[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was on assessment of the anti-parasitic activities of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) against the larvae of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The metallic Ni NPs were synthesized by polyol process from Ni-hydrazine as precursor and Tween 80 as both the medium and the stabilizing reagent. The synthesized Ni NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis which indicated the presence of Ni NPs. Synthesized Ni NPs showed the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks at 42.76°, 53.40°, and 76.44°, identified as 111, 220, and 200 reflections, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the synthesized Ni NPs clearly showed that the Ni NPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 150nm. The Ni NPs showed maximum activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus, H. a. anatolicum, A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus with LC(50) values of 10.17, 10.81, 4.93, 5.56 and 4.94mg/L; r(2) values of 0.990, 0.993, 0.992, 0.950 and 0.988 and the efficacy of Ni-hydrazine complexes showed the LC(50) values of 20.35, 22.72, 8.29, 9.69 and 7.83mg/L; r(2) values of 0.988, 0.986, 0.989, 0.944 and 0.978, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized Ni NPs possess excellent larvicidal parasitic activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal activity of blood feeding parasites using synthesized Ni NPs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using modified polyol method by the reduction of copper acetate hy-drate in the presence of Tween 80 by refluxing between 190° and 200 °C. The X-ray diffraction pattern was used to analyze the formations of phase and crystal structure. The antimicrobial activity was carried out against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungus like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The copper nanoparticles showed more inhibitory activity in bacteria than the fungus and it also showed more zone of inhibition in E.coli (26 mm) than C. albicans (23 mm).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities of the hematophagous (blood feeding) larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae). The metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) synthesized by polyol process from copper acetate as precursor and Tween 80 were used as both the medium and the stabilizing reagent. The efficacy of synthesized Cu NPs was tested against the larvae of blood-sucking parasites. UV-vis spectra characterization was performed, and peak was observed at 575 nm, which is the characteristic to the surface plasmon bond of Cu NPs. The strong surface plasmon absorption band observed at 575 nm may be due to the formation of non-oxidized Cu NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectral data showed concentric rings corresponding to the 26.79 (111), 34.52 (200), and 70.40 (220) reflections. XRD spectrum of the copper nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the copper nanocrystal. No peaks of impurities are observed in XRD data. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) showed structures of irregular polygonal, cylindrical shape, and the size range was found to be 35-80 nm. The size of the Cu NPs was measured by atomic force microscope (AFM) in non-contact mode. For imaging by AFM, the sample was suspended in acetone and spins coated on a silicon wafer. The line profile image was drawn by the XEI software and the horizontal line at 6 μm on a 2D AFM image. Research has demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles produce toxicity in aquatic organisms that is due largely to effects of particulates as opposed to release of dissolved ions. Copper acetate solution tested against the parasite larvae exposed to varying concentrations and the larval mortality was observed for 24 h. The larval percent mortality observed in synthesized Cu NPs were 36, 49, 75, 93,100; 32, 53, 63, 73, and 100 and 36, 47, 69, 88, 100 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/L against A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus and R. microplus, respectively. The larval percent mortality shown in copper acetate solution were 16, 45, 57, 66 and 100, 37, 58, 83, 87, and 100 and 41, 59, 79, 100, and 100 at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L against A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus, and R. microplus, respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in Cu NPs and copper acetate solution against the larvae of A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus, and R. microplus with LC(50) and r (2) values of 0.95 and 23.47, 1.01 and 15.24, and 1.06 and 14.14 mg/L with r (2) = 0.766; 0.957 and 0.908; 0.946; and 0.816 and 0.945, respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. The chi-square value was significant at p ≤ 0.05 level. This is the first report on anti-parasitic activity of the synthesized Cu NPs and copper acetate solution.
Parasitology Research 04/2011; 109(5):1403-15. · 2.85 Impact Factor