Marco Carini

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (275)811.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Overactive bladder (OAB)/ storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a high prevalence affecting up to 90% of men over 80 years. The role of sufficient therapies appears crucial. In the present review, we analyzed the mechanism of action of tolterodine extended-release (ER) with the aim to clarify its efficacy and safety profile, as compared to other active treatments of OAB/storage LUTS.
    BMC Urology 10/2014; 14(1):84. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Some reports have suggested that nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) may protect against cardiovascular events (CVe) when compared with radical nephrectomy (RN). However, previous studies did not adjust the results for potential selection bias secondary to baseline cardiovascular risk. Objective To test the effect of treatment type (NSS vs RN) on the risk of developing CVe after accounting for individual cardiovascular risk. Design, setting, and participants A multi-institutional collaboration including 1331 patients with a clinical T1a–T1b N0 M0 renal mass and normal renal function before surgery (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Intervention RN (n = 462, 34.7%) or NSS (n = 869, 65.3%) between 1987 and 2013. Outcome measurement and statistical analyses CVe was defined as onset during the follow-up period of coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, vasculopathy, heart failure, dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular disease not known before surgery. Cox regression analyses were performed. To adjust for inherent baseline differences among patients, we performed multivariate analyses adjusting for all available characteristics depicting the overall and cardiovascular-specific profile of the patients. Results and limitations When stratifying for treatment type, the proportion of patients who experienced CVe at 1, 5, and 10 yr was 5.5%, 9.9%, and 20.2% for NSS patients compared to 8.7%, 15.6%, and 25.9%, respectively, for RN patients (p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses, patients who underwent NSS showed a significantly lower risk of developing CVe compared with their RN counterparts (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.96; p = 0.03) after accounting for clinical characteristics and cardiovascular profile. Limitations include the retrospective design of the study because other potential confounders may exist. Conclusions The risk of CVe after renal surgery is not negligible. Patients treated with NSS have roughly half the risk of developing CVe relative to their RN counterparts. After accounting for clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk at diagnosis, NSS independently decreases the risk of CVe relative to RN. Patient summary The risk of having a cardiovascular event after renal surgery decreases if a portion of the affected kidney is spared.
    European Urology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the concordance and prognostic role of histologic variants of bladder urothelial carcinoma in transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and radical cystectomy (RC) specimens.
    Urology 09/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of hemostatic agents, TachoSil and FloSeal, during partial nephrectomy using a large multicenter dataset.Methods Data of 1055 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between January 2009 and December 2012 in 19 Italian centers were collected within an observational multicentric study (RECORd Project). The decision whether or not to use hemostatic agents after renorrhaphy and the type of hemostatic agents applied was adopted according to the centers' and surgeons' preference. A TriMatch propensity score analysis was applied to balance three study groups (no hemostatic agents, TachoSil, FloSeal) for sex, age, surgical indication (elective/relative vs imperative), clinical stage (cT1a vs cT1b), tumor exophyticity, approach (open vs minimally invasive), technique (standard partial nephrectomy vs simple enucleation), preoperative hemoglobin and creatinine. Postoperative complications and variation of hemoglobin and creatinine values between preoperative versus third postoperative day were compared.ResultsTriMatch analysis allowed us to obtain 66 well-balanced triplets. No differences were found in terms of outcomes between the study groups.Conclusions The present findings suggest that adding hemostatic agents to renorraphy during partial nephrectomy does not provide better surgical outcomes.
    International Journal of Urology 09/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simple enucleation (SE) has proven to be oncologically safe. We describe the surgical steps and report the results of the Endoscopic Robotic-Assisted Simple Enucleation (ERASE) technique.
    Surgical endoscopy. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Phytotherapy has been used to treat patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy between Serenoa Repens (SeR), Lycopene (Ly), and Selenium (Se) + tamsulosin versus single therapies.METHODSPROCOMB trial (ISRCTN78639965) was a randomized double-blinded, double-dummy multicenter study of 225 patients between 55 and 80 years old, PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml, IPSS ≥12, prostate volume ≤60 cc, Qmax ≤15 ml/sec, postvoid residual urine (PVR) <150 ml. Participants were randomized group A (SeR-Se-Ly), group B (tamsulosin 0.4 mg), group C (SeR-Se-Ly + tamsulosin 0.4 mg). The primary endpoints of the study were the reduction of IPSS, PVR, and increase of Qmax in group C versus monotherapy groups.RESULTSThe decrease for combination therapy was significantly greater versus group A (P < 0.05) and group B (P < 0.01) for IPSS and versus group A (P < 0.01) for PVR from baseline to 6 months. A greater decrease in IPSS was observed for Group C versus group A (P < 0.01) and increase in Qmax versus group B (P < 0.01), from 6 months to 12 months. At one year, the changes of IPSS and Qmax were greater for Group C versus monotherapies (each comparison <0.05). The proportions of men with a decrease of at least three points (each comparison P < 0.05) and decrease of 25% for IPSS (each comparison P < 0.01) were greater for Group C.CONCLUSION SeR-Se-Ly + tamsulosin therapy is more effective than single therapies in improving IPSS and increasing Qmax in patients with LUTS. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 08/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed the effects on the erectile function (EF) of no treatment (NT), and an oral therapy (OT; on-demand therapy (OD) or a regimented rehabilitation (RR) program with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is)), in a cohort of 196 consecutive patients following nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (NSRRP). Patients undergoing bilateral NSRRP (BP; n=147) and unilateral NSRRP (UP; n=49), chose between OT (PDE5-Is OD or RR program) and NT. Patients who chose OD therapy received PDE5-Is (100 mg sildenafil, 20 mg tadalafil and vardenafil), whereas patients who chose the RR program received 100 mg sildenafil or 20 mg vardenafil three times a week, or 20 mg tadalafil twice a week at bedtime. The t-test for unpaired data and Fisher test were used for univariate analyses, logistic regression multivariate analysis was used to test the accuracy of available variables to predict EF recovery after radical prostatectomy. Potency rates were significantly correlated with the surgical technique and with OT when compared to NT (P<0.02), respectively 68.7% for BP (61% with no therapy and 71% with PDE5-Is) and 44% for UP (29% with no therapy and 51% with PDE5-Is), while no statistically significative differences were found between OD and rehabilitation protocols (72% with rehabilitation and 70% with OD therapy in BP, 52% with rehabilitation and 50% with OD therapy in UP; P=NS). Early OT with PDE5-Is (OD or RR program) was superior to NT in recovery of EF in NSRRP. Furthermore, an RR program with PDE5-Is did not appear to be superior to OD therapy.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 24 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijir.2014.27.
    International journal of impotence research. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A standardized reporting system of nephron-sparing surgery resection techniques is lacking. The surface-intermediate-base scoring system represents a formal reporting instrument to assist in interpretation of reported data and to facilitate comparisons in the urologic literature.
    European urology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have highlighted a strong association between benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), particularly in elderly men. Many epidemiological trials, such as in vitro and in vivo studies, have reported the emerging role of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypertension, in the development and progression of urinary and sexual symptoms. Moreover, many authors have focused their studies on the identification of all the shared pathogenetic mechanisms of LUTS/BPH and ED, including alteration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and RhoA-ROCK pathways or vascular and neurogenic dysfunction. All these are potential targets for proposed phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is). Therefore, several trials have recently been designed to evaluate the role of PDE5-Is alone or in combination with conventional treatment for BPH, such as α-adrenergic blockers, in men affected by LUTS/BPH, with or without ED. Different PDE5-Is are in clinical use worldwide and currently six of them are licensed for the oral treatment of ED. All these compounds differ in pharmacokinetic factors, with influence on drug action, and subsequently in the overall safety and efficacy profile.
    Drugs & Aging 06/2014; 31(6). · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionSeveral drugs, currently used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can be associated with bothersome sexual side effects, including ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD).AimTo provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting the impact of medical treatments for LUTS due to BPH on ejaculatory function.Main Outcome MeasureEjD related to medical treatments for LUTS.MethodsA systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. EjD was identified using both free text (“ejaculat*,” “retrograde ejaculation,” “anejaculation,” “ejaculatory dysfunction”) and Mesh (“Ejaculation”) searches.ResultsOf 101 retrieved articles, 23 were included in the present meta-analysis. EjD was significantly more common with alpha-blockers (ABs) than with placebo (OR:5.88; P < 0.0001), in particular, considering Tamsulosin (OR:8.58; P = 0.006) or Silodosin (OR:32.5; P < 0.0001), with Tamsulosin associated with significantly lower risk of EjD than Silodosin (OR:0.09; P < 0.00001). Conversely, Doxazosin and Terazosin were associated with a risk similar to placebo. Meta-regression showed that EjD was associated with IPSS and with Qmax both before and after treatment with ABs, while multivariate analysis demonstrated that EjD was independently associated with the improvement of IPSS (adj.r:0.2012; P < 0.0001) and Qmax (adj.r:0.522; P < 0.0001).EjD was significantly more common with 5ARIs as compared with placebo (OR:2.73; P < 0.0001). Both Finasteride (OR 2.70; P < 0.0001) and Dutasteride (OR 2.81; P = 0.0002) were associated with significantly higher risk of EjD than placebo. EjD was significantly more common with combination therapy as compared with ABs alone (OR:3.75; P < 0.0001),or with 5ARIs alone (OR:2.76; P = 0.02).ConclusionsABs and 5ARI were both associated with significantly higher risk of EjD than placebo. More the AB is effective over time, greater is the incidence of EjD. Finasteride has the same risk of Dutasteride to cause EjD. Combination therapy with ABs and 5ARIs resulted in a 3-fold increased risk of EjD as compared with ABs or 5ARIs alone. These data can be relevant both for drug selection and patients counseling. Gacci M, Ficarra V, Sebastianelli A, Corona G, Serni S, Shariat SF, Maggi M, Zattoni F, Carini M, and Novara G. Impact of medical treatments for male lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia on ejaculatory function: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 05/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The prediction of histology of small renal masses (SRM) could be essential for their management. The RENAL nephrometry nomogram (RNN) is a statistical tool designed to predict malignancy or high-grading of enhancing renal masses. This study aim to perform an external validation of the RNN in a cohort of patients submitted to partial nephrectomy (PN) for a SRM. Patients and Methods Multicentric study that analyzes the data of 506 consecutive patients submitted to PN for a cT1a SRM between January 2010 and January 2013. For each patient, the probabilities of malignancy and aggressiveness were estimated pre-operatively by the RNN. The performance of the RNN was evaluated by ROC curves, calibration plot and decision curve analysis. Results The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for malignancy was 0.57 (95%CI = 0.51-0.63, p=0.031). The calibration plot showed that the predicted probability of malignancy had a bad concordance with observed frequency (Brier score = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.15 – 0.19). Decision curve analysis confirmed a poor clinical benefit from the system. The estimated area under the ROC curve for high-grade prediction was 0.57 (95%CI = 0.49-0.66, P=0.064). The calibration plot evidenced a bad concordance (Brier score = 0.15, 95%CI = 0.13 – 0.17). Decision curve analysis confirmed the above analysis. Conclusions The RNN cannot accurately predict histology in the setting of cT1a SRM amenable to PN.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 04/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) is one of the most common urological procedures, with more than 1 million performed per year in Europe and the United States. [1] Among patients undergoing TRUS-Bx, approximately one-third will receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), while two-thirds receive a negative result on initial biopsy. Negative biopsy patients maintain an estimated risk of repeated biopsy of 12% at 1 year and 38% at 5 years. [2] Standard TRUS-Bx is likely to systematically miss significant tumors, particularly in the anterior and apical parts of the gland. [3] A crucial aim of urologists in the next decade is to increase the accuracy of the procedure and avoid the use of inappropriate biopsies.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 03/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Von Hipple-Lindau gene (VHL) inactivation represents the most frequent abnormality in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression is regulated by O2 level. In normal O2 conditions, VHL binds HIF-1α and allows HIF-1α proteasomal degradation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been found located in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain at codon 582 (C1772T, rs11549465, Pro582Ser). In hypoxia, VHL/HIF-1α interaction is abolished and HIF-1α activates target genes in the nucleus. This study analyzes the impact of genetic alterations and protein expression of VHL and the C1772T SNP of HIF-1α gene (HIF-1α) on prognosis in early-stage ccRCC (pT1a, pT1b, and pT2). Mutational analysis of the entire VHL sequence and the genotyping of HIF-1α C1772T SNP were performed together with VHL promoter methylation analysis and loss of heterozygosis (LOH) analysis at (3p25) locus. Data obtained were correlated with VHL and HIF-1α protein expression and with tumor-specific survival (TSS). VHL mutations, methylation status, and LOH were detected in 51, 11, and 12 % of cases, respectively. Our results support the association between biallelic alterations and/or VHL silencing with a worse TSS. Moreover, we found a significant association between the HIF-1α C1772C genotype and a worse TSS. The same association was found when testing the presence of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. Our results highlight the role of VHL/HIF-1α pathway in RCC and support the molecular heterogeneity of early-stage ccRCC. More important, we show the involvement of HIF-1α C1772T SNP in ccRCC progression.
    Medical Oncology 03/2014; 31(3):840. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Evidence suggests an association between MetS and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). We summarized and meta-analyzed the current literature concerning MetS and BPE, focusing on all the components of MetS and their relationship with prostate volume, transitional zone volume, PSA and urinary symptoms. Methods An extensive PubMed and Scopus search was performed including the following keywords: “metabolic syndrome” (MetS), “diabetes”, “hypertension”, “obesity” and “dyslipidaemia” combined with “lower urinary tract symptoms” (LUTS), “benign prostatic enlargement” (BPE), “benign prostatic hyperplasia” (BPH) and “prostate". ResultsOut of the retrieved articles, 82 were selected for detailed evaluation, and 8 were included in this review. The eight studies enrolled a total of 5403 patients, of which 1426 (26.4%) had MetS defined according to current classification.Subjects with MetS had significantly higher total prostate volume when compared to those without MetS (+1.8 [95% CI: 0.74;2.87] ml; p<0.001).Conversely, no differences were observed between subjects with or without MetS for IPSS total or LUTS subdomain scores.Meta-regression analysis showed that differences in total prostate volume were significantly higher in older (adj r=0.09; p=0.02), obese patients (adj r=0.26; p<0.005) and low serum HDL cholesterol concentrations (adj r=-0.33; p<0.0001). Conclusions Our results underline the exacerbating role of MetS-induced metabolic derangements in the development of BPE.Obese, dyslipidemic, and aged men have a higher risk of having MetS as a determinant of their prostate enlargement.
    BJU International 03/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are often associated. Bladder detrusor hyper-contractility-a major LUTS determinant-is characterized by increased Ras homolog gene family, member A/Rho-associated protein kinase (RhoA/ROCK) signaling, which is often upregulated in MetS. This study investigated the effects of tadalafil dosing on RhoA/ROCK signaling in bladder, in a rabbit model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. Adult male rabbits feeding a HFD for 12 weeks. A subset of HFD animals was treated with tadalafil (2 mg/kg/day, 1 week: the last of the 12 weeks) and compared with HFD and control (feeding a regular diet) rabbits. In vitro contractility studies to evaluate the relaxant effect of the selective ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, in carbachol precontracted bladder strips. Evaluation of RhoA activation by its membrane translocation. Immunohistochemistry for ROCK expression has been performed to evaluate ROCK expression in bladder from the different experimental groups. mRNA expression of inflammation, pro-fibrotic markers by quantitative RT-PCR has been performed to evaluate the effect of tadalafil on MetS-induced inflammation and fibrosis within the bladder. The in vitro effect of tadalafil on RhoA/ROCK signaling in bladder smooth muscle cells was evaluated by using chemotaxis assay. Bladder strips from HFD rabbits showed hyper-responsiveness to Y-27632, indicating RhoA/ROCK overactivity in HFD bladder compared with matched controls. Accordingly, the fraction of activated (translocated to the membrane) RhoA as well as ROCK expression are increased in HFD bladder. Tadalafil dosing normalized HFD-induced bladder hypersensitivity to Y-27632, by reducing RhoA membrane translocation and ROCK overexpression. Tadalafil dosing reduced mRNA expression of inflammatory, pro-fibrotic, and hypoxia markers. A direct inhibitory effect of tadalafil on RhoA/ROCK signaling in bladder smooth muscle cell was demonstrated by using chemotaxis assay. Pre-treatment with tadalafil inhibited both basal and PDGF-induced migration of bladder smooth muscle cells. Tadalafil dosing reduced RhoA/ROCK signaling and smooth muscle overactivity in an animal model of MetS-associated bladder alterations. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of action of tadalafil in alleviating LUTS in MetS patients. Vignozzi L, Filippi S, Comeglio P, Cellai I, Morelli A, Maneschi E, Sarchielli E, Gacci M, Carini M, Vannelli GB, and Maggi M. Tadalafil effect on metabolic syndrome-associated bladder alterations: An experimental study in a rabbit model. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 02/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past three decades, the reconstructive aspects of urologic surgery emerged and became a major component of our surgical specialty, and the most relevant developments have been observed in the field of urinary diversions. Health-related quality of life and self esteem have been improved following orthotopic bladder substitutions, which are actually the preferred method for continent urinary diversion. Patients with neobladders have enhanced cosmesis and the potential for normal voiding function with no abdominal stoma. Patient's selection for orthotopic neobladder formation is mandatory as most of the surgical complications or consequences associated with a neobladder are correlated not only with surgical technique or management after surgery, but also with wrong patient's selection. The principles of intestinal detubularization and reconfiguration to obtain spherical reservoir are the basis of continent urinary diversions and ileum seems to be preferable over any other segment. Nowadays, ileal neobladder is a widely adopted solution after cystectomy with a neobladder rate of 9-19% for population-based data with an increase to 39.1-74% for high-volume centers. However, controversies still exist in this urological field about the best candidates for neobladder construction, the best type of neobladder to offer, whether or not an antireflux uretero intestinal anastomosis should be used, the future of minimally invasive approaches, that is, robotic assisted cystectomy plus extracorporeal or intracorporeal neobladder, and last but very important, the functional results and the level of symptoms-induced distress and quality of life in the long term in patients with bladder cancer receiving an orthotopic bladder substitution. All these issues are discussed on the basis of the most recent published data.
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 02/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In recent years, newly onset hypothyroidism was extensively reported in patients receiving Sunitinib for malignancy. Effects of Sunitinib on serum lipids are not described, however an hyperlipidemic state is commonly observed in hypothyroid patients. Here we report about the incidence and severity of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of patients receiving Sunitinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods Thyroid function tests, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were prospectively evaluated in 39 consecutive metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients, receiving a first line Sunitinib administration. Incidence of hyperlipidemia, thyroid function impairment and their possible relationship were investigated. Results Thyroid function tests, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and thence before the beginning of each sunitinib cycle. During treatment median triglycerides increased up to 271.3 mg/dl, while median cholesterol increased up to 234.7 mg/dl (+ 113% and + 22% respectively). Hyperlipidemic state developed in 27 patients (69,2 %) within a mean time of 1.8 six-week cycles (range 1-5 cycles) and persisted during treatment. Hypothyroidism was observed in 20 patients (51.2%) and usually developed within 2.3 cycles. Since hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia developed at different time points of treatment and among different patients, our results fail to demonstrate a correlation between these adverse events. Conclusions Newly onset hyperlipidemia, was observed in an elevate percentage of patients on Sunitinib. The mechanism of this side effect is still unclear. We recommend careful monitoring of serum lipids during Sunitinib administration to recognize possible consequences, especially on cardiovascular health.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 01/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The aim of our work was to investigate the causal connection between M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes occurrence and prostate cancer, their correlation with tumor extension (ECE), and biochemical recurrence (BR). Patient and Methods. Clinical and pathological data were prospectively gathered from 93 patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Correlations of commonly used variables were evaluated with uni- and multivariate analysis. The relationship between M1 and M2 occurrence and BR was also assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results. Above all in 63.4% there was a M2 prevalence. M1 occurred more frequently in OC disease, while M2 was more represented in ECE. At univariate analysis biopsy and pathologic GS and M2 were statistically correlated with ECE. Only pathologic GS and M2 confirmed to be correlated with ECE. According to macrophage density BCR free survival curves presented a statistically significant difference. When we stratified our population for M1 and M2,we did not find any statistical difference among curves. At univariate analysis GS, pTNM, and positive margins resulted to be significant predictors of BCR, while M1 and M2 did not achieve the statistical significance. At multivariate analysis, only GS and pathologic stage were independent predictors of BR. Conclusion. In our study patients with higher density of M count were associated with poor prognosis; M2 phenotype was significantly associated with ECE.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:486798.
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014:470592. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: External beam radiation therapy with conventional fractionation to a total dose of 76-80 Gy represents the most adopted treatment modality for prostate cancer. Dose escalation in this setting has been demonstrated to improve biochemical control with acceptable toxicity using contemporary radiotherapy techniques. Hypofractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy have gained an increasing interest in recent years and they have the potential to become the standard of care even if long-term data about their efficacy and safety are not well established. Strong radiobiological basis supports the use of high dose for fraction in prostate cancer, due to the demonstrated exceptionally low values of α / β . Clinical experiences with hypofractionated and stereotactic radiotherapy (with an adequate biologically equivalent dose) demonstrated good tolerance, a PSA control comparable to conventional fractionation, and the advantage of shorter time period of treatment. This paper reviews the radiobiological findings that have led to the increasing use of hypofractionation in the management of prostate cancer and briefly analyzes the clinical experience in this setting.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:781340. · 2.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
811.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1980–2014
    • University of Florence
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute
      • • Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2013
    • University of Udine
      Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2012
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Urology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • Università degli Studi di Genova
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2011
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
    • Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi
      Firenzuola, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2010
    • European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy
      Sesto, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2009
    • Bayer HealthCare
      Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1991–2009
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Experimental Medicine
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1996
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy