Mohsen Bazargan

Tarbiat Modares University, Teheran, Tehrān, Iran

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Publications (77)120.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension among African Americans is higher compared to Whites and has an early onset, greater severity, and is associated with more organ damage. We examined whether pharmaceutical treatment of hypertension among underserved African American elderly is consistent with the current treatment guidelines and whether treatment variations occur due to existing co-morbidities among the hypertensive. Our study surveyed 400 African Americans, aged ≥ 65 years, recruited from 16 predominantly African American churches located in South Los Angeles. The study used face-to-face interviews which documented type, frequency, and dosage of all medications used by participants. Label information of each drug was recorded. Our data indicate: 1) 29% were on one anti-hypertensive medication; 60% were taking 2-3 medications; and 9% were on four classes of anti-hypertensive medication; 2) among the elderly taking a combination of two or more drugs, ACE or ARB was used 76% in combination of agents, diuretics 60%, calcium channel blockers 63%, and beta-blocker 61%; and 3) 26% of the elderly were taking ≥ 3 medications including a diuretic. Treatment of hypertension appears to be inconsistent with the prevailing treatment guidelines for nearly one-third of the aged African Americans. Further investigation is needed to determine why a significant number of individuals from this under-served population are not receiving care based on established clinical guidelines.
    Ethnicity & disease 01/2014; 24(4):431-7. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the incidence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions and over the counter medications for patients older than 65 years in a community-based sample of underserved aged African Americans. Methods: This study recruited 400 elderly African Americans (over 65 years old, taking at least two medications) from 16 churches located in South Los Angeles. An Interviewer administered a questionnaire which was used to collect medication use data. Inappropriate prescribing and over the counter medication usage is considered as those included in the Beers criteria 2012. We recorded age, sex, inappropriate drugs and dosage. Results: Data was collected from 400 patients. Inappropriate prescribing and over the counter medication usage occurred among 279 patients (69% of all cases) in which 52 patients were taking more than 2 types of Inappropriate Rx and OTC. Two-thirds (67%, n=187) of the Inappropriate Rx and OTC occurred in females and one-third (33%, n=92) in males. The main drugs involved were OTC (80% of patients) and among RX were Clonidine (7%), Nifedipine (6%), Terazosin (4%). Conclusion: Results suggest the prescription of inappropriate medications in the elderly is high and it seems that our sample of underserved African American elderly continued receiving older medications that were strongly recommended to be avoided. This is important because they are a cause of adverse reactions, which leads to a significant proportion of hospital admissions. The inclusion of warnings in the program of assisted prescribing and distributing of newsletters about these to the personnel involved, improves and minimizes medication-related problems.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We aimed to describe pattern of medications overuse in prescription and over the counter data in a community-based sample of underserved aged African Americans. Methods: This study recruited 400 elderly African Americans (over 65 years old, taking at least two medications) from 16 churches located in South Los Angeles. Interviewer administer questionnaire was used to collect medication use data. Results: Our data indicates that in total, 3063 medications were used across all pharmaceutical classes by this sample of 400 African American elderly persons participated in this study. There were a total of 796 medications Overuse. Overuse of medication frequency occurred 299 times across all patients. The highest frequency of medication Overuse based on the number of medications (in each class) occurs in the following order: a) Vitamins, Hematinic & Electrolytes (82%), b) Non-Insulin Hypoglycemic Agents (53%), and c) Anti-parkinsonism Agents (50%). Across all Therapeutic classes there were a total of 2366 medications overuse. Overuse of medications frequency occurred 761 times across all patients. The highest frequency of medications overuse based on the number of medications (in each classes) occurs in the following order: a) Cardiovascular, Hypertension & Lipids (96%), b) Vitamin and Health Supplement (82%), c) Autonomic & CNS, Neurology & Psychiatry (79 %).Conclusion: Results suggest there is a need for an interventional study to promote awareness of use and misuse of medications, especially medication Overuse and it is critical that health care providers continue developing technology and resources to address Overuse duplication related issues among the elderly
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Road traffic injuries, especially those involving motorcycles, are a particular concern in Iran. We aimed to identify the specific cognitive dissonances and consonances associated with risky riding among Iranian motorcyclists. This was a grounded theory qualitative study of male motorcyclists who were >=18 and were living in one of the three cities of Tehran, Isfahan and Ahwaz. Thirty four (n = 34) motorcyclists participated in 19 in-depth interviews and 5 focus-groups between January 2007 and February 2008. We identified four categories of motorcycle riders each endorsing a unique risk bias they employed to justify their risky ridings. The categories included: (1) Risk Managers who justified risky riding by doubting that it would result in negative outcomes if they are competent riders. (2) Risk Utilizers who justified risky riding as functional and practical that would enable them to handle daily chores and responsibilities more efficiently. (3) Risk Calculators who justified risky riding by believing that it will help them to avoid road crashes. (4) Risk Takers who justified risky riding by arguing that risky riding is thrilling and brings them peer recognition. Our findings reveal different groups of motorcyclists according to their different rationalizations for risky riding. Road safety advocates can benefit from our findings by matching relevant and appropriate interventions and incentives to these specific groups.
    BMC Public Health 09/2013; 13(1):865. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are differences in cancer-risk perception among racial/ethnic groups that may affect health risk behaviors. Using a community partnered-participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge/attitudes within 11 churches in South Los Angeles with predominantly African-American parishioners. This analysis examines correlates of perceived risk of developing cancer among 755 African American adults. Almost 15 % of participants indicated higher perceived risk for cancer compared to the average man/woman of the same age, 38 % indicated same risk, whereas 48 % perceived lower risk. Sixty-nine individuals (9 %) reported a cancer history and 63 % reported at least one blood relative with cancer. Controlling for demographic characteristics and healthcare access, participants who reported higher risk of cancer had higher level of cancer-related knowledge; were current and ex-smokers; had poorer health status; had a blood relative with cancer; had a cancer history; and had discussed their risk of cancer with their doctor. The bivariate association between high perceived cancer risk and lack of exercise and obesity disappeared after adjusting for demographic characteristics and perceived health status. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African Americans in South Los Angeles may underestimate their cancer risk. Additionally, lack of exercise and obesity are not recognized as independent cancer risk factors as much as smoking and personal and family history of cancer. Next steps will be to inform participating churches about our findings and explore their interest in taking steps to reduce health risk behaviors among their parishioners.
    Journal of Community Health 09/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most theoretical formulations acknowledge that knowledge and awareness of cancer screening and prevention recommendations significantly influence health behaviors. This study compares perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening with test-based knowledge in a community sample. We also examine demographic variables and self-reported cancer screening and prevention behaviors as correlates of both knowledge scores, and consider whether cancer related knowledge can be accurately assessed using just a few, simple questions in a short and easy-to-complete survey. We used a community-partnered participatory research approach to develop our study aims and a survey. The study sample was composed of 180 predominantly African American and Hispanic community individuals who participated in a full-day cancer prevention and screening promotion conference in South Los Angeles, California, on July 2011. Participants completed a self-administered survey in English or Spanish at the beginning of the conference. Our data indicate that perceived and test-based knowledge scores are only moderately correlated. Perceived knowledge score shows a stronger association with demographic characteristics and other cancer related variables than the test-based score. Thirteen out of twenty variables that are examined in our study showed a statistically significant correlation with the perceived knowledge score, however, only four variables demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the test-based knowledge score. Perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening was assessed with fewer items than test-based knowledge. Thus, using this assessment could potentially reduce respondent burden. However, our data demonstrate that perceived and test-based knowledge are separate constructs.
    Ethnicity & disease 01/2013; 23(2):210-6. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: For nearly three decades, the two neighboring countries of Iran and Pakistan hosted millions of Afghans. Today, Afghans still represent the largest group of refugees in the world. This feature has greatly influenced provision of health care for this population. Due to a paucity of research on the health status of Afghan refugees in Iran, this study aim to make a vista on the pattern of different common diseases among Afghan refugees in Iran and use it as an index for performance evaluation of future health services to them. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross sectional study, in which we collected the demographic and medical data between 2005 and 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offices in Iran. We also considered a comparative review of the burden of disease estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Afghanistan and Iran RESULTS: Total numbers of referrals were 23,152 with 52.6% Female and 47.66% male. 29% were 0--14 years of age, 54% were 15--59, and 17% were 60+. The most common health referral for females and males (0--14) was perinatal diseases (15.16%, 15.2%, respectively). In the females (15--59) it was ophthalmic diseases (13.65%), and for males it was nephropathies (21.4%), and in both sexes (60+) age range it was ophthalmic diseases (21.3%, 19.9%, respectively). The largest ethnic group of afghan refugees in this study was Hazara (55%) followed by Tajik (14%), Fars (12%), Sadat (9%), and 10% others. Ophthalmic diseases were the major cause of referrals by Hazara, Tajik, Fars, and Sadat groups with 26%, 20%, 26%, and 27% respectively. Referrals by pashtun group were mostly for neoplasms (17%), among Uzbek group it was nephropathies (26%), and in Baluch group Hematopoietic disorders (25%) CONCLUSION: These data indicate higher referral rate for women 15--59 years of old and people in 60+ with ophthalmic diseases, neoplasms, and nephropathies. Even given certain intrinsic limitations of such a study, we believe these unique findings are worth further explanation. This implies the need for public health researchers to pursue prospective studies in these areas.
    International Journal for Equity in Health 12/2012; 11(1):82. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study examines the level of satisfaction with pharmacy services among a community-based sample of underserved aged African Americans to compare the level of satisfaction between mail-order pharmacy and traditional pharmacy patrons. In addition, this study investigates adherence, duplication, use of expired medication, or misuse of any Rx or OTC medication. Methods: This study recruited 400 elderly African Americans from 16 churches located in South Los Angeles. We conducted a comprehensive data collection of participant's medication use. Using the Satisfaction with Pharmacy Services Questionnaire the level of satisfaction with pharmacy services between mail-order pharmacy and traditional pharmacy users was examined. Results: Fifty percent of the participants take 8 or more medications. Only 15% of participants were using mail-order pharmacy services. Almost 75% of participants illustrated various challenges associated with medication use (poor adherence, duplicate medication, expired medications, mislabeled medications, or poor general knowledge). Ten percent of participants' Rx containers were mislabeled. Nine percent of participants used expired medication. Mail-order pharmacy patrons were more satisfied than traditional pharmacy patrons with their pharmacy services. Conclusion: This study documented a higher level of satisfaction with mail-order pharmacy services among underserved elderly African Americans. Regardless of level of satisfaction with pharmacy services, this study demonstrates that there is urgent need for an interventional study to promote adherence to prescribed Rx regimens, to increase awareness of use and misuse of Rx and OTC medications, and to promote communication with primary care providers regarding use of Rx and OTC medications among aged underserved African Americans.
    140st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2012; 10/2012
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    Mohsen Bazargan, Frank Galvan
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. METHODS: A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. RESULTS: Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 [greater than or equal to] 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems needs additional investigation. Models investigating the association between perceived discrimination and depression among transgender women should include sexual partner violence as a potential confounding variable.
    BMC Public Health 08/2012; 12(1):663. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of self-expectation, social interaction, and organisational situation on job satisfaction among nurses is examined. Understanding determinants and correlates of job satisfaction are important factors that help to reduce the problem of nurse attrition. Utilizing the Hybrid Model of concept development, job satisfaction was examined in three phases: (1) the theoretical phase, a working definition and the dimensions of job satisfaction were established; (2) the fieldwork phase, a qualitative semi-structured interview was employed to capture participants' perceptions of the concept; and (3) the analytical phase, the experiences of nurses were evaluated using the conceptual model. The results indicate that personal beliefs, rather than social interaction or organisational situation, constitute the core of job satisfaction. Despite the variety of dissatisfaction factors rooted in social interaction and organisational situation, participants achieved the highest job satisfaction when trusting in self-value systems and the spiritual value of their job objectives. Intervention is needed to increase organisational and professional support for nurses. However, highlighting the sacred and spiritual value of the nursing profession, which is rooted in religious values and culture, provides additional reinforcement for enhancing the job satisfaction among this segment of health care providers.
    Journal of Nursing Management 05/2012; 20(4):522-33. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol use within 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-American and Latino emergency department (ED) patients. Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all ED patients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcohol use and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variable negative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion of interaction terms. The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error = 0.11) sexual partners in the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol before sex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number of sexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners in the past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol before sex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio = 3.2; confidence interval [CI] =1.9-5.6). The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partners is dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months. Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of this effect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers. Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were more likely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences of risky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and risky sexual behaviors. EDs should strive to institute a system for regular screening, brief intervention, and referral of at-risk patients to reduce negative consequences of alcohol misuse, including those of risky sexual behaviors.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 05/2012; 13(2):151-9.
  • The western journal of emergency medicine 05/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and evaluate the associated risk factors of the noise-induced hearing threshold shift (NITS) in the US adult population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The study population consisted of 5,418 individuals aged 20-69 years who had complete audiologic data from the NHANES database. Stringent criteria were used to define NITS. Prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS and their association with several socio-demographic and hearing-related factors were evaluated. The prevalence of unilateral, bilateral, and total NITS was 9.4, 3.4 and 12.8%, respectively. Prevalence of bilateral NITS was higher in subjects with older age, male gender, white (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic ethnicities, education level less than or equal to high school diploma, married/living with partner status, Mexico as country of birth, service in armed forces, smoking history, diabetes, and different kinds of noise exposure. Odds of NITS were only higher in older people, males, and smokers. This study provides comprehensive information on the prevalence of NITS in the US adult population and its associated risk factors. More targeted interventions may be done for educational, preventative, and screening purposes.
    Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 03/2012; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The issue of knowledge on school backpacks among parents has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to assess school backpack carriage and its consistency with parents' knowledge about children friendly school backpacks. Methods: This was a randomized cross-sectional study. Totally 307 elementary school children and 250 parents were recruited to assess parental knowledge about standard school backpacks in 2010. Data collection were carried out on an unscheduled day in order to, children and their par¬ents prepared school backpacks based on their own previous habits and behaviors. All statistical analyses were performed using version 16.0 of the statistical software package SPSS Results: Approximately, 132 (51.6%) of the parents were not aware of the recommended weight limit for carrying school backpacks and 144 (56.3%) were not aware that the size of the backpack must be proportionate to the upper back region. Significant difference was found for the mean score of awareness of a safe and standard school backpack between fathers and mothers: fathers had more knowledge about school backpack carriages in comparison with mothers (P<0.001). Conclusion: Children, parents and teachers should be educated about the characteristics of a standard backpack, different strategies. Parents are the best advocates for safety promotion and should represent the group most likely to help to significantly reduce backpack related injuries among school children by selecting safe school backpacks, supervising school backpack carrying and checking backpack weights.
    Health promotion perspectives. 01/2012; 2(2):166-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive and unnecessary use of prescription and over-the-counter medications (polypharmacy) is a major problem ad a challenge that contributes to increased costs, adverse drug events, poor medication adherence, inappropriate prescribing, hospitalization, and mortality among older adults. This educational outreach intervention study examined the effects of an educational intervention on reducing excessive and unnecessary use of prescription and over-the-counter medication and enhancing adherence to drug regimens among low-income older African Americans with multiple chronic health conditions. A one group pretest-posttest design was utilized to measure the outcomes before and after the intervention. Each study participant was provided with information regarding the prevalence, consequences, and common facilitators of polypharmacy (taking expired medications, borrowing medications, prescriptions from multiple healthcare providers). The intervention emphasizes knowledge and strategies aimed at improving adherence to recommended medications. Following the assessment of medication use, providers of participants were notified within two weeks about medication duplications, out-dated or inappropriate indication, drug-drug interactions and adherence of their patients to the drug regimen. Preliminary findings indicated several participants with serious problems related to their use of medications that required notification letters to be sent to their primary physician along with a follow-up intervention. Lessons learned and policy implications will be discussed.
    139st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2011; 11/2011
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the prevalence of exposure to violence across different types of alcohol consumed and the association between the type of alcohol consumed and exposure to violence. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a sample of 295 Emergency Department (ED) patients identified as having an alcohol problem. Outcome measure include exposure to violence, and the main study predictor was "type of alcoholic drink" including: malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, wine cooler, wine, fortified wine or hard liquor. Using logistic regression analysis, ED patients who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol increased their odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 8.5 compared to ED patients who drank other types of alcohol. Being female increased the odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 2.5 and using illicit drugs increased the odds by 3.8. Analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means revealed that ED patients who only drank MLB had a higher exposure to violence compared to non-MLB drinkers, and that female illicit drug users who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol had the highest exposure to violence. MLB was identified as a predictor of the amount of exposure to violence and in particular, that the use of malt liquor beer in combination with other types of alcohol increased the risk of being both threatened and physically attacked. Implications for ED and community interventions are suggested.
    Journal of Community Health 08/2011; 36(4):597-604. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the rate of helmet use and identifies barriers and facilitators of wearing helmets among Iranian motorcyclists. A mixed-method approach was used, including a structured seasonal survey with specific observations of a random sample of 6010 riders and qualitative methods that included 29 in-depth interviews and seven focus groups (n=31). Only 10% of motorcyclists wear a standard helmet while riding. However, another 23% of motorcyclists used non-standard or partial helmets that covered only part of the head and do not prevent head trauma injuries effectively. We observed only 2 of 264 child passengers and 22 of 1951 adult passengers wearing helmets. Almost no one used protective pants or clothing made to be more visible in traffic. Themes emerged from qualitative interviews and were grouped into three main categories: (1) helmet characteristics; (2) social and cultural factors; and (3) personal and psychological factors. Overall, the motorcyclists in our study believed that wearing a safety helmet protects them against serious injuries or death during a crash; however, only a small percentage of the motorcyclists used safety helmets. National intervention programs addressing motorcycle safety should aim to overcome barriers to and promote facilitators of helmet use, including providing inexpensive standard helmets, banning manufacturing/using unsafe partial or dummy helmets, as well as enforcing helmet use on a consistent basis.
    Accident; analysis and prevention 07/2011; 43(4):1562-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Underutilization of screening mammography by Latinas continues unabated and may contribute to disparities in disease-free survival and mortality. Comparison of two discussion group-centered educational interventions at enhancing breast cancer knowledge, breast self-exams (BSE), and screening mammography. Pre-test post-test study design. Two cohorts of 200 Latinas each participated in survey screening and discussion groups at baseline. One cohort also viewed an animated video and had BSE training. Breast cancer knowledge, self-reported BSE and mammography history were measured at baseline and three months post-intervention. Breast cancer knowledge scores were good for both groups at baseline, and significantly increased at three month follow-up for both groups (p<.05) but no significant difference was observed between groups at baseline or post-intervention. Community-based discussion groups are a cost-effective method for improving breast cancer knowledge and promoting screening behaviors.
    Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 08/2010; 21(3 Suppl):76-90. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between alcohol misuse and depression symptoms as it varies among male and female patients. This was a cross-sectional survey of 412 randomly selected adult patients who sought care in the emergency department. The main predictor variables of alcohol misuse were created from AUDIT, RAPS4, binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence measures. The outcome variable of depression symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, > or =16). There were 41% of women and 35% of men who reported greater depression and 34.1% of men and 9.2% of women reported alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse, stress, and education level all correlated with greater depression in men whereas age was most significant for women. Men who misused alcohol were 2.5 times more likely to report greater depression (OR=2.47, 95%CI=1.37 - 4.45, P< or =0.05). In women, a 10-year increase in age was associated with a 36% increase in the odds of depression (OR=1.55, 95%CI=1.12 - 2.13, P< or =0.05). While it may be unrealistic to expect emergency department providers to fully attend to all the mental health needs of their patients, they should use windows of opportunity to identify patients who present with symptoms of depression and/or alcohol misuse for potential intervention.
    Archives of Iranian medicine 07/2010; 13(4):324-32. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most countries in Middle East have been successful in establishing and furthering basic facilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. The rate of compliance with mammography screening, however, remains well below North American and Western European countries. We utilized the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explore factors associated with mammography screening behavior among a sample of 320 Muslim women aged > or = 35. Carrying out this cross-sectional study, we found that screening behavior was associated with older age, higher perceived benefit of breast cancer screening, and lower perceived barrier. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of religious beliefs in influencing mammography screening behavior and explaining the link between religious involvement and mammography behavior.
    Health Care For Women International 06/2010; 31(6):499-514. · 0.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

818 Citations
120.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Tarbiat Modares University
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 1996–2012
    • Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Family Medicine
      • • Obstetrics/Gynecology
      • • Clinical Trials Unit
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Jules Stein Eye Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Nova Southeastern University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Florida, NY, United States