[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical evidences reported subclinical alterations of thyroid function in obesity, although the relationship between thyroid status and obesity remains unclear. We cross-sectionally investigated the influence of metabolic features on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in obesity. We enrolled 60 euthyroid subjects with no history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and assessed the relationship of thyroid function with insulin resistance, measured using euglycemic clamp, and abdominal fat volume, quantified by computed tomography scan (CT scan). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) correlated with BMI (r = 0.46; P = 0.02), both visceral (r = 0.58; P = 0.02) and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) and insulin resistance (inverse relationship with insulin sensitivity-glucose uptake: r = -0.40; P = 0.04). After performing multivariate regression, visceral adipose tissue volume was found to be the most powerful predictor of TSH (β = 3.05; P = 0.01), whereas glucose uptake, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, and triglycerides were not. To further confirm the hypothesis that high-normal TSH values could be dependent on adipose tissue, and not on insulin resistance, we restricted our analyses to moderately obese subjects' BMI ranging 30-35 kg/m(2). This subgroup was then divided as insulin resistant and insulin sensitive according to the glucose uptake (≤ or >5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively). We did not find any statistical difference in TSH (insulin resistant: 1.62 ± 0.65 µU/ml vs. insulin sensitive: 1.46 ± 0.48; P = not significant) and BMI (insulin resistant: 32.2 ± 1.6 kg/m(2) vs. insulin sensitive: 32.4 ± 1.4; P = not significant), thus confirming absence of correlation between thyroid function and insulin sensitivity per se. Our study suggests that the increase in visceral adipose tissue is the best predictor of TSH concentration in obesity, independently from the eventual concurrent presence of insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of treatment in patients affected by anorexia nervosa (AN) is weight recovery. However, during weight gain, anorectic patients' body composition is changed, with an increase in abdominal fat, particularly in the visceral compartment.
We hypothesized that changes in body composition, particularly in abdominal fat, are responsible for the variability in insulin sensitivity (IS) in different stages of AN.
We compared 20 anorectic patients in the acute stage, 19 in the weight-recovery stage and 21 controls. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition.
The percentage of trunk fat was higher in weight recovery than in the acute phase (47·7 ± 8·4%vs 34·6 ± 7·6%; P ≤ 0·01) and in the control group (33·4 ± 7·6; P < 0·01 vs weight recovery). Although the recovery group gained weight, their body mass index (BMI) was not statistically different from that of the acute group (14·4 ± 1·1 vs 13·6 ± 1·8 kg/m(2) ). Insulin sensitivity was lower in the weight-recovery group than the acute group (4·7 ± 1·5 vs 7·8 ± 1·6 mg/kg/min; P < 0·01) and controls (7·7 ± 1·4 mg/kg/min; P < 0·01). A linear negative correlation was found between IS and the percentage of abdominal fat in the weight-recovery and acute groups (r = -0·51; P = 0·04 and r = -0·53; P = 0·04 respectively), while IS did not correlate with BMI.
Although weight-recovery represents the main aim of treatment in AN, refeeding is associated with an increase in abdominal fat which might be responsible of the onset of insulin resistance. As BMI and weight-recovery were associated with impaired IS, they cannot be considered the only aim of treatment of AN.