Resuscitation 09/2011; · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The scientific evidence of a beneficial effect of ALS in pre-hospital treatment in trauma patients or patients with any acute illness is scarce. The objective of this systematic review of controlled studies was to examine whether ALS, as opposed to BLS, increases patient survival in pre-hospital treatment and if so, to identify the patient groups that gain benefit.
A systematic review of studies published in the databases Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Scopus up to July 31st, 2010. Controlled studies comparing survival after the pre-hospital ALS treatment versus BLS treatment in trauma patients or patients with cardiac arrest were included.
We identified 1081 studies of which 18 met our inclusion criteria. In nine of 18 studies including 16,857 trauma patients in the intervention group, ALS care did not increase survival compared to BLS treatment (pooled OR 0.892, 95% CI, 0.775-1.026). In nine of 18 studies including 7659 patients with cardiac arrest in the intervention group, ALS care increased survival compared to BLS treatment (OR 1.468, 95% CI, 1.257-1.715). Most subgroup analyses revealed no significant interactions, but data from six trials, where ALS was provided by physicians, increases the probability of survival at hospital discharge even more (OR 2.047, 95% CI 1.593-2.631).
Implementation of ALS care to non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients can increase survival and further research is unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of the effect. On the contrary, in trauma patients our meta-analysis revealed that ALS care is not associated with increased survival. However, only few controlled studies of sufficient quality and strength examining survival with pre-hospital ALS treatment exist.
Resuscitation 04/2011; 82(9):1130-7. · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on 2 occasions: after a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich and after a fat-rich test meal. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, and NE, as well as spectral analysis of the HRV, were performed at baseline and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meals. At baseline, obese women had higher SNS activity than lean controls (higher values of low-to-high frequency ratio [LF/HF], 1.52 +/- 0.31 v 0.78 +/- 0.13, P=.04; and plasma NE levels, 405.6 +/- 197.9 v 240.5 +/- 95.8 pg/mL, P<.0001). After the CHO-rich meal a greater increase in LF/HF and in plasma NE levels was observed in lean, compared to obese women (1.21 +/- 0.6 v 0.32 +/- 0.06, P=.04; and 102.9 +/- 35.4 v 38.7 +/- 12.3 pg/mL, P=.01, respectively), while no differences were observed after the fat-rich meal. Meal-induced thermogenesis was higher after the CHO-rich as compared to the fat-rich meal and was comparable between lean and obese women. Changes in HRV were not associated with the thermogenic response to the test meals. In conclusion, consumption of a CHO-rich meal causes greater cardiac SNS activation in lean than in obese women, while fat ingestion does not result in any appreciable change in either group. SNS activation does not appear to influence the thermic effect of the food in either lean or obese women.
Metabolism 12/2003; 52(11):1426-32. · 2.66 Impact Factor