[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Host effector mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is dependent on innate immune response by macrophages and neutrophils and the alterations in balanced adaptive immunity. Coordinated release of cytolytic effector molecules from NK cells and effector T cells and the subsequent granule-associated killing of infected cells have been documented; however, their role in clinical tuberculosis (TB) is still controversy.
Objective: To investigate whether circulating granulysin and other effector molecules are associated with the number of NK cells, iNKT cells, Vγ9+Vδ2+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, and such association influences the clinical outcome of the disease in patients with pulmonary TB and HIV/TB coinfection.
Methods: Circulating granulysin, perforin, granzyme-B and IFN-γ levels were determined by ELISA. The isoforms of granulysin were analyzed by Western blot analysis. The effector cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: Circulating granulysin and perforin levels in TB patients were lower than healthy controls, whereas the granulysin levels in HIV/TB coinfection were much higher than in any other groups, TB and HIV with or without receiving HAART, which corresponded to the number of CD8+ T cells which kept high, but not with NK cells and other possible cellular sources of granulysin. In addition, the 17kDa, 15kDa and 9kDa isoforms of granulysin were recognized in plasma of HIV/TB coinfection. Increased granulysin and decreased IFN-γ levels in HIV/TB coinfection and TB after completion of anti-TB therapy were observed.
Conclusion: The results suggested that the alteration of circulating granulysin has potential function in host immune response against TB and HIV/TB coinfection. This is the first demonstration so far of granulysin in HIV/TB coinfection.
International journal of medical sciences 06/2013; 10(8):1003-1014. DOI:10.7150/ijms.6437 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The T helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in protective immunity, pathophysiology and development of tuberculosis (TB). To investigate whether osteopontin (OPN) and other Th1 response-related molecules are associated withTB disease status, including co-infection with HIV, and response to anti-TB treatment, circulating levels of full-length OPN (F-OPN), thrombin-cleaved N-terminal fragment of OPN (N-half OPN), IFN-gamma, IP-10, IL-18, IL-12/ IL-23 (p40), IL-10, IL-15 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured before and after anti-TB treatment. Patients with newly active pulmonary TB had significantly higher plasma levels of F-OPN, IFN-gamma and CRP than healthy controls (HC). F-OPN, N-half OPN, IFN-gamma, IP-10, IL-18 and IL-10 levels were higher in patients with extensive TB/HIV co-infection than in patients with a single disease of TB or HIV. Plasma levels of F-OPN correlated well with those of IP-10, IL-18 and N-half OPN among patients with active TB. The F-OPN, IFN-gamma, IP-10 and CRP levels decreased significantly after effective anti-TB treatment. These data suggest that circulating OPN and Th1 response-related molecules, including IFN-gamma, may be regulated in response to expansion of active TB and could serve as markers of disease activity before and during treatment.
The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 07/2011; 42(4):876-89. · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulysin and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) have broad antimicrobial activity which controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. Circulating granulysin and IFN-γ concentrations were measured and correlated with clinical disease in Thai patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed and chronic tuberculosis (TB). Compared to controls, patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed and chronic TB had lower circulating granulysin concentrations, these differences being significant only in newly diagnosed and relapsed TB (P < 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Granulysin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed TB were significantly lower than in those with chronic TB (P= 0.003 and P= 0.022, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher circulating IFN-γ concentrations were found in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed TB compared to controls (P < 0.001). The IFN-γ concentrations in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients were not significantly different from those of patients with chronic TB. However, in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed and chronic TB with purified protein derivative (PPD) or heat killed M. tuberculosis (H37Ra) enhanced production of granulysin by PBMCs. In vitro, stimulation of PBMCs of newly diagnosed TB patients with PPD produced greater amounts of IFN-γ than did controls, while those stimulated with H37Ra did not. The results demonstrate that patients with active pulmonary TB have low circulating granulysin but high IFN-γ concentrations, suggesting possible roles in host defense against M. tuberculosis for these agents.
Microbiology and Immunology 05/2011; 55(8):565-73. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2011.00348.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome 5q31 spans the T helper (Th) 2-related cytokine gene cluster, which is potentially important in Th1/Th2 immune responses. The chromosome 5q23.2-31.3 has been recently identified as a region with suggestive evidence of linkage to tuberculosis in the Asian population. With the aim of fine-mapping a putative tuberculosis susceptibility locus, we investigated a family-based association test between the dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within chromosome 5q31 and tuberculosis in 205 Thai trio families. Of these, 75 SNPs located within candidate genes covering SLC22A4, SLC22A5, IRF1, IL5, RAD50, IL13, IL4, KIF3A and SEPT8 were genotyped using the DigiTag2 assay. Association analysis revealed the most significant association with tuberculosis in haplotypes comprising SNPs rs274559, rs274554 and rs274553 of SLC22A5 gene (P(Global)=2.02 x 10(-6)), which remained significant after multiple testing correction. In addition, two haplotypes within the SLC22A4 and KIF3A region were associated with tuberculosis. Haplotypes of SLC22A5 were significantly associated with the expression levels of RAD50 and IL13. The results show that the variants carried by the haplotypes of SLC22A4, SLC22A5 and KIF3A region potentially contribute to tuberculosis susceptibility among the Thai population.
Genes and immunity 07/2010; 11(5):416-22. DOI:10.1038/gene.2010.26 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis, a potentially fatal infectious disease, affects millions of individuals annually worldwide. Human protective immunity that contains tuberculosis after infection has not been clearly defined. To gain insight into host genetic factors, nonparametric linkage analysis was performed using high-throughput microarray-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platform, a GeneChip array comprised 59 860 bi-allelic markers, in 93 Thai families with multiple siblings, 195 individuals affected with tuberculosis. Genotyping revealed a region on chromosome 5q showing suggestive evidence of linkage with tuberculosis (Z(lr) statistics=3.01, logarithm of odds (LOD) score=2.29, empirical P-value=0.0005), and two candidate regions on chromosomes 17p and 20p by an ordered subset analysis using minimum age at onset of tuberculosis as the covariate (maximum LOD score=2.57 and 3.33, permutation P-value=0.0187 and 0.0183, respectively). These results imply a new evidence of genetic risk factors for tuberculosis in the Asian population. The significance of these ordered subset results supports a clinicopathological concept that immunological impairment in the disease differs between young and old tuberculosis patients. The linkage information from a specific ethnicity may provide unique candidate regions for the identification of the susceptibility genes and further help elucidate the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis.
Genes and immunity 11/2008; 10(1):77-83. DOI:10.1038/gene.2008.81 · 2.91 Impact Factor