[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Road traffic injuries, especially those involving motorcycles, are a particular concern in Iran. We aimed to identify the specific cognitive dissonances and consonances associated with risky riding among Iranian motorcyclists.
This was a grounded theory qualitative study of male motorcyclists who were >=18 and were living in one of the three cities of Tehran, Isfahan and Ahwaz. Thirty four (n = 34) motorcyclists participated in 19 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-groups between January 2007 and February 2008.
We identified four categories of motorcycle riders each endorsing a unique risk bias they employed to justify their risky ridings. The categories included: (1) Risk Managers who justified risky riding by doubting that it would result in negative outcomes if they are competent riders. (2) Risk Utilizers who justified risky riding as functional and practical that would enable them to handle daily chores and responsibilities more efficiently. (3) Risk Calculators who justified risky riding by believing that it will help them to avoid road crashes. (4) Risk Takers who justified risky riding by arguing that risky riding is thrilling and brings them peer recognition.
Our findings reveal different groups of motorcyclists according to their different rationalizations for risky riding. Road safety advocates can benefit from our findings by matching relevant and appropriate interventions and incentives to these specific groups.
BMC Public Health 09/2013; 13(1):865. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755 African American adults. Almost 15 % of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38 % indicated same risk, whereas 48 % perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9 %) reported a cancer history and 63 % reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners.
Journal of Community Health 09/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most theoretical formulations acknowledge that knowledge and awareness of cancer screening and prevention recommendations significantly influence health behaviors. This study compares perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening with test-based knowledge in a community sample. We also examine demographic variables and self-reported cancer screening and prevention behaviors as correlates of both knowledge scores, and consider whether cancer related knowledge can be accurately assessed using just a few, simple questions in a short and easy-to-complete survey.
We used a community-partnered participatory research approach to develop our study aims and a survey. The study sample was composed of 180 predominantly African American and Hispanic community individuals who participated in a full-day cancer prevention and screening promotion conference in South Los Angeles, California, on July 2011. Participants completed a self-administered survey in English or Spanish at the beginning of the conference.
Our data indicate that perceived and test-based knowledge scores are only moderately correlated. Perceived knowledge score shows a stronger association with demographic characteristics and other cancer related variables than the test-based score. Thirteen out of twenty variables that are examined in our study showed a statistically significant correlation with the perceived knowledge score, however, only four variables demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the test-based knowledge score.
Perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening was assessed with fewer items than test-based knowledge. Thus, using this assessment could potentially reduce respondent burden. However, our data demonstrate that perceived and test-based knowledge are separate constructs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: For nearly three decades, the two neighboring countries of Iran and Pakistan hosted millions of Afghans. Today, Afghans still represent the largest group of refugees in the world. This feature has greatly influenced provision of health care for this population. Due to a paucity of research on the health status of Afghan refugees in Iran, this study aim to make a vista on the pattern of different common diseases among Afghan refugees in Iran and use it as an index for performance evaluation of future health services to them. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross sectional study, in which we collected the demographic and medical data between 2005 and 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offices in Iran. We also considered a comparative review of the burden of disease estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Afghanistan and Iran RESULTS: Total numbers of referrals were 23,152 with 52.6% Female and 47.66% male. 29% were 0--14 years of age, 54% were 15--59, and 17% were 60+. The most common health referral for females and males (0--14) was perinatal diseases (15.16%, 15.2%, respectively). In the females (15--59) it was ophthalmic diseases (13.65%), and for males it was nephropathies (21.4%), and in both sexes (60+) age range it was ophthalmic diseases (21.3%, 19.9%, respectively). The largest ethnic group of afghan refugees in this study was Hazara (55%) followed by Tajik (14%), Fars (12%), Sadat (9%), and 10% others. Ophthalmic diseases were the major cause of referrals by Hazara, Tajik, Fars, and Sadat groups with 26%, 20%, 26%, and 27% respectively. Referrals by pashtun group were mostly for neoplasms (17%), among Uzbek group it was nephropathies (26%), and in Baluch group Hematopoietic disorders (25%) CONCLUSION: These data indicate higher referral rate for women 15--59 years of old and people in 60+ with ophthalmic diseases, neoplasms, and nephropathies. Even given certain intrinsic limitations of such a study, we believe these unique findings are worth further explanation. This implies the need for public health researchers to pursue prospective studies in these areas.
International Journal for Equity in Health 12/2012; 11(1):82. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. METHODS: A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. RESULTS: Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 [greater than or equal to] 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems needs additional investigation. Models investigating the association between perceived discrimination and depression among transgender women should include sexual partner violence as a potential confounding variable.
BMC Public Health 08/2012; 12(1):663. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of self-expectation, social interaction, and organisational situation on job satisfaction among nurses is examined.
Understanding determinants and correlates of job satisfaction are important factors that help to reduce the problem of nurse attrition.
Utilizing the Hybrid Model of concept development, job satisfaction was examined in three phases: (1) the theoretical phase, a working definition and the dimensions of job satisfaction were established; (2) the fieldwork phase, a qualitative semi-structured interview was employed to capture participants' perceptions of the concept; and (3) the analytical phase, the experiences of nurses were evaluated using the conceptual model.
The results indicate that personal beliefs, rather than social interaction or organisational situation, constitute the core of job satisfaction.
Despite the variety of dissatisfaction factors rooted in social interaction and organisational situation, participants achieved the highest job satisfaction when trusting in self-value systems and the spiritual value of their job objectives.
Intervention is needed to increase organisational and professional support for nurses. However, highlighting the sacred and spiritual value of the nursing profession, which is rooted in religious values and culture, provides additional reinforcement for enhancing the job satisfaction among this segment of health care providers.
Journal of Nursing Management 05/2012; 20(4):522-33. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol use within 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-American and Latino emergency department (ED) patients.
Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all ED patients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcohol use and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variable negative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion of interaction terms.
The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error = 0.11) sexual partners in the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol before sex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number of sexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners in the past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol before sex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio = 3.2; confidence interval [CI] =1.9-5.6). The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partners is dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months. Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of this effect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.
Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were more likely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences of risky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and risky sexual behaviors. EDs should strive to institute a system for regular screening, brief intervention, and referral of at-risk patients to reduce negative consequences of alcohol misuse, including those of risky sexual behaviors.
The western journal of emergency medicine 05/2012; 13(2):151-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the associated risk factors of the noise-induced hearing threshold shift (NITS) in the US adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20-69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS and their association with several socio-demographic and hearing-related factors were evaluated. The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS was 9.4, 3.4 and 12.8%, respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes, and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males, and smokers. This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the US adult population and its associated risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 03/2012; · 1.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the prevalence of exposure to violence across different types of alcohol consumed and the association between the type of alcohol consumed and exposure to violence. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a sample of 295 Emergency Department (ED) patients identified as having an alcohol problem. Outcome measure include exposure to violence, and the main study predictor was "type of alcoholic drink" including: malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, wine cooler, wine, fortified wine or hard liquor. Using logistic regression analysis, ED patients who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol increased their odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 8.5 compared to ED patients who drank other types of alcohol. Being female increased the odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 2.5 and using illicit drugs increased the odds by 3.8. Analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means revealed that ED patients who only drank MLB had a higher exposure to violence compared to non-MLB drinkers, and that female illicit drug users who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol had the highest exposure to violence. MLB was identified as a predictor of the amount of exposure to violence and in particular, that the use of malt liquor beer in combination with other types of alcohol increased the risk of being both threatened and physically attacked. Implications for ED and community interventions are suggested.
Journal of Community Health 08/2011; 36(4):597-604. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the rate of helmet use and identifies barriers and facilitators of wearing helmets among Iranian motorcyclists. A mixed-method approach was used, including a structured seasonal survey with specific observations of a random sample of 6010 riders and qualitative methods that included 29 in-depth interviews and seven focus groups (n=31).
Only 10% of motorcyclists wear a standard helmet while riding. However, another 23% of motorcyclists used non-standard or partial helmets that covered only part of the head and do not prevent head trauma injuries effectively. We observed only 2 of 264 child passengers and 22 of 1951 adult passengers wearing helmets. Almost no one used protective pants or clothing made to be more visible in traffic. Themes emerged from qualitative interviews and were grouped into three main categories: (1) helmet characteristics; (2) social and cultural factors; and (3) personal and psychological factors.
Overall, the motorcyclists in our study believed that wearing a safety helmet protects them against serious injuries or death during a crash; however, only a small percentage of the motorcyclists used safety helmets. National intervention programs addressing motorcycle safety should aim to overcome barriers to and promote facilitators of helmet use, including providing inexpensive standard helmets, banning manufacturing/using unsafe partial or dummy helmets, as well as enforcing helmet use on a consistent basis.
Accident; analysis and prevention 07/2011; 43(4):1562-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Underutilization of screening mammography by Latinas continues unabated and may contribute to disparities in disease-free survival and mortality.
Comparison of two discussion group-centered educational interventions at enhancing breast cancer knowledge, breast self-exams (BSE), and screening mammography.
Pre-test post-test study design. Two cohorts of 200 Latinas each participated in survey screening and discussion groups at baseline. One cohort also viewed an animated video and had BSE training. Breast cancer knowledge, self-reported BSE and mammography history were measured at baseline and three months post-intervention.
Breast cancer knowledge scores were good for both groups at baseline, and significantly increased at three month follow-up for both groups (p<.05) but no significant difference was observed between groups at baseline or post-intervention.
Community-based discussion groups are a cost-effective method for improving breast cancer knowledge and promoting screening behaviors.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 08/2010; 21(3 Suppl):76-90. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association between alcohol misuse and depression symptoms as it varies among male and female patients.
This was a cross-sectional survey of 412 randomly selected adult patients who sought care in the emergency department. The main predictor variables of alcohol misuse were created from AUDIT, RAPS4, binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence measures. The outcome variable of depression symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, > or =16).
There were 41% of women and 35% of men who reported greater depression and 34.1% of men and 9.2% of women reported alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse, stress, and education level all correlated with greater depression in men whereas age was most significant for women. Men who misused alcohol were 2.5 times more likely to report greater depression (OR=2.47, 95%CI=1.37 - 4.45, P< or =0.05). In women, a 10-year increase in age was associated with a 36% increase in the odds of depression (OR=1.55, 95%CI=1.12 - 2.13, P< or =0.05).
While it may be unrealistic to expect emergency department providers to fully attend to all the mental health needs of their patients, they should use windows of opportunity to identify patients who present with symptoms of depression and/or alcohol misuse for potential intervention.
Archives of Iranian medicine 07/2010; 13(4):324-32. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most countries in Middle East have been successful in establishing and furthering basic facilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. The rate of compliance with mammography screening, however, remains well below North American and Western European countries. We utilized the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explore factors associated with mammography screening behavior among a sample of 320 Muslim women aged > or = 35. Carrying out this cross-sectional study, we found that screening behavior was associated with older age, higher perceived benefit of breast cancer screening, and lower perceived barrier. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of religious beliefs in influencing mammography screening behavior and explaining the link between religious involvement and mammography behavior.
Health Care For Women International 06/2010; 31(6):499-514. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth. Using the IMB model, this study examines predictors of risky sexual behavior among underserved Hispanic and African-American youth.
This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 380 youths aged 11-17 years recruited in Los Angeles, California, and utilized latent variable models to examine interrelationships and predictive relations among IMB model variables associated with risky sexual behavior.
Sixty percent of the participants aged 15-17 and 1 out of 10 participants aged 11-12 reported prior sexual intercourse. Of the sexually active, more than half reported having unprotected sex and 11% had sexual intercourse with 4 or more partners. Results of the structural equation model indicated that older age and attitudes against sexual activities had significant, direct impacts on risky sexual behaviors. Behavioral refusal skills, positioned as an intervening variable, also significantly predicted less risky sex. Knowledge, attitudes against sexual activities, and perceived peer pressure against sexual behavior predicted sexual refusal skills. Additionally, there were significant indirect effects on risky sexual behavior mediated through behavioral refusal skills.
A large number of disadvantaged minority urban youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Intervention programs, particularly those targeting preadolescents, should focus on building long-lasting behavioral skills that emphasize the reduction of peer pressure and normative influences on risky sexual behaviors. Components of the IMB model clearly have a role in the design of efficacious interventions.
Journal of School Health 06/2010; 80(6):287-95. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes in Middle Eastern countries are among the highest in the world. In Iran, road traffic crashes are the second most common cause of mortality. Particularly, motorcycle-related injuries among men are the second most common type of traffic-related crash in this country. This study used qualitative research methods to elicit and explore the personal experiences of Iranian motorcyclists in respect to factors that facilitate their engagement in risk-taking behaviors within the PRECEDE (predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling constructs in educational diagnosis, and evaluation) framework.
Focus groups, in-depth interviews, and field observation were conducted among motorcyclists, pillion passengers, and police officers.
Our data show that being young and single, living in lower socioeconomic conditions, and suffering from poor physical health and daily stress influence risk-taking behaviors. Additionally, lack of defined traffic rules and regulations, the availability and accessibility of motorcycles among unlicensed underaged persons, the cost-effectiveness of motorcycle transportation, unsafe roads and a lack of special pathways for motorcycles, and aggressive car and van/truck drivers are among the enabling factors that provoke risk-taking behavior. Finally, the participants verified that the enjoyment of motorcycling reinforced their decision to continue engaging in risky behaviors, and being penalized for disobeying traffic laws prevented them from further risk-taking behaviors.
Enabling and reinforcing factors to reduce risk-taking behaviors among motorcyclist could include (1) promoting smart driving practices among motorcyclists; (2) training pediatricians and emergency physicians to deliver brief motivational interventions to their young patients to avoid risky behaviors while riding; (3) training traffic enforcement officers to appreciate the value of providing consistent law enforcement services; (4) enhancing local efforts to increase the number of pathways for motorcyclists and improve the condition of deteriorated roads; (5) revising legislation and policies in association with motorcycle ownership among underaged and unlicensed individuals; (6) limiting an excessive number of passengers (particularly children) and cargo on motorcycles; and (7) identifying solutions to reduce the negative attitudes of car drivers toward motorcyclists and increase systematic compliance of traffic laws by motorcyclists and car drivers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: People living with HIV (PLHIV) sometimes experience discrimination. There is little understanding of the causes, forms and consequences of this stigma in Islamic countries. This qualitative study explored perceptions and experiences of PLHIV regarding both the quality of healthcare and the attitudes and behaviours of their healthcare providers in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 69 PLHIV recruited from two HIV care clinics in Tehran. Data were analyzed using the content analysis approach.
Nearly all participants reported experiencing stigma and discrimination by their healthcare providers in a variety of contexts. Participants perceived that their healthcare providers' fear of being infected with HIV, coupled with religious and negative value-based assumptions about PLHIV, led to high levels of stigma. Participants mentioned at least four major forms of stigma: (1) refusal of care; (2) sub-optimal care; (3) excessive precautions and physical distancing; and (4) humiliation and blaming. The participants' healthcare-seeking behavioural reactions to perceived stigma and discrimination included avoiding or delaying seeking care, not disclosing HIV status when seeking healthcare, and using spiritual healing. In addition, emotional responses to perceived acts of stigma included feeling undeserving of care, diminished motivation to stay healthy, feeling angry and vengeful, and experiencing emotional stress.
While previous studies demonstrate that most Iranian healthcare providers report fairly positive attitudes towards PLHIV, our participants' experiences tell a different story. Therefore, it is imperative to engage both healthcare providers and PLHIV in designing interventions targeting stigma in healthcare settings. Additionally, specialized training programmes in universal precautions for health providers will lead to stigma reduction. National policies to strengthen medical training and to provide funding for stigma-reduction programming are strongly recommended. Investigating Islamic literature and instruction, as well as requesting official public statements from religious leaders regarding stigma and discrimination in healthcare settings, should be used in educational intervention programmes targeting healthcare providers. Finally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of the physician and religion in the local context.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2010; 13:27. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the role of religiosity and spirituality on (i) feelings and attitudes about breast cancer, (ii) strategies for coping with breast cancer, and (iii) health care seeking behaviors among breast cancer survivors in Iran. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 39 breast cancer survivors. We found that spirituality is the primary source of psychological support among participants. Almost all participants attributed their cancer to the will of God. Despite this, they actively have been engaged with their medical treatment. This is in surprising contrast to Western cultures in which a belief in an external health locus of control diminishes participation in cancer screening, detection, and treatment. These findings can help researchers to provide a framework for the development of appropriate and effective culturally sensitive health interventions.
Health Care For Women International 01/2010; 31(1):88-98. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No study has ever explored the prevalence and correlates of video game playing among children in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study describes patterns and correlates of excessive video game use in a random sample of middle-school students in Iran. Specifically, we examine the relationship between video game playing and psychological well-being, aggressive behaviors, and adolescents' perceived threat of video-computer game playing.
This cross-sectional study was performed with a random sample of 444 adolescents recruited from eight middle schools. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics, video gaming behaviors, mental health status, self-reported aggressive behaviors, and perceived side effects of video game playing.
Overall, participants spent an average of 6.3 hours per week playing video games. Moreover, 47% of participants reported that they had played one or more intensely violent games. Non-gamers reported suffering poorer mental health compared to excessive gamers. Both non-gamers and excessive gamers overall reported suffering poorer mental health compared to low or moderate players. Participants who initiated gaming at younger ages were more likely to score poorer in mental health measures. Participants' self-reported aggressive behaviors were associated with length of gaming. Boys, but not girls, who reported playing video games excessively showed more aggressive behaviors. A multiple binary logistic regression shows that when controlling for other variables, older students, those who perceived less serious side effects of video gaming, and those who have personal computers, were more likely to report that they had played video games excessively.
Our data show a curvilinear relationship between video game playing and mental health outcomes, with "moderate" gamers faring best and "excessive" gamers showing mild increases in problematic behaviors. Interestingly, "non-gamers" clearly show the worst outcomes. Therefore, both children and parents of non-game players should be updated about the positive impact of moderate video gaming. Educational interventions should also be designed to educate adolescents and their parents of the possible harmful impact of excessive video game playing on their health and psychosocial functioning.
BMC Public Health 01/2010; 10:286. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Literature documentation of the health consequences of obesity among adolescents continues to grow and includes the psychosocial consequences of obesity on this population.
The specific aim of this study was to identify prevalence of depression in adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years, and to identify the role of overweight as a risk factor for depression.
Secondary data analysis of the adolescent version of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Symptoms of depression were measured with a reduced version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Weight status was determined using the Centers for Disease Control definitions and those recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The sample was nearly half male (50.6%). The majority of the adolescents in the sample were White (47.2%) followed by Latino (33.5%). Approximately 10% of the adolescents reported more than 10 depression symptoms. Based on BMI, 16.5% of the sample were at-risk of being overweight, and 14.7% were overweight. However, 24.4% of sample thought they were 'slightly overweight or very overweight. We did not find any statistically significant association between weight status and symptoms of depression, but at the bivariate level we did find a statistically significant association between perception of one's weight and depression, P < .001. We also found that sex (OR 3.10; CI 2.07-4.51), perceived health (OR 2.25; CI 1.53-3.31), smoking (OR 1.8; CI 1.30-2.69), and alcohol use (OR 2.06; CI 1.44-2.95) were independently associated with depression symptoms.
Even though we were unable to prove the proposed association, our findings are noteworthy given that the association between these variables are less clear in the literature. Future studies that attempt to examine the relationship between these two variables may benefit from longitudinal design, inclusion of multi-item risk and protective predictors, inclusion of social-context related variables, perceived weight, and family history of obesity.