[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disparities in access to kidney transplantation (KT) remain inadequately understood and addressed. Detailed descriptions of patient attitudes may provide insight into mechanisms of disparity. The aims of this study were to explore perceptions of dialysis and KT among African American adults undergoing hemodialysis, with particular attention to age- and sex-specific concerns.
Qualitative data on experiences with hemodialysis and views about KT were collected through four age- and sex-stratified (males <65, males ≥65, females <65, and females ≥65 years) focus group discussions with 36 African American adults recruited from seven urban dialysis centers in Baltimore, Maryland.
Four themes emerged from thematic content analysis: 1) current health and perceptions of dialysis, 2) support while undergoing dialysis, 3) interactions with medical professionals, and 4) concerns about KT. Females and older males tended to be more positive about dialysis experiences. Younger males expressed a lack of support from friends and family. All participants shared feelings of being treated poorly by medical professionals and lacking information about renal disease and treatment options. Common concerns about pursuing KT were increased medication burden, fear of surgery, fear of organ rejection, and older age (among older participants).
These perceptions may contribute to disparities in access to KT, motivating granular studies based on the themes identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Patients of all ages undergoing hemodialysis (HD) have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment and worse cognitive function than healthy controls, and those with dementia are at high risk of death. Frailty has been associated with poor cognitive function in older adults without kidney disease. We hypothesized that frailty might also be associated with poor cognitive function in adults of all ages undergoing HD.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements:
At HD initiation, 324 adults enrolled (November 2008 to July 2012) in a longitudinal cohort study (Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in ESRD) were classified into three groups (frail, intermediately frail, and nonfrail) based on the Fried frailty phenotype. Global cognitive function (3MS) and speed/attention (Trail Making Tests A and B [TMTA and TMTB, respectively]) were assessed at cohort entry and 1-year follow-up. Associations between frailty and cognitive function (at cohort entry and 1-year follow-up) were evaluated in adjusted (for sex, age, race, body mass index, education, depression and comorbidity at baseline) linear (3MS, TMTA) and Tobit (TMTB) regression models.
At cohort entry, the mean age was 54.8 years (SD 13.3), 56.5% were men, and 72.8% were black. The prevalence of frailty and intermediate frailty were 34.0% and 37.7%, respectively. The mean 3MS was 89.8 (SD 7.6), TMTA was 55.4 (SD 29), and TMTB was 161 (SD 83). Frailty was independently associated with lower cognitive function at cohort entry for all three measures (3MS: -2.4 points; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -4.2 to -0.5; P=0.01; TMTA: 12.1 seconds; 95% CI, 4.7 to 19.4; P<0.001; and TMTB: 33.2 seconds; 95% CI, 9.9 to 56.4; P=0.01; all tests for trend, P<0.001) and with worse 3MS at 1-year follow-up (-2.8 points; 95% CI, -5.4 to -0.2; P=0.03).
In adult incident HD patients, frailty is associated with worse cognitive function, particularly global cognitive function (3MS).
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2015; DOI:10.2215/CJN.01960215 · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Married couples might be an appropriate target for obesity prevention interventions. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether an individual's risk of obesity is associated with spousal risk of obesity and whether an individual's change in body mass index (BMI; weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with spousal BMI change. We analyzed data from 3,889 spouse pairs in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort who were sampled at ages 45-65 years from 1986 to 1989 and followed for up to 25 years. We estimated hazard ratios for incident obesity by whether spouses remained nonobese, became obese, remained obese, or became nonobese. We estimated the association of participants' BMI changes with concurrent spousal BMI changes using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex. At baseline, 22.6% of men and 24.7% of women were obese. Nonobese participants whose spouses became obese were more likely to become obese themselves (for men, hazard ratio = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.30, 2.43; for women, hazard ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.39, 2.57). With each 1-unit increase in spousal BMI change, women's BMI change increased by 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.18) and men's BMI change increased by 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.12). Having a spouse become obese nearly doubles one's risk of becoming obese. Future research should consider exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention interventions in couples.
American Journal of Epidemiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/aje/kwv112 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To understand the natural history of frailty after an aggressive surgical intervention, kidney transplantation (KT).DesignProspective cohort study (December 2008–March 2014).SettingBaltimore, Maryland.ParticipantsKidney transplantation recipients (N = 349).MeasurementsThe Fried frailty score was measured at the time of KT and during routine clinical follow-up. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, factors associated with improvements in frailty score after KT were identified. Using a longitudinal analysis, predictors of frailty score changes after KT were identified using a multilevel mixed-effects Poisson model.ResultsAt KT, 19.8% of recipients were frail; 1 month after KT, 33.3% were frail; at 2 months, 27.7% were frail; and at 3 months, 17.2% were frail. On average, frailty scores had worsened by 1 month (mean change 0.4, P < .001), returned to baseline by 2 months (mean change 0.2, P = .07), and improved by 3 months (mean change −0.3, P = .04) after KT. The only recipient or transplant factor associated with improvement in frailty score after KT was pre-KT frailty (hazard ratio = 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.71–3.82, P < .001). Pre-KT frailty status (relative risk (RR) = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.29–1.72, P < .001), recipient diabetes mellitus (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.08–1.46, P = .003), and delayed graft function (RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.04–1.43, P = .02) were independently associated with long-term changes in frailty score.Conclusion
After KT, in adult recipients of all ages, frailty initially worsens but then improves by 3 months. Although KT recipients who were frail at KT had higher frailty scores over the long term, they were most likely to show improvements in their physiological reserve after KT, supporting the transplantation in these individuals and suggesting that pretransplant frailty is not an irreversible state of low physiological reserve.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 09/2015; 63(10):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1111/jgs.13657 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frailty, a validated measure of physiologic reserve, predicts adverse health outcomes among adults with end-stage renal disease. Frailty typically is not measured clinically; instead, a surrogate-perceived frailty-is used to inform clinical decision-making. Because correlations between perceived and measured frailty remain unknown, the aim of this study was to assess their relationship.
146 adults undergoing hemodialysis were recruited from a single dialysis center in Baltimore, Maryland. Patient characteristics associated with perceived (reported by nephrologists, nurse practitioners (NPs), or patients) or measured frailty (using the Fried criteria) were identified using ordered logistic regression. The relationship between perceived and measured frailty was assessed using percent agreement, kappa statistic, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and prevalence of misclassification of frailty. Patient characteristics associated with misclassification were determined using Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, or median tests.
Older age (adjusted OR [aOR] = 1.36, 95%CI:1.11-1.68, P = 0.003 per 5-years older) and comorbidity (aOR = 1.49, 95%CI:1.27-1.75, P < 0.001 per additional comorbidity) were associated with greater likelihood of nephrologist-perceived frailty. Being non-African American was associated with greater likelihood of NP- (aOR = 5.51, 95%CI:3.21-9.48, P = 0.003) and patient- (aOR = 4.20, 95%CI:1.61-10.9, P = 0.003) perceived frailty. Percent agreement between perceived and measured frailty was poor (nephrologist, NP, and patient: 64.1%, 67.0%, and 55.5%). Among non-frail participants, 34.4%, 30.0%, and 31.6% were perceived as frail by a nephrologist, NP, or themselves. Older adults (P < 0.001) were more likely to be misclassified as frail by a nephrologist; women (P = 0.04) and non-African Americans (P = 0.02) were more likely to be misclassified by an NP. Neither age, sex, nor race was associated with patient misclassification.
Perceived frailty is an inadequate proxy for measured frailty among patients undergoing hemodialysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for hyperuricaemia and gout, but limited information on the burden of gout is available
from studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore examined the prevalence and correlates of gout in
the large prospective observational German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) side effects often prompt dose reduction or discontinuation, and this MMF dose reduction (MDR) can lead to rejection and possibly graft loss. Unfortunately, little is known about what factors might cause or contribute to MDR. Frailty, a measure of physiologic reserve, is emerging as an important, novel domain of risk in kidney transplantation recipients. We hypothesized that frailty, an inflammatory phenotype, might be associated with MDR.
We measured frailty (shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slowed walking speed), other patient and donor characteristics, longitudinal MMF doses, and graft loss in 525 kidney transplantation recipients. Time-to-MDR was quantified using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model.
By 2 years after transplantation, 54% of frail recipients and 45% of nonfrail recipients experienced MDR; by 4 years, incidence was 67% and 51%. Frail recipients were 1.29 times (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01-1.66; P = 0.04) more likely to experience MDR, as were deceased donor recipients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.44-2.54, P < 0.001) and older adults (age ≥ 65 vs <65; aHR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10-1.96, P = 0.01). Mycophenolate mofetil dose reduction was independently associated with a substantially increased risk of death-censored graft loss (aHR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.97-13.98, P = 0.001).
A better understanding of risk factors for MMF intolerance might help in planning alternate strategies to maintain adequate immunosuppression and prolong allograft survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Disparities in kidney transplantation remain; one mechanism for disparities in access to transplantation (ATT) may be patient-perceived concerns about pursuing transplantation. This study sought to characterize prevalence of patient-perceived concerns, explore interrelationships between concerns, determine patient characteristics associated with concerns, and assess the effect of concerns on ATT.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements:
Prevalences of 12 patient-perceived concerns about pursuing transplantation were determined among 348 adults who recently initiated dialysis, recruited from 26 free-standing dialysis centers around Baltimore, Maryland (January 2009-March 2012). Using variable reduction techniques, concerns were clustered into two categories (health-related and psychosocial) and quantified with scale scores. Associations between patient characteristics and concerns were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Associations between concerns and ATT were estimated using Cox models.
The most frequently cited patient-perceived concerns were that participants felt they were doing fine on dialysis (68.4%) and felt uncomfortable asking someone to donate a kidney (29.9%). Older age was independently associated with having high health-related (adjusted relative risk, 1.35 [95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 1.51], for every 5 years older for those ≥ 60 years) or psychosocial (1.15 [1.00 to 1.31], for every 5 years older for those aged ≥ 60 years) concerns, as was being a woman (1.72 [1.21 to 2.43] and 1.55 [1.09 to 2.20]), having less education (1.59 [1.08 to 2.35] and 1.77 [1.17 to 2.68], comparing postsecondary education to grade school or less), and having more comorbidities (1.18 [1.08 to 1.30] and 1.18 [1.07 to 1.29], per one comorbidity increase). Having never seen a nephrologist before dialysis initiation was associated with high psychosocial concerns (1.48 [1.01 to 2.18]). Those with high health-related (0.37 [0.16 to 0.87]) or psychosocial (0.47 [0.23 to 0.95]) concerns were less likely to achieve ATT (median follow-up time 2.2 years; interquartile range, 1.6-3.2).
Patient-perceived concerns about pursuing kidney transplantation are highly prevalent, particularly among older adults and women. Reducing these concerns may help decrease disparities in ATT.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2014; 9(11). DOI:10.2215/CJN.03310414 · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because informed consent requires discussion of alternative treatments, proper consent for dialysis should incorporate discussion about other renal replacement options including kidney transplantation (KT). Accordingly, dialysis providers are required to indicate KT provision of information (KTPI) on CMS Form-2728; however, provider-reported KTPI does not necessarily imply adequate provision of information. Furthermore, the effect of KTPI on pursuit of KT remains unclear. We compared provider-reported KTPI (Form-2728) with patient-reported KTPI (in-person survey of whether a nephrologist or dialysis staff had discussed KT) in a prospective ancillary study of 388 hemodialysis initiates. KTPI was reported by both patient and provider for 56.2% of participants, by provider only for 27.8%, by patient only for 8.3%, and by neither for 7.7%. Among participants with provider-reported KTPI, older age was associated with lack of patient-reported KTPI. Linkage with the Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients showed that 20.9% of participants were subsequently listed for KT. Patient-reported KTPI was independently associated with a 2.95-fold (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54 to 5.66; P=0.001) higher likelihood of KT listing, whereas provider-reported KTPI was not associated with listing (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.60 to 2.32; P=0.62). Our findings suggest that patient perception of KTPI is more important for KT listing than provider-reported KTPI. Patient-reported and provider-reported KTPI should be collected for quality assessment in dialysis centers because factors associated with discordance between these metrics might inform interventions to improve this process.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2014; 25(12). DOI:10.1681/ASN.2013121298 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Studies have shown that smoking status tends to be concordant within spouse pairs. This study aimed to estimate the association of spousal smoking status with quitting smoking in US adults. We analyzed data from 4,500 spouse pairs aged 45-64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort, sampled from 1986 to 1989 from 4 US communities and followed up every 3 years for a total of 9 years. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to calculate the odds ratio of quitting smoking given that one's spouse is a former smoker or a current smoker compared to a never smoker. Among men and women, being married to a current smoker decreased the odds of quitting smoking (for men, odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29, 0.46; for women, OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.68). Among women only, being married to a former smoker increased the odds of quitting smoking (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.53). In conclusion, spouses of current smokers are less likely to quit, whereas women married to former smokers are more likely to quit. Smoking cessation programs and clinical advice should consider targeting couples rather than individuals.
American journal of epidemiology 04/2014; 179(10). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu041 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some observational studies have identified elevated uric acid concentration as a risk factor for diabetes, while others have found an inverse relationship. We examined both the association of uric acid level with incident diabetes and the change in uric acid concentration after a diabetes diagnosis. We analyzed data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and quantified the independent association between uric acid level and incident diabetes via Cox proportional hazards models. The association between duration of diabetes and change in uric acid level was examined via linear regression. Among 11,134 participants without diagnosed diabetes at baseline (1987-1989), there were 1,294 incident cases of diabetes during a median of 9 years of follow-up (1987-1998). Uric acid level was associated with diabetes even after adjustment for risk factors (per 1 mg/dL, hazard ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.23), and the association remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose and insulin levels. Among participants with diabetes (n = 1,510), every additional 5 years' duration of diabetes was associated with a 0.10-mg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.15) lower uric acid level after adjustment. We conclude that uric acid concentration rises prior to diagnosis of diabetes and then declines with diabetes duration. Future studies investigating uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease should adequately account for the impact and timing of diabetes development.
American journal of epidemiology 01/2014; 179(6). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt320 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined racial differences in gout incidence among black and white participants in a longitudinal, population-based cohort and tested whether racial differences were explained by higher levels of serum urate. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a prospective, US population-based cohort study of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing annual follow-up through 2012. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident gout by race among 11,963 men and women using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. The cohort was 23.6% black. The incidence rate of gout was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (15.5/10,000 person-years for black men, 12.0/10,000 person-years for black women, 9.4/10,000 person-years for white men, and 5.0/10,000 person-years for white women; P < 0.001). Black participants had an increased risk of incident gout (for women, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.56). Upon further adjustment for uric acid levels, there was modest attenuation of the association of race with incident gout (for women, adjusted HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.22; for men, adjusted HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00) compared with white participants. In this US population-based cohort, black women and black men were at increased risk of developing gout during middle and older ages compared with whites, which appears, particularly in men, to be partly related to higher urate levels in middle-aged blacks.
American journal of epidemiology 12/2013; 179(5). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt299 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased serum urate levels are associated with poor outcomes including but not limited to gout. It is unclear whether serum urate levels are the sole predictor of incident hyperuricemia or whether demographic and clinical risk factors also predict the development of hyperuricemia. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for incident hyperuricemia over 9 years in a population-based study, ARIC.
ARIC recruited individuals from 4 US communities; 8,342 participants who had urate levels <7.0 mg/dL were included in this analysis. Risk factors (including baseline, 3-year, and change in urate level over 3 years) for 9-year incident hyperuricemia (urate level of >7.0 g/dL) were identified using an AIC-based selection approach in a modified Poisson regression model.
The 9-year cumulative incidence of hyperuricemia was 4%; men = 5%; women = 3%; African Americans = 6% and; whites = 3%. The adjusted model included 9 predictors for incident hyperuricemia over 9 years: male sex (RR = 1.73 95% CI:1.36-2.21), African-American race (RR = 1.79 95%CI:1.37-2.33), smoking (RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.97-1.67), <HS education (RR = 1.27, 95%CI:0.99-1.63), hypertension (RR = 1.65, 95%CI:1.30-2.09), CHD (RR = 1.57, 95%CI:0.99-2.50), obesity (class I RR = 2.37, 95%CI:1.65-3.41 and >= class II RR = 3.47, 95%CI:2.33-5.18), eGFR < 60 (RR = 2.85, 95%CI:1.62-5.01) and triglycerides (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1: RR = 2.00, 95%CI:1.38-2.89). In separate models, urate levels at baseline (RR 1 mg/dL increase = 2.33, 95%CI:1.94-2.80) and 3 years after baseline (RR for a 1 mg/dL increase = 1.92, 95%CI:1.78-2.07) were associated with incident hyperuricemia after accounting for demographic and clinical risk factors.
Demographic and clinical risk factors that are routinely collected as part of regular medical care are jointly associated with the development of hyperuricemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing hemodialysis are at high risk of falls, with subsequent complications including fractures, loss of independence, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Factors associated with falls are poorly understood in this population. We hypothesized that insights derived from studies of the elderly might apply to adults of all ages undergoing hemodialysis; we focused on frailty, a phenotype of physiological decline strongly associated with falls in the elderly.
In this prospective, longitudinal study of 95 patients undergoing hemodialysis (1/2009-3/2010), the association of frailty with future falls was explored using adjusted Poisson regression. Frailty was classified using the criteria established by Fried et al., as a combination of five components: shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, low activity, and slowed walking speed.
Over a median 6.7-month period of longitudinal follow-up, 28.3% of study participants (25.9% of those under 65, 29.3% of those 65 and older) experienced a fall. After adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidity, disability, number of medications, marital status, and education, frailty independently predicted a 3.09-fold (95% CI: 1.38-6.90, P=0.006) higher number of falls. This relationship between frailty and falls did not differ for younger and older adults (P=0.57).
Frailty, a validated construct in the elderly, was a strong and independent predictor of falls in adults undergoing hemodialysis, regardless of age. Our results may aid in identifying frail hemodialysis patients who could be targeted for multidimensional fall prevention strategies.