[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the textile industry, high salinity waste streams are a challenge urging for the recovery and purification of dyes and salts (e.g., NaCl), requiring a treatment going beyond the classical filtration by e.g., reverse osmosis to produce pure water. In this work, two commercial loose nanofiltration (NF) membranes (Sepro NF 6 and NF 2A, Ultura) are proposed to fractionate dye/salt aqueous mixtures. It was observed that both NF membranes have a salt rejection <33.3% in solutions with 0.1–40.0 g L−1 of NaCl at 6 bar. Furthermore, both membranes have >99.6% retention of direct dyes (direct red 80, direct red 23, and congo red), even though 40.0 g L−1 NaCl is present, indicating salt addition has no obvious impact on the dye retention. The combination of a low salt rejection and a high dye rejection indicates the feasibility for the reuse of salt from fractionation in forward osmosis and bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Application of diafiltration for an aqueous mixture containing direct red 80 (1000 ppm) and NaCl (~20 g L−1) by both membranes demonstrates that above 95% of NaCl is removed from aqueous mixture, and <0.9 g L−1 NaCl remains after the addition of pure water with a volume factor of 4.0 in the feed solution. At the premise of excellent diafiltration performance, concentration as the post-treatment for dye recovery expectedly indicates direct red 80 is concentrated by a factor of 4.0 for both membranes while keeping the salt concentration with a very slight increase. Over 99.9% dye retention in both diafiltration and concentration procedures yields a very high recovery since <0.045% of dye is permeated. These results indicate that loose nanofiltration membranes have potential for dye/salt fractionation.
Journal of Membrane Science 03/2015; 477. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined microbial population (e.g. biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) affects more than one million children, is responsible for several hundred child deaths every year in China and is the cause of widespread concerns in society. Only a small fraction of HFMD cases will develop further into severe HFMD with neurologic complications. A timely and accurate diagnosis of severe HFMD is essential for assessing the risk of progression and planning the appropriate treatment. Human serum can reflect the physiological or pathological states, which is expected to be an excellent source of disease-specific biomarkers. In the present study, a comparative serological proteome analysis between severe HFMD patients and healthy controls was performed via a two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) strategy. Fifteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the sera of the severe HFMD patients compared with the controls. The identified proteins were classified into different groups according to their molecular functions, biological processes, protein classes and physiological pathways by bioinformatics analysis. The up-regulations of two identified proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and clusterin (CLU), were confirmed in the sera of the HFMD patients by ELISA assay. This study not only increases our background knowledge about and scientific insight into the mechanisms of HFMD, but also reveals novel potential biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of severe HFMD.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108816. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrazine is a member of triazine herbicide family intensively used to control weeds for crop production. In this study, atrazine residues and its degraded products in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were characterized using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS. Most of atrazine absorbed in plants was found as chemically modified derivatives like deisopropylated atrazine (DIA), dehydrogenated atrazine (DHA) or methylated atrazine (MEA), and some of atrazine derivatives were conjugated through different functional groups such as sugar, glutathione and amino acids. Interestingly, the specific conjugates DHA-hGSH (glutathione) and MEA-HCL-hGSH in alfalfa were detected. These results suggest that atrazine in alfalfa can be degraded through different pathways. The increased activities of glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were determined to support the atrazine degradation models. The outcome of the work uncovered the detailed mechanism for the residual atrazine accumulation and degradation in alfalfa and will help to evaluate whether the crop is suitable to be cultivated in the atrazine-polluted soil.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2014; · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ticks (Dermacentor niveus Neumann) were collected from Tacheng, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their bacterial diversity was investigated using the 16S RNA gene library method from one pooled sample. A total of 452 clones was successfully sequenced and assigned to 4 phyla. The dominant phylum was the Proteobacteria, accounting for 62.8% of all the clones of the 16S rRNA gene at the confidence level 80%. The other sequences were assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and accounted for 13.5%, 12.4%, and 11.3%, respectively. These results provide an insight into the bacterial diversity associated with D. niveus ticks in the natural environment of Tacheng. They indicate the occurrence of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in D. niveus ticks in this area, and as a consequence, cases of TIBOLA/DEBONEL may occur (tick-borne lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy).
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 06/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pymetrozine is a selective insecticide with a unique chemical structure and mode to control hemipteran and homopteran. While pymetrozine has brought great benefits to crop production by killing insects, its residues in soil may have a detrimental effect on environment. Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate its behaviors in soil. In this study, the sorption and desorption of pymetrozine on six Chinese soils were investigated using a batch equilibrium approach to understand its mobile behavior in the soils. Both sorption and desorption isotherms of pymetrozine were in good agreement with the Freundlich model. The sorption coefficient K
varied between 3.37 and 58.32 mL·g−1 and the sorption isotherms were nonlinear, with 1/n ranging from 0.57 to 0.91. A regression equation was proposed to predict the sorption of pymetrozine on six different soil samples: log K
= 4.3708 − 4.5709 × log (pH in 0.01mol·L−1 CaCl2) + 0.4700 × log OC% + 0.0057 × sand (%) + 0.0022 × CEC(clay), with R
2 = 0.9982. The organic carbon content of soil positively affected the sorption of pymetrozine, but soil pH had a negative effect on the sorption. Additionally, effects of CaCl2 concentration, soil to solution ratio and pesticide form were investigated. The sorption was promoted with an increase in soil to solution ratio and a decrease in CaCl2 concentration. The possible variation of the five formulated products of pymetrozine was also investigated.
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China 06/2014; · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009, caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). The disease usually presents as fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with case-fatality rates ranging from 2.5% to 30%. Haemaphysalis longicornis was suspected to be the most likely vector of SFTSV. By the end of 2012, the disease had expanded to 13 provinces of China. SFTS patients have been reported in Japan and South Korea, and a disease similar to SFTS has been reported in the United States.
We characterized the epidemiologic features of 504 confirmed SFTS cases in Xinyang Region, the most severely SFTS-afflicted region in China from 2011 to 2012, and assessed the environmental risk factors. All cases occurred during March to November, with the epidemic peaking from May to July. The patients' ages ranged from 7 to 87 years (median 61 years), and the annual incidence increased with age (χ2 test for trend, P<0.001). The female-to-male ratio of cases was 1.58, and 97.0% of the cases were farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region. The Poisson regression analysis revealed that the spatial variations of SFTS incidence were significantly associated with the shrub, forest, and rain-fed cropland areas.
The distribution of SFTS showed highly significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity in Xinyang Region, with the majority of SFTS cases being elderly farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region, mostly acquiring infection between May and July when H. longicornis is highly active. The shrub, rain-fed, and rain-fed cropland areas were associated with high risk for this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides for controlling weeds and grasses. Due to its intensive use, it has become a serious contaminant in soil and water. To evaluate impact of atrazine on graminaceous crops, experiments focusing on atrazine accumulation and toxic response in rice (Oryza sativa) were carried out. Treatment with atrazine at 0.05–0.8 mg L−1 for 6 d reduced elongation of shoot and root. Compared with a mock treatment, the elongation of shoot with atrazine was 67.1 percent of the control, whereas that of root was 79.5 percent, indicating that the shoot was more affected than the root. Atrazine was readily absorbed by rice from media. Although the quantitative absorption of atrazine was positively correlated with the external supply of the herbicide, translocation of atrazine from roots to the above-ground was reduced from 39.88±6.26 (at 0.05 mg L−1) to 9.25±0.27 (0.8 mg L−1). While accumulation of atrazine in rice plants led to toxic responses such as over-generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions, it triggered the plant defense system against the herbicide-induced oxidative stress. This was best presented by the enhanced activities of several antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) and expression of genes responsible for the tolerance to atrazine toxicity.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2014; 102:105–112. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and it is primarily caused by rotaviruses (RVs), astroviruses (AstVs), adenoviruses (AdVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and sapoviruses (SaVs). In this study, we determined the distribution of viral gastroenteritis and human calicivirus (HuCVs) in acute gastroenteritis patients in Shenzhen, China, during 2011. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus (NoV), group A rotavirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV), and astrovirus (AstV). From a total of 983 fecal samples, NoV was detected in 210 (21.4 %); RoV in 173 (17.6 %); AstV in 10 (1.0 %); and AdV in 15 (1.5 %). Mixed infections involving two NoVs were found in 21 of the 387 pathogen-positive stool specimens. NoV and SaV genotypes were further tested using RT-PCRs and molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis were then performed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region for NoV and a conserved nucleotide sequence in the capsid gene for SaV. Of the 68 typed strains that were sequenced and genotyped, five were NoV G1 (7.5 %) and 63 were NoV GII (96.6 %). GII strains were clustered into five genotypes, including GII.4 (65.1 %; 36 GII.4 2006b and five GII.4 New Orleans), GII.3 (28.6 %), GII.2 (3.2 %), GII.6 (1.6 %), and GII.1 (1.6 %). While all fecal specimens were tested for SaVs, 15 (1.5 %) were positive, and of these, 12 isolates belonged to G1.2, and the remaining three SaV strains belonged to the SaV GII genogroup. Although various HuCVs were detected in acute gastroenteritis patients, NoV GII.4 2006b was more prevalent than the other HuCVs.
Archives of Virology 03/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photoirradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on silica-gel surface was developed using Dufulin (Duf) as a template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker, and azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The synthetic samples were characterized by the techniques of Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Batch experiments were performed to evaluate adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics and selective recognition of the MIP. Binding experiments demonstrated that the MIP had a good adsorption capacity, fast mass transfer rate and high recognition selectivity to Dufulin. When the MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) material, the recoveries of Dufulin for spiked water, soil and wheat samples were 88.98-102.16%, 85.31-99.57% and 87.84-100.19%, along with LOD of 0.0008 mg L(-1), 0.010 mg kg(-1) and 0.023 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with direct determination of HPLC without MIP-SPE, the highly selective separation and enrichment of Dufulin from the complex environmental media can be achieved by the newly developed molecular imprinting at the surface of silica gel.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coordination chemistry of imidazole–tripodal ligand N,N-bis(2-(1-methylimidazolyl)methyl)glycine (HL) has been studied with cobalt (II). Single-crystal X-ray analysis showed that the mononuclear complex [CoLCl] (1) could further act as the charge-negative metalloligand to assemble a heptanuclear complex of Co[CoLCl]6(NO3)2 (2) through the bridge linking of carboxylato O of L and the cooperation of the central metal ions. The electrochemical and magnetic properties were explored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The variety of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi) genospecies leads to distinction in clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis (LB). There is report on LB clinical characteristics in China, where the B. burgdorferi genospeices in ticks and animal hosts are different from those in Europe and North American.
During May˜September in 2010 and 2011, all patients, who had erythema migrans (EM, more than 5 cm in diameter) after a recent tick-bite, and sought medical care at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital, Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, were enrolled in the study. Specific PCR was used to determine the B. burgdorferi genospecies in the disseminated patients.
Of 265 EM patients, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in blood specimens from 15 of 55 disseminated patients. Sequence analyses of 5S-23S rRNA, flagellin, ospC, 16s rRNA and ospA genes revealed that 11 patients were infected with B. garinii, 3 with B. afzelii and 1 with B. valaisiana-related genospecies. Among 15 patients, 40%, 13.3% and 13.3% manifested pruritus, pain and ulceration, respectively. Systemic symptoms, arthralgia or swelling joint and lymphadenopathy were observed in 26.7%, 13.3% and 6.7% patients, respectively.
In northeastern China, three genospecies of LB patients were detected. The B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in this study was predominantly B. garinii. A case infected with B. valaisiana-related genospecies was first reported. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is highly desirable to develop theranostic nanoparticles for achieving cancer imaging with enhanced contrast and simultaneously multimodal synergistic therapy. Herein, we report a theranostic micelle system hierarchically assembling cyanine dye (indocyanine green) and chemotherapeutic compound (doxorubicin) (I/D-Micelles) as a novel theranostic platform with high drug loading, good stability and enhanced cellular uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. I/D-Micelles exhibit the multiple functionalities including near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), hyperthermia and intracellular singlet oxygen from indocyanine green, and simultaneous cytotoxicity from doxorubicin. Upon photoirradiation, I/D-Micelles can induce NIRF imaging, acute photothermal therapy via hyperthermia and simultaneous synergistic chemotherapy via singlet oxygen-triggered disruption of lysosomal membranes, eventually leading to enhanced NIRF imaging and superior tumor eradication without any re-growth. Our results suggest that the hierarchical micelles can act as a superior theranostic platform for cancer imaging and multimodal synergistic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method has been developed to determine heptachlor and its metabolites heptachlor-exo-epoxide and heptachlor-endo-epoxide in pork. The pork samples were extracted with acetone-n-hexane (2:8, V:V) and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography and florisil solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extract was then determined by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), followed by validation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with negative chemical ionization. Linearity of calibration curves ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 mg L(-1), with correlation coefficients of more than 0.9980 for GC-ECD and GC-MS, respectively. At spiked concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg kg(-1), the average recovery and relative standard deviation values were 87.1-102.2 and 4.0-11.3 %, respectively. The limit of quantification for each analyte was 0.01 mg kg(-1), which satisfied the current maximum residue limit permitted in pork. Our results showed that the method developed was successfully used to determine heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide residues in real pork samples.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dufulin is a newly developed antiviral agent (or pesticide) that activates systemic acquired resistance of plants. This pesticide is widely used in China to prevent abroad viral diseases in rice, tobacco and vegetables. In this study, the potential impacts such as soil type, moisture, temperature, and other factors on Dufulin degradation in soil were investigated. Degradation of Dufulin followed the first-order kinetics. The half-life values varied from 2.27 to 150.68 days. The dissipation of Dufulin was greatly affected by soil types, with DT50 (Degradation half time) varying between 17.59, 31.36, and 43.32 days for Eutric Gleysols, Cumulic Anthrosols, and Dystric Regosols, respectively. The elevated moisture accelerated the decay of Dufulin in soil. Degradation of Dufulin increased with temperature and its half-life values ranged from 16.66 to 42.79 days. Sterilization of soils and treatment with H2O2 resulted in a 6- and 8-fold decrease in degradation rates compared to the control, suggesting that Dufulin degradation was largely governed by microbial processes. Under different light spectra, the most effective degradation occurred with 100-W UV light (DT50 = 2.27 days), followed by 15-W UV light (DT50 = 8.32 days) and xenon light (DT50 = 14.26 days). Analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) revealed that 2-amino-4-methylbenzothiazole was one of the major decayed products of Dufulin in soils, suggesting that elimination of diethyl phosphate and 2-fluorobenzaldehyde was most like the degradation pathway of Dufulin in Eutric Gleysols.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 12/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor