secondary screen for the discovery of therapeutic lipase modulators.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening 09/2011; 17(2):245-51. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P2Y14 is a member of the pyrimidinergic GPCR family. UDP-Glc has been previously shown to activate human P2Y14, whereas UDP was unable to activate the receptor. In this study, the authors used conventional and nonconventional methods to further characterize P2Y14 and its ligands. Conventional calcium mobilization and nonconventional cellular impedance functional assays revealed that UMP and UDP selectively activated HEK cells coexpressing P2Y14 and Gα(qi5). In the impedance assays, the presence of exogenous Gα(qi5) resulted in agonist-induced Gq signaling, whereas in the absence of exogenous Gα(qi5), the signal was indicative of Gi. The authors established the first P2Y14 membrane filtration binding assay using a novel optimized expression vector and [(3)H]UDP as radioligand. UDP-Glc, UMP, and UDP dose dependently inhibited [(3)H]UDP binding in the binding assay, and saturation analysis revealed that UDP bound P2Y14 with a K(D) = 10 nM and a B(max) = 110 pmol/mg. The authors screened a phosphonate library and identified compound A, which inhibited UDP-Glc-mediated calcium signaling in the fluorometric imaging plate reader assay (IC(50) = 2.3 µM) and competed for [(3)H]UDP binding in the novel binding assay with a K(i) = 1280 nM.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening 08/2011; 16(9):1098-105. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A weak antagonist of the pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y(14) containing a dihydropyridopyrimidine core was identified through high-throughput screening. Subsequent optimization led to potent, non-UTP competitive antagonists and represent the first reported non-nucleotide antagonists of this receptor. Compound 18q was identified as a 10 nM P2Y(14) antagonist with good oral bioavailability and provided sufficient exposure in mice to be used as a tool for future in vivo studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A weak, UDP-competitive antagonist of the pyrimidinergic receptor P2RY(14) with a naphthoic acid core was identified through high-throughput screening. Optimization provided compounds with improved potency but poor pharmacokinetics. Acylglucuronidation was determined to be the major route of metabolism. Increasing the electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents markedly reduced glucuronidation and improved the pharmacokinetic profile. Additional optimization led to the identification of compound 38 which is an 8 nM UDP-competitive antagonist of P2Y(14) with a good pharmacokinetic profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modulating the activity of lipases involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins is an attractive approach for developing lipid raising/lowering therapies to treat cardiovascular disease. Identifying small molecule inhibitors for these membrane-active enzymes, however, is complicated by difficulties associated with measuring lipase activity and inhibition at the water-membrane interface; substrate and compound dynamics at the particle interface have the potential to confound data interpretation. Here, we describe a novel ELISA-based lipase activity assay that employs as "bait" a biotinylated active-site probe that irreversibly binds to the catalytic active-site serine of members of the triacylglycerol lipase family (hepatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and endothelial lipase) in solution with high affinity. Detection of "captured" (probe-enzyme) complexes on streptavidin-coated plates using labeled secondary antibodies to specific primary antibodies offers several advantages over conventional assays, including the ability to eliminate enzyme-particle and compound-particle effects; specifically measure lipase activity in complex mixtures in vitro; preferentially identify active-site-directed inhibitors; and distinguish between reversible and irreversible inhibitors through a simple assay modification. Using EL as an exemplar, we demonstrate the versatility of this assay both for high-throughput screening and for compound mechanism-of-action studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our series of competitive antagonists against the G-protein coupled receptor P2Y(14) were found to be highly shifted in the presence of serum (>99% protein bound). A binding assay using 2% human serum albumin (HSA) was developed to guide further SAR studies and led to the identification of the zwitterion 2, which is substantially less shifted (18-fold) than our previous lead compound 1 (323-fold). However, as the bioavailability of 2 was low, a library of ester pro-drugs was prepared (7a-7j) and assessed in vitro. The most interesting candidates were then profiled in vivo and led to the identification of the pro-drug 7j, which possesses a substantially improved pharmacokinetic profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new structural class of potent antagonists of the Neuropeptide S Receptor (NPSR) is reported. High-throughput screening identified a tricyclic imidazole antagonist of NPSR, and medicinal chemistry optimization of this structure was undertaken to improve potency against the receptor as well as CNS penetration. Detailed herein are synthetic and medicinal chemistry studies that led to the identification of antagonists 15 and NPSR-PI1, which demonstrate potent in vitro NPSR antagonism and central exposure in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been shown to produce arousal, that is, independent of novelty and to induce wakefulness by suppressing all stages of sleep, as demonstrated by EEG recordings in rat. Medicinal chemistry efforts have identified a quinolinone class of potent NPSR antagonists that readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We detail here optimization efforts resulting in the identification of a potent NPSR antagonist which dose-dependently and specifically inhibited (125)I-NPS binding in the CNS when administered to rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe herein a novel series of 3-amino-4-hydrazine-cyclobut-3-ene-1,2-diones as potent and selective inhibitors against the CXCR2 chemokine receptor and IL-8-mediated chemotaxis of a CXCR2-expressing cell line. Furthermore, these alkyl-hydrazine series inhibitors such as 5b demonstrated acceptable metabolic stability when incubated in human and rat microsomes.