ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. The present longitudinal study aimed to examine the best combination of childhood physical and environmental factors to predict adult hypertension and furthermore whether newly identified genetic variants for blood pressure increase the prediction of adult hypertension.
The study cohort included 2625 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who were followed up for 21 to 27 years since baseline (1980; age, 3-18 years). In addition to dietary factors and biomarkers related to blood pressure, we examined whether a genetic risk score based on 29 newly identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms enhances the prediction of adult hypertension. Hypertension in adulthood was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mm Hg or medication for the condition. Independent childhood risk factors for adult hypertension included the individual's own blood pressure (P<0.0001), parental hypertension (P<0.0001), childhood overweight/obesity (P=0.005), low parental occupational status (P=0.003), and high genetic risk score (P<0.0001). Risk assessment based on childhood overweight/obesity status, parental hypertension, and parental occupational status was superior in predicting hypertension compared with the approach using only data on childhood blood pressure levels (C statistics, 0.718 versus 0.733; P=0.0007). Inclusion of both parental hypertension history and data on novel genetic variants for hypertension further improved the C statistics (0.742; P=0.015).
Prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by taking into account known physical and environmental childhood risk factors, family history of hypertension, and novel genetic variants. A multifactorial approach may be useful in identifying children at high risk for adult hypertension.
Circulation 06/2012; 126(4):402-9. · 14.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Clinical relevance of a genetic predisposition to elevated blood pressure was quantified during the transition from childhood to adulthood in a population-based Finnish cohort (N=2357). Blood pressure was measured at baseline in 1980 (age 3-18 years) and in follow-ups in 1983, 1986, 2001, and 2007. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with blood pressure were genotyped, and 3 genetic risk scores associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures and their combination were derived for all of the participants. Effects of the genetic risk score were 0.47 mm Hg for systolic and 0.53 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressures (both P<0.01). The combination genetic risk score was associated with diastolic blood pressure from age 9 years onward (β=0.68 mm Hg; P=0.015). Replications in 1194 participants of the Bogalusa Heart Study showed essentially similar results. The participants in the highest quintile of the combination genetic risk score had a 1.82-fold risk of hypertension in adulthood (P<0.0001) compared with the lowest quintile, independent of a family history of premature hypertension. These findings show that genetic variants are associated with preclinical blood pressure traits in childhood; individuals with several susceptibility alleles have, on average, a 0.5-mm Hg higher blood pressure, and this trajectory continues from childhood to adulthood.
Hypertension 12/2011; 58(6):1079-85. · 6.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Obesity from childhood to adulthood is associated with adverse health later in life. Increased youth BMI is a risk factor for later obesity, but it is unknown whether identification of other risk factors, including recently discovered genetic markers, would help to identify children at risk of developing adult obesity.
Our objective was to examine the childhood environmental and genetic predictors of adult obesity.
We followed 2119 individuals of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study for up to 27 yr since baseline (1980, age 3-18 yr).
We evaluated adult obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)].
The independent predictors (P < 0.05) of adult obesity included childhood BMI, C-reactive protein (CRP), family income (inverse), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes TFAP2B, LRRN6C, and FLJ35579. A risk assessment based on childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income was superior in predicting obesity compared with the approach using data only on BMI (C-statistics 0.751 vs. 0.772, P = 0.0015). Inclusion of data on childhood CRP and novel genetic variants for BMI did not incrementally improve C-value (0.779, P = 0.16). A nonlaboratory risk score (childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income) predicted adult obesity in all age groups between 3-18 yr (P always <0.001).
Childhood BMI, CRP, family income (inversely), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes FLJ35779, TFAP2B, and LRRN6C are independently related to adulthood obesity. However, because genetic risk markers and CRP only marginally improve the prediction, our results indicate that children at high risk of adult obesity can be identified using a simple non-laboratory-based risk assessment.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 07/2011; 96(9):E1542-9. · 6.50 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To examine tracking and predictiveness of childhood lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index for risk profile in adulthood and the best age to measure the childhood risk factor levels.
Study subjects were participants of the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, started in 1980 (age 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years). A total of 2204 subjects participated to the 27-year follow-up in 2007 (age, 30 to 45 years).
In both sex groups and in all age groups, childhood risk factors were significantly correlated with levels in adulthood. The correlation coefficients for cholesterol levels and body mass index were 0.43 to 0.56 (P < .0001), and for blood pressure and triglyceride levels, they were 0.21 to 0.32 (P < .0001). To recognize children with abnormal adult levels, the National Cholesterol Education Program and the National High Blood Pressure Education Program cutoff points for lipid and blood pressure values and international cutoff points for overweight and obesity were used. Age seemed to affect associations. The best sensitivity and specificity rates were observed in 12- to 18-year-old subjects.
Childhood blood pressure, serum lipid levels, and body mass index correlate strongly with values measured in middle age. These associations seemed to be stronger with increased age at measurements.
The Journal of pediatrics 04/2011; 159(4):584-90. · 4.02 Impact Factor