[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Bevacizumab and temsirolimus are active agents in gynecologic tumors. Temsirolimus attenuates upregulation of HIF-1α levels, a resistance mechanism for antiangiogenics, and targets the PI3-kinase/AKT/mTOR axis, commonly aberrant in these tumors Patients and Methods: We analyzed safety and responses in 41 patients with gynecologic cancers treated as part of a Phase I study of bevacizumab and temsirolimus. Results: Median age of the 41 women was 60 years (range, 33-80 years); median number of prior systemic therapies was 4 (1-11). Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities included: thrombocytopenia (10%), mucositis (2%), hypertension (2%), hypercholesterolemia (2%), fatigue (7%), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (2%), and neutropenia (2%). Twenty-nine patients (71%) experienced no treatment-related toxicity greater than grade 2. Full FDA-approved doses of both drugs (bevacizumab 15mg/kg IV Q3weeks and temsirolimus 25mg IV weekly) were administered without dose-limiting toxicity. Eight patients (20%) achieved stable disease (SD) > 6 months and 7 patients (17%), a partial response (PR) [total = 15/41 patients (37%)]. Eight of 13 patients (62%) with high-grade serous histology (ovarian or primary peritoneal) achieved SD > 6 months/PR. Conclusion: Bevacizumab and temsirolimus was well tolerated. Thirty-seven percent of heavily-pretreated patients achieved SD > 6 months/PR, suggesting that this combination warrants further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymph node status is the most important prognosticator of survival among women with early stage cervical cancer. This means that many cervical cancer patients will undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of their treatment. Unfortunately, this procedure is associated with significant morbidity. Utilizing the sentinel lymph node technique for women with cervical cancer has the potential to decrease this morbidity. Multiple studies have suggested that sentinel lymph node mapping in these patients is feasible with excellent detection rates and sensitivity. This review examines the current body of literature regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy among women with cervical cancer.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 01/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: •There are 2 routes of lymphatic drainage for the uterine fundus—parametrial and ovarian.•The true false-negative rate for sentinel node biopsy in women with endometrial cancer is unknown.•Adherence to a surgical and pathologic algorithm seems to provide an acceptable low false negative rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The Affordable Care Act mandates the Prospective Payment System (PPS)-Exempt Cancer Hospitals Quality Reporting program. These 11 hospitals (which are paid fee-for-service rather than on a DRG system) began reporting measures (2 general safety, 2 breast, 1 colon) in 2013. Given this reporting mandate, we set out to determine whether the PPS-exempt gynecologic oncology programs could identify quality measures specific to the care of our patients. METHODS: A list of 12 quality measures specific to gynecologic oncology was created (from sources including the National Quality Forum and the SGO). Measures already in use were not included. The list was ranked by the gynecologic oncology program directors at the PPS-exempt hospitals. Descriptive statistics (including mean and SD for rankings) were utilized. RESULTS: Despite mandatory reporting of quality measures for PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, little consensus exists regarding specific gynecologic cancer measures. Documentation of debulking status, cancer survival, and offering minimally invasive surgery (for endometrial cancer) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (for ovarian cancer) are important, but with widely variable responses (when ranked 1-12, standard deviations are 2-3). General issues regarding adherence to guidelines for the use of GCSF, documentation of functional status, and tracking of patient satisfaction scores were ranked the lowest. Three of the directors reported that their compensation is partially linked to quality outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variability in ranking of quality measures, and may relate to provider or institutional factors. Despite the mandatory reporting in PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, work remains to define gynecologic cancer quality measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current information about the anatomic distribution of lymph node (LN) metastases from cervical cancer is not precise enough for optimal treatment planning for highly conformal radiation therapy. To accurately define the anatomic distribution of these LN metastases, we mapped [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-positive LNs from 50 women with cervical cancer.
Records of patients with cervical cancer treated from 2006 to 2010 who had pretreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) scans available were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-one consecutive patients (group 1) with FDG-avid LNs were identified; because there were few positive paraortic LNs in group 1, 9 additional patients (group 2) with positive paraortic LNs were added. Involved LNs were contoured on individual PET/CT images, mapped to a template CT scan by deformable image registration, and edited as necessary by a diagnostic radiologist and radiation oncologists to most accurately represent the location on the original PET/CT scan.
We identified 190 FDG-avid LNs, 122 in group 1 and 68 in group 2. The highest concentrations of FDG-avid nodes were in the external iliac, common iliac, and paraortic regions. The anatomic distribution of the 122 positive LNs in group 1 was as follows: external iliac, 78 (63.9%); common iliac, 21 (17.2%); paraortic, 9 (7.4%); internal iliac, 8 (6.6%); presacral, 2 (1.6%); perirectal, 2 (1.6%); and medial inguinal, 2 (1.6%). Twelve pelvic LNs were not fully covered when the clinical target volume was defined according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group guidelines for intensity modulated radiation therapy for cervical cancer.
Our findings clarify nodal volumes at risk and can be used to improve target definition in conformal radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Our findings suggest several areas that may not be adequately covered by contours described in available atlases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine which patients with near midline lesions may safely undergo unilateral groin dissection based on clinical exam and lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) results. METHODS: Patients participating in GOG-173 underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization with blue dye, and radiocolloid with optional LSG before definitive inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy (LND). This analysis interrogates the reliability of LSG alone relative to primary tumor location in those patients who had an interpretable LSG and at least one SLN identified. Primary tumor location was categorized as lateral (>2 cm from midline), midline, or lateral ambiguous (LA) if located within 2 cm., but not involving the midline. RESULTS: Two-hundred-thirty-four patients met eligibility criteria. Sixty-four had lateral lesions, and underwent unilateral LND. All patients with LA (N=65) and midline (N=105) tumors underwent bilateral LND. Bilateral drainage by LSG was identified in 14/64 (22%) patients with lateral tumors, 38/65 (58%) with LA tumors and in 73/105 (70%) with midline tumors. At mapping, no SLNs were found in contralateral groins among those patients with LA and midline tumors who had unilateral-only LSGs. However, in these patients groin metastases were found in 4/32 patients with midline tumors undergoing contralateral dissection; none were found in 27 patients with LA tumors. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of detectable bilateral drainage using preoperative LSG decreases as a function of distance from midline. Patients with LA primaries and unilateral drainage on LSG may safely undergo unilateral SLN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) before and after the implementation of standardized extended duration prophylaxis guidelines in women undergoing laparotomy for gynecologic cancer. METHODS: In October 2009, departmental practice guidelines were implemented for VTE prevention. Patients undergoing laparotomy for gynecologic cancer were started on low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) within 24hours of surgery and it was continued for a total of 28days postoperatively. The incidence of VTE diagnosed within 30 and 90days of surgery was determined and compared to a historic cohort of patients who underwent surgery prior to implementation of the guidelines. RESULTS: The incidence of VTE within 30days of surgery decreased from 2.7% (8/300) to 0.6% (2/334) following implementation of VTE prevention guidelines (78% reduction, p=0.040). However, when the pre and post-guideline implementation groups were compared for the development of VTE within 90days of surgery, there was no significant difference (11/300 (3.7%) vs. 10/334 (3.0%) respectively, p=0.619). The median time between surgery and VTE diagnosis was 12days in the pre-guideline implementation group, compared with 57days in the post-guideline implementation group (p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Patients receiving extended duration LMWH were found to have significantly lower rates of VTE within 30days of surgery when compared with similar patients who did not receive extended duration LMWH. However, this effect was not sustained when the groups were compared for VTE diagnosis within 90days of surgery. Additional study is needed to further reduce long-term VTE rates in this high-risk population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic mapping studies in women with cervical cancer typically identify sentinel nodes (SLNs) in the pelvis and not the parametrium. We added India ink as a mapping agent to determine whether this would allow us to pathologically identify sentinel parametrial nodes and to test our hypothesis that the parametrial nodes are the true SLNs in women with cervical cancer. METHODS: We performed lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy in 20 women with early-stage cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy or trachelectomy using a "triple injection" technique with blue dye, radiocolloid, and India ink. Pathologic processing of parametrium and nodal tissue was then performed to identify India ink in specimens. RESULTS: On pathology review, 15 (75%) patients had a parametrial node identified, and 9 patients (45%) had bilateral parametrial nodes identified; the median number of parametrial nodes identified was 2 (range, 0-7). India ink was seen in at least 1 parametrial node in 13 (87%) of the 15 patients with a parametrial node identified pathologically. Of the 9 patients with bilateral parametrial nodes identified pathologically, only 5 (54%) had bilateral parametrial nodes containing India ink. India ink was found in 26 (44%) of 59 SLNs and only 1 (0.3%) of 289 non-SLNs. In 5 patients, India ink was seen in a SLN on the same side of the pelvis where a parametrial node was identified but not microscopically black. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be direct drainage of cervical lesions to pelvic nodal basins bypassing small parametrial nodes. Parametrial nodes, therefore, may not always be the SLNs in women with cervical cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the average patient cost for filling a prescription for extended-duration enoxaparin prophylaxis.
Women who underwent major abdominal/pelvic surgery for histologically confirmed gynecologic malignancy were included. Patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery, had benign disease or were on treatment for existing VTE were excluded. Pharmacy resource specialists electronically submitted test prescriptions to verify enoxaparin coverage in the outpatient setting prior to hospital discharge. Patient co-pay information collected included: the number of patients requiring prescription insurance prior authorization, those qualifying for the Lovenox Patient Assistance Program® (PAP) and insurance status.
Three hundred and sixty-four patients were discharged with extended-duration enoxaparin prophylaxis for 28 days between October 2009 and May 2011. The average patient cost to complete 28 days of enoxaparin prophylaxis was $62 (median $21, range $0-1210). Prior authorization was required for 32 patients (10%). Two patients (0.6%) qualified for the Lovenox Patient Assistance Program®. A decrease in the average patient cost from $71 to $52 (median $30 to $10) was observed after generic enoxaparin approval in July 2011.
Our results show that at least 90% of patients filled their prescription of extended-duration enoxaparin prophylaxis after major abdominal surgery for cancer regardless of cost.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo determine the safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a replacement for inguinal femoral lymphadenectomy in selected women with vulvar cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Eligible women had squamous cell carcinoma, at least 1-mm invasion, and tumor size ≥ 2 cm and ≤ 6 cm. The primary tumor was limited to the vulva, and there were no groin lymph nodes that were clinically suggestive of cancer. All women underwent intraoperative lymphatic mapping, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and inguinal femoral lymphadenectomy. Histologic ultra staging of the sentinel lymph node was prescribed.ResultsIn all, 452 women underwent the planned procedures, and 418 had at least one sentinel lymph node identified. There were 132 node-positive women, including 11 (8.3%) with false-negative nodes. Twenty-three percent of the true-positive patients were detected by immunohistochemical analysis of the sentinel lymph node. The sensitivity was 91.7% (90% lower confidence bound, 86.7%) and the false-negative predictive value (1-negative predictive value) was 3.7% (90% upper confidence bound, 6.1%). In women with tumor less than 4 cm, the false-negative predictive value was 2.0% (90% upper confidence bound, 4.5%). CONCLUSION
Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a reasonable alternative to inguinal femoral lymphadenectomy in selected women with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine perioperative risk factors for prolonged hospitalization after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.
Data on patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery at a single academic institution from January 2000 to January 2009 were evaluated. Patient demographics, clinical history, intraoperative data, and postoperative adverse events were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis identified significant predictors of prolonged hospitalization (hospital stay>48 h after surgery). A risk score was created from the analysis to predict prolonged hospitalization.
Eight hundred seven patients were included. The median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m(2) (range, 14.2-72.3 kg/m(2)), and the median age was 49 years (range, 12-88 years). Four hundred fifty-nine patients (56.9%) underwent surgery for benign conditions, and 348 (43.1%) underwent surgery for malignant disease. A total of 78 patients (9.7%) had a prolonged hospitalization. Independent predictors of prolonged hospitalization were age>54 years (P<0.0001), operative blood loss>120 mL (P<0.0001), intraoperative or postoperative blood transfusion (P=0.0237), and early postoperative complication (P<0.0001). Having a prior laparoscopy was associated with a shorter hospital stay (P=0.0276). The risk score showed how changes in perioperative factors change the risk of prolonged hospitalization.
Factors such as age, blood loss, perioperative blood transfusion, and postoperative complications are associated with prolonged length of stay after laparoscopic surgery, while having a prior laparoscopy is associated with a shorter hospital stay. A clinical scoring system can be used to estimate probability of prolonged hospitalization after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On the basis of reversal of taxane resistance with AKT inhibition, we initiated a phase I trial of the AKT inhibitor perifosine with docetaxel in taxane and platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.
Patients with pathologically confirmed high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (taxane resistant, n=10; taxane refractory, n=11) were enrolled. Peripheral blood samples and tumor biopsies were obtained and (18)F-FDG-PET and DCE-MRI scans were performed for pharmacodynamic and imaging studies.
Patients received a total of 42 treatment cycles. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 1.9 months and 4.5 months, respectively. One patient with a PTEN mutation achieved a partial remission (PR) for 7.5 months, and another patient with a PIK3CA mutation had stable disease (SD) for 4 months. Two other patients without apparent PI3K pathway aberrations achieved SD. Two patients with KRAS mutations demonstrated rapid progression. Decreased phosphorylated S6 correlated with (18)F-FDG-PET responses.
Patients tolerated perifosine 150 mg PO daily plus docetaxel at 75 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks. Further clinical evaluation of effects of perifosine with docetaxel on biological markers and efficacy in patients with ovarian cancer with defined PI3K pathway mutational status is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib mesylate in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) of the ovary, peritoneum, or fallopian tube.
This open-label, single-institution phase II trial enrolled patients with platinum-resistant LGSC who had measurable disease, had received up to 4 platinum- and/or taxane-containing chemotherapy regimens, and had been previously screened for at least one imatinib targeted biomarker (c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFR]-β, or bcr-abl). Imatinib (600 mg) was administered daily for one 6-week course and continued in the absence of toxicity and disease progression.
Thirteen patients were enrolled; 12 were evaluable for toxicity, and 11 were evaluable for response. A total of 17 courses were administered (median, 1 course; range, 1-5 courses). Complete or partial responses were not observed. One patient had stable disease for 7.3 months. c-Kit, bcr-abl, or PDGFR-β were present in 48%, 77%, and 100% of patients, respectively. No correlation between best response (stable disease) and the presence of imatinib-targeted biomarkers was observed. Adverse events included grade 3 skin rash in one patient leading to discontinuation of the drug, and grade 3 febrile neutropenia and grade 2 weight gain in two patients leading to dose reductions. The most common grade 1 or 2 toxicities were fatigue (66%), nausea/vomiting (66%), and diarrhea (41%); grade 3 toxicities included skin rash and granulocytopenia events. No grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. The median progression-free survival time was 1.3 months (95% CI, 1.27, 1.40 months), and the median overall survival time was 14.9 months (95% CI, 11.0, 18.9 months).
Imatinib is well-tolerated but has no activity in patients with platinum- and taxane-resistant LGSC or the ovary, peritoneum, or fallopian tube.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of surgeon volume on patient outcomes in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.
We reviewed all patients who underwent a laparoscopic procedure between January 2000 and December 2008. Surgeons were divided into 3 groups based on surgical volume. The mean number of surgeries per year was calculated for each surgeon. Means were categorized into 3 groups. The low-, medium-, and high-volume surgeon groups were compared with respect to level of surgical complexity and intraoperative and postoperative complications.
The study included 829 surgeries. Low-volume surgeons (n=5) performed 5 (31.3%) low-complexity, 10 (62.5%) intermediate-complexity, and 1 (6.3%) high-complexity procedures. Medium-volume surgeons (n=6) performed 26 (11.1%) low-complexity, 203 (86.8%) intermediate-complexity, and 5 (2.1%) high-complexity procedures. High-volume surgeons (n=5) performed 47 (8.1%) low-complexity, 439 (75.8%) intermediate-complexity, and 93 (16.1%) high-complexity procedures. The distribution of surgical complexity was significantly different between the 3 groups of surgeons defined by volume (P<0.001). Conversion rates were higher for low-volume surgeons when compared to high-volume surgeons (18.8% vs. 5.2%; P=0.04). Similarly, overall complication rates (<30 days) were higher for low-volume surgeons compared to high-volume surgeons (31.3% vs. 17%, P=0.003). Mean length of hospital stay was longer for low-volume (2.4 days) than for medium-volume (1.3 days) and high-volume surgeons (1.6 days) (P=0.003).
High- and medium-volume gynecologic laparoscopists performed a greater proportion of intermediate- and high-complexity procedures than did low-volume surgeons. High-volume surgeons have a lower rate of conversions, overall postoperative complications, and shorter mean length of hospital stay when compared to low volume surgeons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of brachytherapy implant quality on outcome among cervical cancer patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group prospective trials 0116 and 0128.
All enrolled patients received concurrent chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. Individual brachytherapy parameters, including the symmetry of ovoids in relation to the tandem, displacement of ovoids in relation to the cervical os, tandem bisecting the ovoids, tandem in the midpelvis, and appropriateness of packing, were scored for each implant. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for each parameter for local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence, distant recurrence, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival.
Records for 103 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up time was 24.5 months. Patients with unacceptable symmetry of ovoids to the tandem had a significantly higher risk of LR than patients in the acceptable group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-6.45; P = 0.03). Patients with displacement of ovoids in relation to the cervical os had a significantly increased risk of LR (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.05-5.93; P = 0.04) and a lower DFS rate (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.18-4.41; P = 0.01). Inappropriate placement of packing resulted in a lower DFS rate (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.08-3.92; P = 0.03).
Assessment of the quality of a brachytherapy implant is imperative, as proper placement has an impact on patient DFS. If feasible, inappropriate placements should be corrected before treatment initiation. Brachytherapy applicators for cervical cancer should preferably be placed and assessed by experienced practitioners.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2012; 22(1):123-31. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0116 was designed to test the ability of amifostine (Ethyol; MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD), a cytoprotective agent, to reduce the acute toxicity of combined therapy with extended-field irradiation, brachytherapy, and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer with para-aortic or high common iliac disease. This report presents the results of part 2.
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0116 was a 2-part trial. Part 1 delivered extended-field irradiation, brachytherapy, and cisplatin; part 2 added amifostine and required 16 evaluable patients to assess an improved toxicity profile. Eligibility included evidence for high common iliac or para-aortic metastasis. Patients were treated for a total dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions with intracavitary irradiation. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was not allowed. The final point A dose was 85 Gy low-dose rate equivalent. High-dose rate techniques were allowed. The positive para-aortic and iliac nodes were to be boosted to 54 to 59.4 Gy. Amifostine at 500 mg was to be delivered with every fraction of radiotherapy.
The study opened on August 1, 2001, and closed March 3, 2007, after accruing 45 patients, 18 for the second part with amifostine. This analysis reports the primary end point for the patients entered on part 2 of the study. Three patients were excluded, one was ineligible, and 2 withdrew. The median follow-up was 22.9 months (range, 6.5-45.4 months). The median dose of amifostine delivered was 5000 mg (range, 500-13,500 mg). Thirteen patients (87%) experienced an acute grade 3/4 toxicity (excluding grade 3 leukopenia). This compared to an 81% rate in part 1 of the trial. The estimated median survival was 34.8 months with a 20% late grade 3/4 toxicity rate.
Amifostine, as delivered in this study, did not reduce acute toxicity in this patient population.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 09/2011; 21(7):1266-75. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare intra-operative, postoperative and pathologic outcomes of three surgical approaches to radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection over a three year time period during which all three approaches were used.
We reviewed all patients who underwent radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection between 1/2007 and 11/2010. Comparison was made between robotic, laparoscopic and open procedures in regard to surgical times, complication rates, and pathologic findings.
A total of 95 radical hysterectomy procedures were performed during the study period: 30 open (RAH), 31 laparoscopic (LRH) and 34 robotic (RRH). There were no differences in age, body mass index or other demographic factors between the groups. Operative time was significantly shorter in the RAH compared to LRH and RRH (265 vs 338 vs 328min, p=0.002). Estimated blood loss was significantly lower in LRH and RRH compared with RAH (100 vs 100 vs 350mL, p<0.001). Thirteen (24%) of RAH required blood transfusion. Conversion rates were higher in the LRH (16%) compared to RRH (3%) although not significant (p=0.10). Median length of stay was significantly shorter in RRH (1day) vs LRH or RAH (2 vs 4days, p<0.01). Pathologic findings were similar among all groups.
Minimally invasive surgery has made a significant impact on patients undergoing radical hysterectomy including decrease in blood loss and transfusion rates however; operative times were significantly longer compared to open radical hysterectomy. Our findings suggest that the robotic approach may have the added benefit of even shorter length of stay compared to traditional laparoscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to one third of oncologists experience burnout. The objective was to determine correlates of work related stress in gynecologic oncologists (GOs).
Using an online tool, we surveyed 273 members of the International Gynecologic Cancer (IGCS) Society (60% from North America) to examine demographic, psychological and spiritual correlates of work related stress (WRS) and burnout. Measures of death anxiety (DA) and locus of control (LOC) were also administered.
WRS did not correlate with religion, religiosity, race, or gender, but did correlate with DA (r=0.23, p=0.0006). WRS was also associated with younger age (p=0.01) and fewer years out of training (p=0.0286), higher scores on LOC Chance (r=0.18, p=0.007), higher scores on Powerful Other (r=0.30, p<0.0001), and lower scores on LOC Internality (r=-0.30, p<0.0001).
Responses from younger and less experienced GOs, correlate with higher WRS scores especially if their LOC is weighted toward chance and powerful others. Responses of GO's with these two characteristics also correlate with higher DA scores and reports of difficulty talking about death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The validation of sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept in melanoma and breast cancer has established a new paradigm in cancer metastasis that, in general, cancer cells spread in a orderly fashion from the primary site to the SLNs in the regional nodal basin and then to the distant sites. In this review article, we examine the development of SLN concept in penile carcinoma, melanoma and breast carcinoma and its application to other solid cancers with emphasis of the relationship between micrometastasis in SLNs and clinical outcomes.
Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2011; 103(6):518-30. · 2.64 Impact Factor