A Schranz

University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria

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Publications (8)18.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In recreational alpine skiing, the knee joint accounts for about one third of all injuries in male and female skiers. However, female recreational skiers have twice the knee injury incidence of male skiers, and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is 3 times greater in female skiers. To evaluate whether leg dominance is a risk factor for noncontact ACL injuries in female recreational skiers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The relationships between leg dominance, side of knee injury, and gender were analyzed in 65 male and 128 female skiers suffering from a noncontact ACL rupture. Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures of the left knee occurred more frequently in female than in male recreational skiers (68% vs 48%, P = .006). For both genders, in 90%, the right leg was the preferred kicking leg. With regard to leg dominance, female skiers suffered more often from ACL ruptures of their nondominant leg than male skiers (63% vs 45%, P = .020). An adjusted odds ratio of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.8) was calculated. Female skiers showed a 2-fold higher risk of suffering from an ACL rupture on their nondominant leg. Therefore, leg dominance seems to be a risk factor for noncontact ACL injuries in female recreational skiers.
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 03/2012; 40(6):1269-73. DOI:10.1177/0363546512439027 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recreational alpine skiing, ACL injury risk is 3 times greater in females. However, since the introduction of carving skis ACL injury risk seems to have decreased. No study has yet investigated the distribution of ACL injury mechanisms in male and female carving skiers. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate potential gender specific differences of ACL injury mechanisms and related factors among carving skiers. In total, 220 recreational carving skiers (59 males and 161 females) suffering from an ACL injury volunteered for this study. Demographic data, skiing ability, equipment related and environmental factors, circumstances and causes for the fall, and type of fall (injury mechanisms) were collected by questionnaire. The forward twisting fall is the most reported ACL injury mechanism in both gender (p=0.672) accounting for 54% of all injuries, although male and female skiers differed significantly with regard to circumstances of fall (p=0.001) and actions when ACL injury occurred (p=0.04). Bindings not releasing at the time point of accident occurred 2.6 times more with females than with males (p=0.005). The forward twisting fall seems to have become the dominant ACL injury mechanism both in male and female recreational skiers since the introduction of carving skis.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2011; 32(10):801-6. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1279719 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors in ACL injured recreational female skiers. 93 female recreational skiers who had suffered a non-contact ACL injury and 93 age-matched controls completed a self-reported questionnaire relating to intrinsic risk factors (menstrual history, BMI, previous knee injuries, self reported weekly sports participation) and extrinsic risk factors (type of ski used, time of last binding adjustment, snow condition, weather and slope difficulty). A logistic regression model revealed the following independent ACL injury risk factors for female recreational skiers: icy snow conditions (odds ratio, 24.33; 95% confidence interval, 6.8-86.5, P<0.001), skiing during snowfall (odds ratio, 16.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-152.1, P=0.013), use of traditional skis (odds ratio, 10.49; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-54.5, P=0.005), and preovulatory phase of menstrual cycle (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.5, P=0.013). In conclusion, ACL injuries in female recreational skiers are the result of a complex interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2011; 32(8):618-22. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1275355 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In alpine skiing, the knee represents the dominant injury location with marked gender differences. Snow, slope and weather conditions as well as altitude and low temperatures are thought to influence the prevalence of knee injuries. Therefore, ski patrol injury reports were used to compare gender-specific prevalence of knee injuries with regard to several environmental factors including the actual air temperatures. A total of 1039 non-contact knee injuries were reported with a corresponding prevalence of knee injuries of 44.4% (males: 30.1%; females: 57.4%). Temperature quartiles of all recorded injuries were calculated to compare gender-specific prevalence of knee injury with regard to temperatures. Comparing the first quartile (mean temperature -11°C) with the fourth quartile (mean temperature +3°C), the prevalence of knee injury in female skiers was higher at low ambient temperatures (61% vs 50%, odds ratio: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; P=0.005) while no such association was found for male skiers. Additionally, knee-injured females showed a twofold prevalence when skiing during snowfall compared with females with other injuries (15.4% vs 8.6%; P=0.001). No other environmental factor showed a significant association with the gender-specific prevalence of knee injury. In conclusion, low ambient temperature and snowfall are important environmental risk factors for knee injuries in female skiers.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 04/2011; 22(2):185-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01286.x · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In alpine skiing, knee injuries show marked sex differences, as female recreational skiers have a 2-fold greater incidence of knee injuries and a 3-fold higher ACL injury risk than male skiers. General preventive recommendations to reduce the incidence of ski injuries include avoiding fatigue. However, no study has yet examined to which extent ACL injuries in female recreational skiers are related to perceived fatigue. Therefore, 68 ACL injured female skiers and 136 matched controls were interviewed about skiing time and perception of fatigue in legs and the whole body at the time point of accident and questioning, respectively. In addition, skiing ability, self estimated fitness level, quantity and quality of breaks per run, sleeping quality, and group skiing and skill level of group members have been recorded. Patients and controls differ significantly regarding the duration of skiing as about 81% of ACL injuries occurred within the first 3 hours (odds ratio = 4.4; P < 0.001). In patients about 71% and in controls about 27% felt no fatigue or a trace of fatigue in their legs at the time of injury and questioning, respectively (P < 0.001). No other factors showed a significant difference. Therefore, fatigue seems no major risk factor for an ACL injury in female recreational skiing.
    Journal of ASTM International 01/2010; 7(3):119-129. DOI:10.1520/JAI102747
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    ABSTRACT: While ACL injury mechanisms in skiers using traditional skis are well studied, no study has yet investigated the distribution of injury mechanisms in carving skiers. In traditional skiers, the backward twisting fall seems to be the dominant injury mechanism, especially in female skiers. Female recreational skiers have a threefold higher risk to sustain an ACL injury than male skiers; therefore, it is important to determine if carving skis influence the distribution of injury mechanisms and the related frequencies of ACL injuries in female skiers. We investigated the frequencies of injury mechanisms and related factors in 65 ACL-injured female carving skiers by questionnaire. The forward twisting fall was the most reported ACL injury mechanism with about 51%, followed by the backward twisting fall within 29% of cases. Catching an edge of the ski (59 vs. 24%, P = 0.03) when executing turns (69 vs. 41%, P = 0.053) was a more frequent cause for forward twisting falls than for the other types of falling. While 29% of bindings released during a forward twisting fall, only 3.1% released during the remaining mechanisms. In contrast to traditional skiers, the forward twisting fall was the dominant injury mechanism in female carving skiers with ACL injury.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2009; 17(11):1393-8. DOI:10.1007/s00167-009-0860-7 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral contraceptive use and menstrual cycle phase are suggested to influence the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes. However, only few data are available for recreational sports. Therefore, female recreational skiers with a non-contact ACL injury and age-matched controls completed a self-reported questionnaire relating to menstrual history, oral contraceptive use and previous knee injuries. Menstrual history data were used to group subjects into either preovulatory or postovulatory phases of menstrual cycle. Our findings suggest that oral contraceptive use did not show any protective effect against ACL injuries nor did self-reported previous knee injuries show any association with ACL injury rate in recreational alpine skiing. Analysis of menstrual history data revealed that recreational skiers in the preovulatory phase were significantly more likely to sustain an ACL injury than were skiers in the postovulatory phase.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 04/2009; 17(9):1065-9. DOI:10.1007/s00167-009-0786-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpine skiing is one of the most popular recreational winter sports. About 8 million downhill skiers and snow boarders alone visit the Austrian Alps annually and complete more than 500 million ski lift transports. With the high interest in alpine skiing by locals and tourists, there is a natural increase in the number of ski-related injuries. However, the average injury rate is relatively low (< 2.0 injured persons per 1000 skier days). In alpine skiing the knee represents the dominant anatomical location of injuries. Epidemiological data demonstrate that knee injuries account for one third of all injuries in adult skiers. Approximately 50% of serious knee injuries in alpine skiing affect the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). However, female recreational skiers have a 3-fold higher risk to sustain an ACL injury than male skiers. This difference may be related to external and internal risk factors, e.g. age, menstrual cycle phase, and fitness. Studies indicate higher age and the preovulatory phase to put female skiers at an increased risk for ACL injury. Additionally, the fitness level of female skiers with knee injury seems to be lower when compared to females suffering from other injuries. External risk factors are related to skiing equipment and environmental factors. Using a not newly adjusted binding, icy slope conditions, and bad weather conditions increase the risk of knee injury in female skiers. Therefore, preventive recommendations have to consider both, internal and external risk factors.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin 01/2009; 60(11):345-349. · 0.58 Impact Factor