[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To discover novel biomarkers for early detection of human lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC) and explore possible mechanisms of LSCC carcinogenesis, iTRAQ-tagging combined with two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem MS analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process using laser capture microdissection-purified normal bronchial epithelium (NBE), squamous metaplasia (SM), atypical hyperplasia (AH), carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive LSCC. As a result, 102 differentially expressed proteins were identified, and three differential proteins (GSTP1, HSPB1 and CKB) showing progressively expressional changes in the carcinogenic process were selectively validated by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of the three proteins in an independent set of paraffin-embedded archival specimens including various stage tissues of bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis, and their ability for early detection of LSCC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The results showed that the combination of the three proteins could perfectly discriminate NBE from preneoplastic lesions (SM, AH and CIS) from invasive LSCC, achieving a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 92% in discriminating NBE from preneoplatic lesions, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98% in discriminating NBE from invasive LSCC, and a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91% in discriminating preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC, respectively. Furthermore, we knocked down GSTP1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE cells, and then measured their susceptibility to carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene-induced cell transformation. The results showed that GSTP1 knockdown significantly increased the efficiency of benzo(a)pyrene-induced 16HBE cell transformation. The present data first time show that GSTP1, HSPB1 and CKB are novel potential biomarkers for early detection of LSCC, and GSTP1 down-regulation is involved in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGFR is a potent stimulator of invasion and metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). However, the mechanism by which EGFR may stimulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis still need to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that activation of EGFR by EGF in HNSCC cell line SCC10A enhanced cell migration and invasion, and induced loss of epitheloid phenotype in parallel with downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, indicating that EGFR promoted SCC10A cell migration and invasion possibly by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype change. Interestingly, activation of EGFR by EGF induced production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad), and knockdown of MMP-9 by siRNA inhibited sE-cad production induced by EGF in SCC10A. Moreover, both MMP-9 knockdown and E-cadherin overexpression inhibited cell migration and invasion induced by EGF in SCC10A. The results indicate that EGFR activation promoted cell migration and invasion through inducing MMP-9-mediated degradation of E-cadherin into sE-cad. Pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR, MEK, and PI3K kinase activity in SCC10A reduced phosphorylated levels of ERK-1/2 and AKT, production of MMP-9 and sE-cad, cell migration and invasion, and expressional changes of EMT markers (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) induced by EGF, indicating that EGFR activation promotes cell migration and invasion via ERK-1/2 and PI3K-regulated MMP-9/E-cadherin signaling pathways. Taken together, the data suggest that EGFR activation promotes HNSCC SCC10A cell migration and invasion by inducing EMT-like phenotype change and MMP-9-mediated degradation of E-cadherin into sE-cad related to activation of ERK-1/2 and PI3K signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trypsin-catalyzed ¹⁸O labeling is increasingly used in shotgun proteomics for relative peptide/protein quantitation. However, precise quantitative measurements are often complicated by the instability of ¹⁸O-labeled peptides caused mainly by oxygen back-exchange. Although a number of attempts have been made to reduce or prevent oxygen back-exchange, there is still room for improvement. Here we demonstrate that the removal of immobilized trypsin by filtration using ZipTips can efficiently minimize oxygen back-exchange and enhance the stability of ¹⁸O-labeled peptides under various pH conditions. The ¹⁸O-labeled peptides processed by the approach were successfully separated by immobilized pH gradient-isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF), and no marked decrease in the extent of labeling was observed. The results also demonstrated that there was no correlation between the extent of ¹⁸O labeling and molecular weight or isoelectric point (pI). The approach presented here is especially applicable to microscale samples. Its ability to generate stably ¹⁸O-labeled samples without back-exchange should expand the application scope of the ¹⁸O-labeling technique.