[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a relatively new therapy being used to treat patients with many types of extracranial tumors and some metastases.
Clinically, SBRT is well documented and research continues to grow and demonstrate the promising effects of SBRT on patients. Much advancement has been made technically as well, including better techniques for immobilizing patients and tumors. In this paper, emphasis is placed on reviewing the advancements and discoveries of SBRT which are related to molecular radiation biology. These studies include molecular comparisons of high- and low-dose radiation tactics, and molecular methods for improving the outcome of SBRT, including advancements in tumor cell tracking, strategies for increasing the speed of SBRT, and mechanisms behind normal tissue responses after high-dose radiation.
Overall, there is still a relatively large amount of basic molecular unknowns involved in SBRT, and continued research is greatly anticipated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for the maintenance of genetic stability and serves as an anti-cancer barrier during early tumorigenesis. However, the role of the DDR in tumor progression and metastasis is less known. Here, we demonstrate that the ATM kinase, one of the critical DDR elements, is hyperactive in late stage breast tumor tissues with lymph-node metastasis and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker, Snail. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that ATM regulates Snail stabilization by phosphorylation on Serine-100. Using mass spectrometry, we identified HSP90 as a critical binding protein of Snail in response to DNA damage. HSP90 binds to and stabilizes phosphorylated Snail. We further provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that activation of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation promotes tumor invasion and metastasis. Finally, we demonstrate that Snail Serine-100 phosphorylation is elevated in breast cancer tissues with lymph-node metastasis, indicating clinical significance of the ATM-Snail pathway. Together, our findings provide strong evidence that the ATM-Snail pathway promotes tumor metastasis, highlighting a previously undescribed role of the DDR in tumor invasion and metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA damage response is critical for cells to maintain genome stability and survival. In this review, we discuss approaches to targeting critical elements of the DNA damage response for radiosensitization and chemosensitization. In addition, we also discuss strategies for targeting DNA damage response and DNA repair defects in cancer cells for synthetic lethality.
Chinese journal of cancer 06/2012; 31(8):359-63. DOI:10.5732/cjc.012.10087 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is one of the critical elements involved in the DNA damage repair process. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs results in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR); therefore, this approach has been explored to develop molecular targeted radiosensitizers. Here, we aimed to develop small inhibitory peptides that could specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, a critical step for the enzymatic activation of the kinase in response to IR. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We generated several small fusion peptides consisting of 2 functional domains, 1 an internalization domain and the other a DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation inhibitory domain. We characterized the internalization, toxicity, and radiosensitization activities of the fusion peptides. Furthermore, we studied the mechanisms of the inhibitory peptides on DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and DNA repair. RESULTS: We found that among several peptides, the biotin-labeled peptide 3 (BTW3) peptide, which targets DNA-PKcs threonine 2647 autophosphorylation, can abrogate IR-induced DNA-PKcs activation and cause prolonged γ-H2AX focus formation. We demonstrated that BTW3 exposure led to hypersensitivity to IR in DNA-PKcs-proficient cells but not in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. CONCLUSIONS: The small inhibitory peptide BTW3 can specifically target DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and enhance radiosensitivity; therefore, it can be further developed as a novel class of radiosensitizer.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2012; 84(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.01.092 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA damage response (DDR) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) are two critical mechanisms by which mammalian cells maintain genome stability. There is a growing body of evidence that DDR elements and SAC components crosstalk. Here we report that Bub1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1), one of the critical kinetochore proteins essential for SAC, is required for optimal DDRs. We found that knocking-down Bub1 resulted in prolonged H2AX foci and comet tail formation as well as hypersensitivity in response to ionizing radiation (IR). Further, we found that Bub1-mediated Histone H2A Threonine 121 phosphorylation was induced after IR in an ATM-dependent manner. We demonstrated that ATM phosphorylated Bub1 on serine 314 in response to DNA damage in vivo. Finally, we showed that ATM-mediated Bub1 serine 314 phosphorylation was required for IR-induced Bub1 activation and for the optimal DDR. Together, we elucidate the molecular mechanism of DNA damage-induced Bub1 activation and highlight a critical role of Bub1 in DDR.
DNA repair 11/2011; 11(2):185-91. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.10.018 · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perifosine is a membrane-targeted alkylphospholipid developed to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway and has been suggested as a favorable candidate for combined use with radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of the combined treatment of perifosine and radiation (CTPR) on prostate cancer cells in vitro and on prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.
Human prostate cancer cell line, CWR22RV1, was treated with perifosine, radiation, or CTPR. Clonogenic survival assays, sulforhodamine B cytotoxity assays and cell density assays were used to assess the effectiveness of each therapy in vitro. Measurements of apoptosis, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and Western blots were used to evaluate mechanisms of action in vitro. Tumor growth delay assays were used to evaluate radiation induced tumor responses in vivo.
In vitro, CTPR had greater inhibitory effects on prostate cancer cell viability and clonogenic survival than either perifosine or radiation treatment alone. A marked increase in prostate cancer cell apoptosis was noted in CTPR. Phosphorylation of AKT-T308 AKT and S473 were decreased when using perifosine treatment or CTPR. Cleaved caspase 3 was significantly increased in the CTPR group. In vivo, CTPR had greater inhibitory effects on the growth of xenografts when compared with perifosine or radiation treatment alone groups.
Perifosine enhances prostate cancer radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. These data provide strong support for further development of this combination therapy in clinical studies.