[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is one of the treatment options for prostate cancer (PCa) but up to 25 % of men report about severe nocturia (nocturnal voiding). The combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) resembles glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HA and CS on nocturia, in men with nocturia after PCa radiotherapy.
Twenty-three consecutive patients with symptomatic cystitis after external radiotherapy for PCa were enrolled. Patients underwent bladder instillation therapy with HA and CS weekly for the first month and, afterwards, on week 6, 8 and 12. Nocturnal voiding frequency was assessed by item 3 (Q3) of the Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (ICSI) and item 2 (Q2) of the Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI). Data were analyzed with paired-samples T-test and adjusted for age.
Eighteen patients (78 %) reported about nocturia. Pre- and post-treatment ICSI-Q3 was 2.13 ± 0.28 and 1.61 ± 0.21 (-24.4 %, p = 0.001). With logistic regression analysis, both age and baseline ICSI-Q3 had a significant impact on nocturnal voiding frequency (r = 0.293, p = 0.011 and r = 0.970, p < 0.001). Pre- and post-treatment ICPI-Q2 was 1.87 ± 0.26 and 1.30 ± 0.25 (-30.5 %, p = 0.016); logistic regression analysis was without significant findings.
Bladder instillation treatment with a combination of HA and CS was effective in reducing nocturnal voiding frequency in men with post-radiation bladder pain for PCa. Randomized, controlled trials with sham treatment are needed to confirm our result.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are usually chronic, with a high prevalence and a substantial impact on quality of life; therefore, adequate therapies are desirable and crucial for these men. First line treatment for all patients with storage LUTS should always be behavioral. The gold standard for pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder/storage symptoms is a muscarinic receptor antagonist such as tolterodine. First-marketed antimuscarinics were limited by several adverse events such as dry mouth, constipation, tachycardia, accommodation disorder, and cognitive dysfunction, resulting in poor compliance and early treatment discontinuation in a large number of patients. In order to improve compliance with oral drug treatment, tolterodine was developed, providing a better efficacy/adverse event profile. Tolterodine is available in the following two formulations: the intermediate release (IR) and extended release form (ER). Tolterodine ER 4 mg administered once daily is pharmacokinetically equivalent to tolterodine IR 2 mg twice daily but has a lower incidence of adverse events and increased efficacy. Combination therapy of tolterodine and an alpha-blocker is significantly more efficacious than either monotherapy. Even when compared and added to tamsulosin, tolterodine shows a good safety profile. The incidence of acute urinary retention requiring catheterization and treatment withdrawals due to adverse events are low in all the studies included in the present review.
Current Urology Reports 09/2015; 16(9):531. DOI:10.1007/s11934-015-0531-9 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the association between prostate inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms in patients treated with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Methods From April 2011, a consecutive series of patients treated with TURP were prospectively included in this observational study. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Patients were evaluated at baseline and 1 month postoperative with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), including the storage IPSS (sIPSS) and voiding IPSS (vIPSS) subscores, the Overactive Bladder questionnaire (OAB-q), and uroflowmetry. Prostate volume was evaluated at baseline. Complications were classified using the modified Clavien system. TURP specimens were examined to define grade, location, and extent of the inflammatory infiltrate according to the standardized classification system of chronic prostatitis and/or chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Results One hundred and thirty-one subjects were enrolled, in which 54 patients (41.3%) presented with MetS. No differences were observed in terms of preoperative prostate-specific antigen, OAB score, IPSS, vIPSS, sIPSS, Qmax, post void residual, and prostate volume in subjects with and without MetS. An incidence of postoperative complications of 10.6% was recorded: 79% were classified as Clavien type I or II; 21% Clavien IIIb. Of 131 subjects, 97 (74.1%) presented with an inflammatory infiltrate. Patients with MetS presented a high proportion of inflammatory infiltrates compared to patients without MetS (45 of 54; 83% vs 52 of 77; 67%, P =.01). Patients with prostate inflammation presented a 50% risk reduction of postoperative storage urinary symptoms. Conclusion We confirmed the association between MetS and prostate inflammation.Patients with inflammatory infiltrates mostly benefit from TURP, particularly regarding storage symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults) reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content) increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime) and non citrus fruits (melon) are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein (< 20 g/day) low-salt (< 2 g/day) diet with high hydration (> 3 liters/day) is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. Elderly: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day) is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.
Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia 07/2015; 87(2):105-120. DOI:10.4081/aiua.2015.2.105
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a clinical experience of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for isolated recurrence in the prostatic bed from prostate cancer.
Between November 2011 and November 2013, 16 patients were treated with SBRT for a macroscopic isolated recurrence of prostate cancer in the prostatic bed. All patients were initially treated with radical prostatectomy, and half of them also received radiotherapy. Two schedules of SBRT were used: 30 Gy in 5 fractions in previously irradiated patients, 35 Gy in five fractions in radiotherapy-naïve patients.
At a median follow-up of 10 months (range 2-21 months), a significant biochemical response was found in all but one patient. At imaging evaluation, no local progression was noted: 10 patients showed partial response while four stable disease. At the moment of analysis, all 16 patients were alive. Seven of them experienced distant relapse, while nine maintained biochemical control, with no further therapy. Median time to relapse was 9.3 months (range 3-15.2 months). The treatment was well tolerated: One patient experienced G2 acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity.
Our experience shows that SBRT with CyberKnife for isolated nodal relapse is a safe and well-tolerated treatment.
World Journal of Urology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00345-015-1613-5 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in multimodal therapy, bladder cancer still ranks ninth in worldwide cancer incidence. New molecules which might improve early diagnosis and therapeutic efficiency for tumors of such high epidemiological impact therefore have very high priority. In the present study, the tetrabranched neurotensin peptide NT4 was conjugated with functional units for cancer-cell imaging or therapy and was tested on bladder cancer cell lines and specimens from bladder cancer surgical resections, in order to evaluate its potential for targeted personalized therapy of bladder cancer. Fluorophore-conjugated NT4 distinguished healthy and cancer tissues with good statistical significance . NT4 conjugated to methotrexate or gemcitabine was cytotoxic for human bladder cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations. Their selectivity for bladder cancer tissue and capacity to carry tracers or drugs make NT4 peptides candidate tumor targeting agents for tracing cancer cells and for personalized therapy of human bladder cancer.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 04/2015; 41(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2015.02.019 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyberknife is an emerging treatment for early stage prostate cancer. Between October 2012 and January 2014, 32 patients were treated in our institution. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. Biochemical response was observed in 22 patients. Four patients experienced G2 acute genitourinary toxicity and in two cases we recorded G3 acute GU toxicity. 5 patients experienced G2 acute proctitis. At last follow up visit, all patients were still alive. 29 remained free of disease at last follow up appointment, while three developed a biochemical recurrence. Our experience confirms the efficacy and safety of Cyberknife for localized prostate cancer.
Cancer Investigation 04/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.3109/07357907.2015.1019679 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central obesity can be associated with the development of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and with the worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) on urinary outcomes after surgical therapy for severe LUTS due to BPE.
A multicenter prospective study was conducted including 378 consecutive men surgically treated for large BPE with simple open prostatectomy (OP) or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), between January 2012 and October 2013. LUTS were measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), immediately before surgery and 6 to 12 months postoperatively. MetS was defined according the US National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III.
The improvement of total and storage IPSS postoperatively was related to diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference (WC). WC>102 cm was associated with a higher risk of an incomplete recovery of both total IPSS (OR: 0.343, p=0.001) and storage IPSS (OR: 0.208, p<0.001), as compared to WC<102cm. Main limitations are: 1) population selected for a tertiary center 2) Use exclusively of IPSS questionnaire 3) Not inclusion of further data.
Increased WC is associated with persistent postoperative urinary symptoms after surgical treatment of BPE. Obese men have a higher risk of persistent storage LUTS after TURP or OP.
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BJU International 01/2015; 116(2). DOI:10.1111/bju.13038 · 3.53 Impact Factor