[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. The present study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of mucosal alterations and transcriptional changes in the urinary bladder of rats exposed to diuron. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were treated with 0, 60, 125, 1250, and 2500 ppm of diuron in the diet for 20 weeks. Histologic examination showed urothelial hyperplasia present in rats treated with either 1250 or 2500 ppm of diuron but not 60 or 125 ppm. Comprehensive gene expression analyses of urothelial cell RNA were conducted using Affymetrix microarrays. The numbers of differentially expressed transcripts between each treatment group and control increased with diuron dose. Based on similar histology and gene expression responses, the treatment groups were regrouped into a high-dose (1250 and 2500 ppm) and low-dose group (60 and 125 ppm). These data suggest that persistent exposure to high dietary concentrations of diuron induces oxidative stress, increases cellular metabolism, and enhances cell death that is associated with sustained urothelial hyperplasia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence.
A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters.
CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group.
Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of differentially methylated genes in this neoplasia in order to maximize the diagnostic coverage of epigenetic markers, especially in studies aiming at early recurrence detection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of soy isoflavone on climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.
In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, a total of 80 women (mean age = 55.1 years), who reported 5 or more hot flush episodes per day, were randomized to receive either 250 mg of standardized soy extract (Glycine max AT) a total of 100mg/day of isoflavone (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40). Exclusion criteria included: contra-indication for hormone therapy (HT), chronic gastrointestinal diseases, and users of HT within the preceding 6-months. For 10-months, climacteric symptoms were evaluated using a score card and the menopausal Kupperman index. Compliance and safety were also assessed. At baseline and the end of the study, lipid and hormonal profiles, as well as vaginal, mammographic and ultrasonographic parameters were measured. The t-test, Wilcoxon test and ANOVA were used in the statistical analysis.
At baseline, the mean number of hot flushes was 9.6 +/- 3.9 per day in the isoflavone group and 10.1+/-4.9 in the placebo group (p>0.05). After 10 months, there was a significant reduction in frequency of hot flushes among isoflavone users when compared to those on placebo (3.1 +/- 2.3 and 5.9 +/- 4.3, respectively) (p<0.001). Kupperman index mean values showed a significant reduction in both groups. However, soy isoflavone was significantly superior to placebo, in reducing hot flush severity (69.9% and 33.7%, respectively) (p<0.001). Endometrial thickness, mammography, vaginal cytology, lipids and hormonal profile did not change in both groups. No serious adverse event related to isoflavone treatment was reported.
The soy isoflavone extract exerted favorable effects on vasomotor symptoms and good compliance, providing a safe and effective alternative therapeutic for postmenopausal women.