[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Andreas Voss and colleagues have alluded to the fact that 16SrRNA sequencing in the early 2000s allowed Elizabethkingia to be placed separately from the genus of Chryseobacterium. Next-generation sequencing has facilitated a higher level of differentiation between two very distinct species of Elizabethkingia, namely Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis.
The Lancet 12/2013; 382(9910):2064-2065. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely administered to prevent tuberculosis. Vaccine complications are rare. However, when BCG-related adverse reactions arise there is a need to rapidly and reliably identify BCG from other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (TBC). PCR assays based on the detection of the regions of difference (RD), in particular RD1 and RD9, have been invaluable in the identification of BCG. Prior to this study, specimens were identified through HPLC analysis at a local reference laboratory taking up to 2 weeks for a result. We sought to expedite the identification process by validating a RD1, RD9 and hsp65 PCR assay for the identification and differentiation of BCG from TBC.
In last past 3 years, we validated the RD1, RD9 and hsp65 PCR assay for 16 mycobacterial isolates obtained from children who had experienced adverse reactions to BCG vaccination. In these cases, the clinician required a definitive identification of the isolate. The RD1 and RD9 PCR profiles indicated that all 16 isolates were BCG whilst amplification of the hsp65 target functioned as a PCR positive control. When tested against clinical M. tuberculosis (MTB), reference and non-tuberculous mycobacteria the PCR assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.
The RD1, RD9 and hsp65 PCR assay is a useful tool for the rapid and reliable identification of BCG. Its ease of use has allowed it to be implemented in our clinical microbiology laboratory.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hospital infection-control team at the National University Hospital of Singapore identified three patients in the cardiothoracic intensive-care unit (ICU) and two patients from the surgical ICU that were colonised with Elizabethkingia during a 3 week period in 2012.
The Lancet 09/2013; 382(9895):855 - 856. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we describe the characterization of an infrequently encountered class A carbapenemase, IMI-1, from a clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolate. The isolate had high levels of resistance to carbapenems but retained susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. The blaIMI-1 was chromosomally encoded. The detection of the IMI-1 producer highlights the diversity of carbapenemases that can be found in our local clinical setting.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 04/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae are becoming a major public health concern globally, however, relatively little is known about the molecular and clinical epidemiology of these organisms in many parts of the world. METHODS: As part of a laboratory surveillance programme, 96 carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical samples from patients in seven hospitals were referred for investigation for carbapenemases. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for a collection of genes encoding carbapenemases, 33 of 96 (34.5%) isolates were confirmed as carbapenemase producers. NDM-1 producers were the most prevalent at 64% (21/33) whilst OXA-181 was the second most common carbapenemase constituting 24.5% (8/33) of the carbapenemase producing isolates. Seven of these eight OXA-181 positive isolates underwent further characterisation with screening for other transmissible antimicrobial resistance determinants using PCR. Clonal relatedness was explored using Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmid characterisation was performed including restriction analysis and transfer by conjugation or transformation. RESULTS: In addition to the OXA-181 gene, all contained other transmissible resistance determinants including extended spectrum beta-lactamases, oxacillinases or 16S rRNA methylase genes, but none contained metallo-beta-lactamases or serine carbapenemases. All isolates had a multidrug resistant phenotype with two isolates being resistant to every antibiotic tested including colistin. Multilocus sequence typing confirmed five isolates belonged to ST17 and two to ST14, with those belonging to the same sequence type having identical PFGE profiles. The OXA-181 gene was typically carried on large plasmids which were mostly non-conjugative. CONCLUSIONS: OXA-181 carbapenemase appears to be an important and probably under-recognised cause of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in Singapore. Further coordinated research into clinical and molecular epidemiology of carbapenemases is urgently required in Singapore and throughout Asia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TO THE EDITOR: During the past decade, enterobacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have become established in the United States and countries in South America and Europe (1). In Asia, KPC was reported in the People's Republic of China in 2007 (2) and subsequently in South Korea (3) and Taiwan (4). Public health agencies emphasize screening and strict contact precautions to control multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae (5). Routine testing for mechanisms of resistance facilitates detection of emerging carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we molecularly characterized 12 NDM-1 producing clinical Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae) isolates that were part of a collection of non-carbapenem susceptible isolates obtained during a one-year period. These isolates were obtained from four local general hospitals in Singapore.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and sequencing was used to determine the presence of β-lactamase encoding genes (bla) including bla NDM-1 and plasmid-mediated quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance determinants. Conjugation experiments were performed to determine the transferability of bla NDM-1. Isolate relatedness was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST).
The isolates were completely resistant to the second- and third-generation cephalosporins tested as well as carbapenems. Susceptibility profiling of the isolates indicated that 100% retained susceptibility to tigecycline while 11/12 (91.7%) were susceptible to colistin. The bla NDM-1 gene was encoded on plasmids that were easily transferable. None of the patients had a travel history to countries where NDM-1 has been reported. The isolates appear clonally unrelated with MLST, revealing a diversity of clonal types among the Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates.
The ease of NDM-1 plasmid transmissibility may help their dissemination among the Enterobacteriaceae. Although it appears that the isolates are clonally unrelated, epidemiological links cannot be fully excluded without further research.
Western Pacific surveillance and response journal : WPSAR. 01/2012; 3(1):19-24.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Asia, bla(KPC) detection has been limited to East Asia and not yet seen in Southeast Asia. We report four bla(KPC-2)-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two different hospitals in Singapore. All isolates belonged to strain type 11 (ST11) and were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). bla(KPC-2) was located on nonconjugative plasmids and flanked by mobile genetic structures composed of a partial Tn4401 transposon and a Tn3-based transposon which previously have been described only in Chinese isolates.
Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2011; 50(2):475-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a new real-time tuberculosis (TB) PCR test, with that of the Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct (MTD) assay using 162 respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens. Based on culture as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity and specificity for all sample types for the Xpert MTB/RIF assay were 90.9 and 89%, respectively, while for the MTD assay, the overall sensitivity and specificity were 97.3 and 87.1%, respectively. A higher proportion of total equivocal results were obtained for the MTD assay, at 10.5% (17/162), while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay generated 5.5% (9/162) of invalid reads.
Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2011; 49(10):3659-62. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Threatening sporadic outbreaks of avian influenza and the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 highlight the need for rapid and accurate detection and typing of influenza viruses. In this paper, we describe the validation of the VereFlu™ Lab-on-Chip Influenza Assay, which is based on the integration of two technologies: multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR followed by microarray amplicon detection. This assay simultaneously detects five influenza virus subtypes, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), seasonal H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and influenza B virus. The VereFlu™ assay was clinically validated in Singapore and compared against reference methods of real-time PCR, virus detection by immunofluorescence of cell cultures and sequencing. A sensitivity and specificity of 96.8% and 92.8%, respectively, was demonstrated for pandemic H1N1; 95.7% and 100%, respectively, for seasonal H1N1; 91.2% and 97.6%, respectively, for seasonal H3N2; 95.2% and 100%, respectively, for influenza B. Additional evaluations carried out at the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre, Melbourne, Australia, confirmed that the test was able to reliably detect H5N1. This portable, fast time-to-answer (3 hours) device is particularly suited for diagnostic applications of detection, differentiation and identification of human influenza virus subtypes.
Archives of Virology 04/2011; 156(8):1371-8. · 2.03 Impact Factor