[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cypermethrin induces the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons leading to Parkinsonism in rats. Despite α-synuclein aggregation is reported to be critical in Parkinson's disease, its role and alliance with the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage leading to cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism have not yet been deciphered. The present study aimed to examine the effect of cypermethrin on the expression and aggregation of α-synuclein and its subsequent connection with oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the presence or absence of a mitochondrial membrane transition pore opening inhibitor, cyclosporine A and a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, manganese (III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin pentachloride (MnTMPyP). The expression of α-synuclein, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-modified proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent apoptotic proteins, nitrite content, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were estimated in the substantia nigra and dopamine content in the striatum of control and treated rats employing standard procedures. Cypermethrin augmented the expression of α-synuclein, 3-NT, 4-HNE-modified proteins, caspase-3, mitochondrial Bax and cytosolic cytochrome-c along with nitrite and LPO and reduced the expression of cytosolic Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome-c, dopamine and number of TH-positive neurons. Cyclosporine A or MnTMPyP alleviated the expression and aggregation of α-synuclein along with indicators of the mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrate that cypermethrin induces α-synuclein expression and aggregation while cyclosporine A or MnTMPyP rescues from α-synuclein over-expression and aggregation along with the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage leading to Parkinsonism in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information generated from animal models, genome sequencing, and high-throughput technologies provide valuable sequence of events to understand the Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. A dynamic equilibrium between biosynthesis and biodegradation of sub-cellular components by ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy is found to be responsible for sustaining the homeostasis of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons. Autophagy degrades and eliminates α-synuclein, Parkin, ubiquitin, etc., proteins along with damaged cellular components to maintain the homeostasis of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Aberrant type II apoptosis is widely implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration leading to PD. The current article reviews the elementary role of autophagy in the degradation and elimination of superfluous and aggregated proteins and impaired mitochondria. The article also recapitulates the information, which implicated the role of aberrant autophagy in toxin-induced Parkinsonism. Moreover, the review sheds light on whether or not targeting the defective autophagy could reinstate the normal functioning of dopaminergic neurons, which could ultimately rescue from PD pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the foremost perpetrator of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration leading to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the roles played by majority of the mitochondrial proteins in PD pathogenesis have not yet been deciphered. Present study investigated the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and combined maneb and paraquat on the mitochondrial proteome of the nigrostriatal tissues in the presence or absence of minocycline, levodopa and manganese (III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP). The differentially expressed proteins were identified and proteome profiles were correlated with the pathological and biochemical anomalies induced by MPTP and maneb and paraquat. MPTP altered the expression of twelve while combined maneb and paraquat altered the expression of fourteen proteins. Minocycline, levodopa and MnTMPyP, respectively, restored the expression of three, seven and eight proteins in MPTP and seven, eight and eight proteins in maneb- and paraquat-treated groups. Although levodopa and MnTMPyP rescued from MPTP- and maneb- and paraquat-mediated increase in the microglial activation and decrease in Mn-SOD expression and complex I activity, dopamine content and number of dopaminergic neurons, minocycline defended mainly against maneb- and paraquat-mediated alterations. The results demonstrate that MPTP and combined maneb and paraquat induce mitochondrial dysfunction and microglial activation and alter the expression of a bunch of mitochondrial proteins leading to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration and minocycline, levodopa or MnTMPyP variably offset scores of such changes.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.03.019 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rodent models and molecular tools, mainly omics and RNA interference, have been rigorously used to decode the intangible etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although convention of contemporary molecular techniques and multiple rodent models paved imperative leads in deciphering the role of putative causative factors and sequential events leading to PD, complete and clear-cut mechanisms of pathogenesis are still hard to pin down. The current article reviews the implications and pros and cons of rodent models and molecular tools in understanding the molecular and cellular bases of PD pathogenesis based on the existing literature. Probable rationales for short of comprehensive leads and future possibilities in spite of the extensive applications of molecular tools and rodent models have also been discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strong association between polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP/Cyp) 2D6 gene and risk to Parkinson's disease (PD) is well established. The present study investigated the neuroprotective potential of Cyp2d22, a mouse ortholog of human CYP2D6, in maneb- and paraquat-induced parkinsonism and the mechanisms involved therein along with the effects of resveratrol on various parameters associated with Cyp2d22-mediated neuroprotection. The animals were treated intraperitoneally with resveratrol (10mg/kg, daily) and paraquat (10mg/kg) alone or in combination with maneb (30 mg/kg), twice a week, for 9 weeks, along with their respective controls. The subsets of animals were also treated intraperitoneally with a Cyp2d22 inhibitor, ketoconazole (100mg/kg, daily). Maneb and paraquat reduced Cyp2d22 and vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2) expressions, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells, and dopamine content and increased paraquat accumulation in the nigrostriatal tissues, oxidative stress, microglial activation, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis. Cyp2d22 inhibitor significantly exacerbated all these neurodegenerative indexes. Resveratrol cotreatment, partially but significantly, ameliorated the neurodegenerative changes by altering Cyp2d22 expression and paraquat accumulation. The results obtained in the study demonstrate that Cyp2d22 offers neuroprotection in maneb- and paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and resveratrol enhances its neuroprotective credentials by influencing Cyp2d22 expression and paraquat accumulation.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/2012; 52(8):1294-306. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.02.005 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent, progressive and aging related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the irreversible and selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The early diagnosis, molecular explanation and permanent cure of this devastating and baffling disease have not yet been completely deciphered. Tiny non-coding RNAs, which consist of small or short interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA), intervene with and silence the expression of the specific genes through the evolutionary conserved process of RNA interference and act as post-transcriptional regulators. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs operate as key watchdogs and facilitate the identification of the potential therapeutic targets; however, miRNA modifiers aid in designing the strategies to encounter PD. Similarly, siRNA-mediated gene silencing paves the way to understand the function of the specific genes in PD pathogenesis by knocking down their expression. Applications of siRNAs and contributions of the potential miRNAs in investigating the etiology and molecular mechanisms of PD as well as in therapeutic interventions have been discussed in this article. The review also highlights the achievements, expectations and hypes associated with these tiny non-coding RNAs in PD.
Neurochemistry International 07/2011; 59(6):759-69. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2011.07.009 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to identify the differentially expressed nigrostriatal proteins in cypermethrin-induced neurodegeneration and to investigate the role of microglial activation therein. Proteomic approaches were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microglial activation, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-IR), dopamine content, and neurobehavioral changes were measured according to the standard procedures. The expressions of α-internexin intermediate filament (α-IIF), ATP synthase D chain (ATP-SD), heat shock protein (Hsp)-70, truncated connexin-47, Hsp-60, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated kinase-5, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 24k chain precursor, platelet-activating factor acetyl hydrolase 1b-α2 (PAF-AH 1b-α2), and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) were altered in the substantia nigra and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- specific isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein-1, prohibitin, protein disulfide isomerase-endoplasmic reticulum 60 protease, stathmin, and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the striatum along with motor impairment, decreased dopamine and TH-IR, and increased microglial activation after cypermethrin exposure. Minocycline restored α-IIF, ATP-SD chain, truncated connexin-47, Hsp-60, PAF-AH 1b-α2, stathmin and SNAP-25 expressions, motor impairment, dopamine, TH-IR, and microglial activation. The results suggest that cypermethrin produces microglial activation-dependent and -independent changes in the expression patterns of the nigrostriatal proteins leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration.