[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteochondrosis (OC(D)) is a juvenile osteo-articular disorder affecting several mammalian species. In horses, OC(D) is considered as a multifactorial disease and has been described as a focal disruption of endochondral ossification leading to the development of osteoarticular lesions. Nevertheless, OC(D) physiopathology is poorly understood. Affected horses may present joint swelling, stiffness and lameness. Thus, OC(D) is a major concern for the equine industry. Our study was designed as an integrative approach using omics technologies for the identification of constitutive defects in epiphyseal cartilage and/or subchondral bone associated with the development of primary lesions to further understand OC(D) pathology. This study compared samples from non-affected joints (hence lesion-free) from OC(D)-affected foals (n = 5, considered predisposed samples) with samples from OC-free foals (n = 5) considered as control samples. Consequently, results are not confounded by changes associated with the evolution of the lesion, but focus on altered constitutive molecular mechanisms. Comparative proteomics and micro computed tomography analyses were performed on predisposed and OC-free bone and cartilage samples. Metabolomics was also performed on synovial fluid from OC-free, OC(D)-affected and predisposed joints.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules ranging from 18 to 24 nucleotides. They negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play key roles in many biological processes, including skeletal development and cartilage maturation. In addition, miRNAs involvement in osteoarticular diseases has been proved and some of them were identified as suitable biomarkers for pathological conditions. Equine osteochondrosis (OC) is one of the most prevalent juvenile osteoarticular disorders in horses and represents a major concern for animal welfare and economic reasons. Its etiology and pathology remain controversial and biological pathways as well as molecular mechanisms involved in the physiopathology are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in equine osteochondrosis (OC) physiopathology.Short-read NGS technology (SOLIDTM, Life Technologies) was used to establish a comprehensive repertoire of miRNA expressed in either equine cartilage or subchondral bone. Undamaged cartilage and subchondral bone samples from healthy (healthy samples) and OC-affected (predisposed samples) 10-month Anglo-Arabian foals were analysed. Samples were also subjected or not to an experimental mechanical loading to evaluate the role of miRNAs in the regulation of mechano-transduction pathways. Predicted targets of annotated miRNAs were identified using miRmap.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) is frequently observed in race horses like trotters. Some predisposing genetic factors have been described in epidemiological studies. However, the exact aetiology is still unknown. A calcium homeostasis disruption was suspected in previous experimental studies, and we suggested that a transcriptome analysis of RER muscles would be a possible way to investigate the pathway disorder. The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of RER vs. control muscles in the French Trotter to determine any metabolic or structural disruption. Total RNA was extracted from the gluteal medius and longissimus lumborum muscles after biopsies in 15 French Trotter horses, including 10 controls and 5 RER horses affected by 'tying-up' with high plasmatic muscular enzyme activities. Gene expression analysis was performed on the muscle biopsies using a 25K oligonucleotide microarray, which consisted of 24,009 mouse and 384 horse probes. Transcriptome analysis revealed 191 genes significantly modulated in RER vs. control muscles (P < 0.05). Many genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (CD36/FAT, SLC25A17), the Krebs cycle (SLC25A11, SLC25A12, MDH2) and the mitochondrial respiratory chain were severely down-regulated (tRNA, MT-ND5, MT-ND6, MT-COX1). According to the down-regulation of RYR1, SLC8A1 and UCP2 and up-regulation of APP and HSPA5, the muscle fibre calcium homeostasis seemed to be greatly affected by an increased cytosolic calcium and a depletion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium. Gene expression analysis suggested an alteration of ATP synthesis, with severe mitochondrial dysfunction that could explain the disruption of cytosolic calcium homeostasis and inhibition of muscular relaxation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural mutations in the LIPH gene were shown to be responsible for hair growth defects in humans and for the rex short hair phenotype in rabbits. In this species, we identified a single nucleotide deletion in LIPH (1362delA) introducing a stop codon in the C-terminal region of the protein. We investigated the expression of LIPH between normal coat and rex rabbits during critical fetal stages of hair follicle genesis, in adults and during hair follicle cycles. Transcripts were three times less expressed in both fetal and adult stages of the rex rabbits than in normal rabbits. In addition, the hair growth cycle phases affected the regulation of the transcription level in the normal and mutant phenotypes differently. LIPH mRNA and protein levels were higher in the outer root sheath (ORS) than in the inner root sheath (IRS), with a very weak signal in the IRS of rex rabbits. In vitro transfection shows that the mutant protein has a reduced lipase activity compared to the wild type form. Our results contribute to the characterization of the LIPH mode of action and confirm the crucial role of LIPH in hair production.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30073. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene characterization is an important feature for genome annotation and more particularly for candidate genes that could be selected in domestic species. Associations between an alpha-actinin-3 gene polymorphism and muscle performance were reported in humans involving a nonsense mutation (R577X) and in mice after inactivation of the gene. Here, we characterized the equine alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene by sequencing and transcript analysis. The cDNA was determined to be 3.47 kb in length with an open reading frame of 2709 bp expectedly encoding a protein 902 amino acids long. The ACTN3 gene is 13.2 kb long and contains 21 exons. The equine ACTN3 gene has a ubiquitous expression but it is overexpressed in skeletal muscles with fast fibers of type IIb. No alternative transcripts were observed. Sequencing the cDNA revealed 8 SNPs, 6 in the coding and 2 in the 3' non-coding regions with no amino acid change and not affecting potential miRNA targets. The equine in silico promoter sequence reveals a structure with two regions similar to those of other mammalian species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fur of common rabbits is constituted of 3 types of hair differing in length and diameter while that of rex animals is essentially made up of amazingly soft down-hair. Rex short hair coat phenotypes in rabbits were shown to be controlled by three distinct loci. We focused on the "r1" mutation which segregates at a simple autosomal-recessive locus in our rabbit strains. A positional candidate gene approach was used to identify the rex gene and the corresponding mutation. The gene was primo-localized within a 40 cM region on rabbit chromosome 14 by genome scanning families of 187 rabbits in an experimental mating scheme. Then, fine mapping refined the region to 0.5 cM (Z = 78) by genotyping an additional 359 offspring for 94 microsatellites present or newly generated within the first defined interval. Comparative mapping pointed out a candidate gene in this 700 kb region, namely LIPH (Lipase Member H). In humans, several mutations in this major gene cause alopecia, hair loss phenotypes. The rabbit gene structure was established and a deletion of a single nucleotide was found in LIPH exon 9 of rex rabbits (1362delA). This mutation results in a frameshift and introduces a premature stop codon potentially shortening the protein by 19 amino acids. The association between this deletion and the rex phenotype was complete, as determined by its presence in our rabbit families and among a panel of 60 rex and its absence in all 60 non-rex rabbits. This strongly suggests that this deletion, in a homozygous state, is responsible for the rex phenotype in rabbits.
PLoS ONE 04/2011; 6(4):e19281. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A category of cation gate proteins was shown to be present in sensory neurons and act as receptors of protons present in tissues such as muscles. The Amiloride-sensitive Cation Channel, Neuronal (ACCN) gene family is known to play a role in the transmission of pain through specialized pH sensitive neurons. Muscles from horses submitted to strenuous exercises produce lactic acid, which may induce variable pain through ACCN differential properties. The sequences of the equine cDNAs were determined to be 2.6 kb in length with an open reading frame of 1539 bp for ACCN1 and 2.1 kb in length with an open reading frame of 1602 bp for ACCN3. The ACCN1 gene is 990 kb long and contains 10 exons, and the ACCN3 gene is 4.2 kb long and contains 11 exons. The equine ACCN1 and ACCN3 genes have an ubiquitous expression but ACCN1 is more highly expressed in the spinal cord. We identified one alternative ACCN3 splicing variant present in various equine tissues. These mRNA variants may encode two different protein isoforms 533 and 509 amino acids long. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for ACCN1; five in the coding and five in the non-coding region, with no amino acid change, while the three SNPs identified in the coding region of the ACCN3 gene introduce amino acid changes. The equine in silico promoter sequence reveals a structure similar to those of other mammalian species, especially for the ACCN1 gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most rabbits have three different types of hair in their coats. The longest type forms the outer fur called “guard hair”, a middle layer is named “awn hair” and the shortest “down hair”, also know as undercoat with very thin shafts. The “rex” trait refers to rabbits having essentially down hair amazingly soft to touching. Appeared in a private breeding stock, the trait was then selected at Inra to further reduce the number of guard and awn hair. Genetic analysis reveals an autosomal recessive major gene. In rex animals, degenerated primary hair follicles are unable to synthesize the guard and awn hair. Experimental Inra families with segregating hair phenotype were selected and blood samples were collected for three generations. The rex trait was previously located on chromosome 14 by genome scanning (8 families, 187 offspring, 118 microsatellites). In a first attempt to fine mapping the trait, primers were designed to amplify 94 microsatellites within the first 40cM primo-localisation interval. The most polymorphic and evenly distributed markers were used to reduce this interval to 3 cM, further narrowed to 0.5 cM by pheno and genotyping additional informative offspring. Comparative mapping of this short chromosomal region was applied to select candidate genes that could be responsible for the rex trait. Mutations in these genes are being investigated to identify the causal mutation of the major gene controlling this trait. In addition to its economic interest, this trait represents a good model to study hair growth genetic pathways.
Plant & Animal Genomes XVII Conference, January 10-14, 2009, Town & Country Convention Center
San Diego, CA; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association of seven candidate genes with cryptorchidism was investigated in the Thoroughbred. A pedigree composed of 23 cryptorchids and 24 nonaffected horses, sharing a common ancestor, was constituted. Sixteen microsatellite markers were developed either from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) isolated for each candidate gene or by in silico screening. DNA from our pedigree was genotyped for these microsatellites. Statistical analysis of the allelic and genotypic frequencies observed with these markers did not reveal any association between the candidate genes and the cryptorchidism phenotype in our horse panel.
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science - J EQUINE VET SCI. 01/2009; 29(1):37-41.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage diseases or glycogenoses are inherited diseases caused by abnormalities of enzymes that regulate the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Deleterious mutations in many genes of the glyco(geno)lytic or the glycogenesis pathways can potentially cause a glycogenosis, and currently mutations in fourteen different genes are known to cause animal or human glycogenoses, resulting in myopathies and/or hepatic disorders. The genetic bases of two forms of glycogenosis are currently known in horses. A fatal neonatal polysystemic type IV glycogenosis, inherited recessively in affected Quarter Horse foals, is due to a mutation in the glycogen branching enzyme gene (GBE1). A second type of glycogenosis, termed polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), is observed in adult Quarter Horses and other breeds. A severe form of PSSM also occurs in draught horses. A mutation in the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) was recently reported to be highly associated with PSSM in Quarter Horses and Belgian draught horses. This GYS1 point mutation appears to cause a gain-of-function of the enzyme and to result in the accumulation of a glycogen-like, less-branched polysaccharide in skeletal muscle. It is inherited as a dominant trait. The aim of this work was to test for possible associations between genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of the glycogen pathway or the GYS1 mutation in Cob Normand draught horses diagnosed with PSSM by muscle biopsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panels have been constructed for several species, including cattle. RH panels have proven to be an extremely powerful tool to construct high-density maps, which is an essential step in the identification of genes controlling important traits, and they can be used to establish high-resolution comparative maps. Although bovine RH panels can be used with ovine markers to construct sheep RH maps based on bovine genome organization, only some (c. 50%) of the markers available in sheep can be successfully mapped in the bovine genome. So, with the development of genomics and genome sequencing projects, there is a need for a high-resolution RH panel in sheep to map ovine markers. Consequently, we have constructed a 12 000-rad ovine whole-genome RH panel. Two hundred and eight hybrid clones were produced, of which 90 were selected based on their retention frequency. The final panel had an average marker retention frequency of 31.8%. The resolution of this 12 000-rad panel (SheepRH) was estimated by constructing an RH framework map for a 23-Mb region of sheep chromosome 18 (OAR18) that contains a QTL for scrapie susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A family of endogenous retroviruses (enJSRV) closely related to Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is ubiquitous in domestic and wild sheep and goats. Southern blot hybridization studies indicate that there is little active replication or movement of the enJSRV proviruses in these species. Two approaches were used to investigate the distribution of proviral loci in the sheep genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosome spreads using viral DNA probes was used to detect loci on chromosomes. Hybridization signals were reproducibly detected on seven sheep chromosomes and eight goat chromosomes in seven cell lines. In addition, a panel of 30 sheep-hamster hybrid cell lines, each of which carries one or more sheep chromosomes and which collectively contain the whole sheep genome, was examined for enJSRV sequences. DNA from each of the lines was used as a template for PCR with JSRV gag-specific primers. A PCR product was amplified from 27 of the hybrid lines, indicating that JSRV gag sequences are found on at least 15 of the 28 sheep chromosomes, including those identified by FISH. Thus, enJSRV proviruses are essentially randomly distributed among the chromosomes of sheep and goats. FISH and/or Southern blot hybridization on DNA from several of the sheep-hamster hybrid cell lines suggests that loci containing multiple copies of enJSRV are present on chromosomes 6 and 9. The origin and functional significance of these arrays is not known.
Journal of Virology 10/2003; 77(17):9662-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the pituitary, activin stimulates the synthesis and release of FSH. However, the activin receptor signaling pathways that mediate these effects are poorly known. We investigated these mechanisms in primary ovine pituitary cells (POP) and in the murine LbetaT2 gonadotrope cell line. POP cells and LbetaT2 cells express the different activin receptors (types IA, IB, IIA, and IIB) and the Smad proteins (Smad-2, -3, -4, and -7). In both POP and LbetaT2 cells, activin activated several signaling pathways: Smad-2, extracellular regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 were stimulated (3- to 6-fold) rapidly in 5 min, whereas activation of both Smad-2 and Akt (3- to 5-fold) occurred later, in 60 min. Activin also increased the association of activin receptor IIB with PI3K. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the activation of Smad-2 was partially blocked by the inhibition of PI3K but not by the inhibition of ERK1/2 or p38, suggesting a cross-talk between the Smad and PI3K/Akt pathways. In both POP and LbetaT2 cells, FSH expression and secretion in response to activin were not altered by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, or p38 pathways, whereas they were reduced by about 2-fold by expression of a dominant negative of Smad-2 or the natural inhibitory Smad-7 in LbetaT2 cells. These results indicate that activin activates several signaling pathways with different time courses in both POP and LbetaT2 cells, but only the Smad-2 pathway appears to be directly implicated in FSH expression and release in LbetaT2 cells.
Biology of Reproduction 06/2003; 68(5):1877-87. · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among farm animals, two species present an intersex condition at a relatively high frequency: pig and goat. Both are known to contain XX sex-reversed individuals which are genetically female but with a true hermaphrodite or male phenotype. It has been clearly demonstrated that the SRY gene is not involved in these phenotypes. Consequently, autosomal or X-linked mutations in the sex-determining pathway may explain these sex-reversed phenotypes. A mutation referred to as "polled" has been characterized in goats by the suppression of horn formation and abnormal sexual differentiation. The Polled Intersex Syndrome locus (PIS) was initially located in the distal region of goat chromosome 1. The homologous human region has been precisely identified as an HSA 3q23 DNA segment containing the Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicanthus locus (BPES), a syndrome combining Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) and an excess of epidermis of the eyelids. In order to isolate genes involved in pig intersexuality, a similar genetic approach was attempted in pigs using genome scanning of resource families. Genetic analyses suggest that pig intersexuality is controlled multigenically. Parallel to this work, gonads of fetal intersex animals have been studied during development by light and electron microscopy. The development of testicular tissue and reduction of germ cell number by apoptosis, which simultaneously occurs as soon as 50 days post coïtum, also suggests that several separate genes could be involved in pig intersexuality.
Journal of Experimental Zoology 01/2002; 290(7):700-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to increase the number of genes assigned by in situ hybridization to equine chromosomes and thus the number of links for comparative mapping with other species. Forty-four new sequences were added to the horse cytogenetic map by FISH mapping of BAC clones containing genes (35) or ESTs (9). Three approaches were developed: use of horse BAC clones screened with (i) horse EST primers, (ii) interspecific consensus intraexonic primers, and (iii) use of goat BAC containing genes previously localized on goat chromosomes. Present data suggest that the second approach is the most promising. A total of 46 segments containing one or several genes could be compared, among which 40 loci could be included in 16 synteny groups between human and horse, displaying one ordered segment and several breaking points along chromosomes. All single BAC localizations confirm the most recent mapping data. Twenty-six out of 31 chromosomes now contain a gene mapped by in situ hybridization, and 14 new arm-to-arm segment homologies were revealed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two techniques that make it possible to isolate telomere DNA are presented, using sheep as an example. The first technique is based upon the screening of a sheep BAC library with PCR amplified DNA segments preserved from high-power laser beam irradiation. Twenty-three BACs hybridising to 13 subtelomeric regions in sheep and goats were obtained (out of 27 in the sheep complement), of which 13 recognised more than one region, telomeric or not. Twenty-three microsatellites were isolated from these BACs and 22 were genetically mapped on the sheep international genetic map, always consistently with the cytogenetical localisation in 17 cases out of 22. These results are discussed. The second technique is based upon the selective cloning of subtelomeric enriched DNA. Preliminary results were obtained by this approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to generate repetitive DNA sequence probes for the analysis of interphase nuclei by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Such probes are useful for the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplanted embryos. Of the seven probes (E1A, E4A, Ba, H1A, W18, W22, W5) that were generated and partially sequenced, five corresponded to previously described Bos taurus repetitive DNA (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W5), one probe (W22) shared no homology with other DNA sequences and one (H1A) displayed a significant homology with Rattus norvegicus mRNA for secretin receptor transmembrane domain 3. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was performed on metaphase bovine fibroblast cells and showed that five of the seven probes hybridised most centromeres (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W22), one labelled the arms of all chromosomes (W5) and the H1A probe was specific to three chromosomes (ch14, ch20, and ch25). Moreover, FISH with H1A resulted in interpretable signals on interphase nuclei in 88% of the cases, while the other probes yielded only dispersed overlapping signals.