[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently published pharmacoepidemiological studies associate the currently authorized Rotavirus (RV) vaccines with intussusception (IS). We aimed at investigating whether, in Germany, there are excess IS cases in RV vaccinees compared with the background incidence before market authorization in 2006. Suspected cases of IS following receipt of RV vaccines reported to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed and validated against the criteria of the Brighton Collaboration's definition for IS. An observed-versus-expected analysis was conducted using standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) methods based on age-specific incidence rates for IS ranging from 19.2 to 98.5 per 100,000 person-years. A total of 27 cases of suspected IS in RV vaccinees were reported to the PEI. No excess of IS cases could be detected 1-7 days after receipt of either RV vaccine after any dose in the first year of life; however, in infants aged 3-5 months, a significantly increased SMR for IS was found in a risk window of 1-7 days after the first dose of either RV vaccine [SMRs: Rotarix® 4.6 (95 % CI 1.5-10.7); RotaTeq® 5.8 (95 % CI 1.2-17.1)]. A significantly increased risk of IS in a risk window of 1-7 days after RV vaccination was not found when the first dose was administered earlier. Therefore, it is recommended to start the vaccination course at 6-12 weeks of age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends seasonal influenza vaccination for children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions that put them at risk for severe influenza illness. In addition to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV), a trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed for children and adolescents aged 2-17 years in the European Union in 2011. Employing the methodology of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group, we examined the evidence for efficacy and safety of LAIV relative to TIV to guide STIKO's decision on whether LAIV should be preferentially recommended for at-risk children. In our meta-analysis of data from two randomized trials directly comparing LAIV and TIV in children aged ≤ 6 years, the protective efficacy of LAIV against laboratory-confirmed influenza was 53 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 45-61 %] higher than that of TIV. A similar study in individuals aged 6-17 years showed a 32 % (95 % CI: 3-52 %) higher efficacy of LAIV. The quality of the evidence for a superior protective efficacy of LAIV against all relevant clinical outcomes was rated 'moderate' for children aged 2-6 years and 'low' for the age group 7-17 years. Regarding safety outcomes, the available data suggest no significant differences between LAIV and TIV. Based on these results, STIKO recommends that LAIV should be used preferentially for influenza vaccination of at-risk children aged 2-6 years. In children and adolescents aged 7-17 years, either LAIV or TIV may be used without specific preference. Possible contraindications and the vaccinee's and his/her guardians' preferences should be taken into account.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although effective monovalent and combined measles vaccines have been available for several decades in Germany, measles outbreaks continue to occur leading to severe cases of measles and even death. Possible reasons for the low acceptance of the measles vaccination are concerns about adverse events and serious complications following vaccination. In this report, we have summarized and assessed all adverse events reported in Germany from 2001 to 2012 after vaccination with monovalent- and combined measles-containing vaccines. A total of 1,696 suspected adverse reaction reports describing 5,297 adverse events were sent to the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2012. The calculated mean reporting rate was 5.7 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses released by the PEI. Analysis of the reports indicates that measles-containing vaccines are well tolerated with a constantly low rate of adverse events reported. Compared to the high rate of serious complications following wild-type measles infection, the benefit of measles-containing vaccines clearly outweighs the anticipated risks of adverse events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a child presenting with non-febrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles-, mumps-, rubella- and varicella- (MMRV-) combination vaccine. Measles virus RNA was detected in the patient's serum, throat, and urine. Genotyping revealed the vaccine virus strain Schwarz.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 05/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Due to an increasing number of reported thromboembolic events (TEE) after the administration of one intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and one subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG), pharmacovigilance and laboratory data were collected to analyse the root cause and assess the reporting frequency of TEEs for various IG products. METHODS: Paul-Ehrlich-Institut retrospectively analysed 228 reports of TEEs associated with six different IG products and estimated annual TEE-reporting rates based on worldwide sale figures over a period of 6 years (2006-2011). In addition, non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) testing was performed to capture pro-coagulant potential of six IG products (four IVIG and two SCIG). RESULTS: For three IVIGs, the drug-related TEE-reporting rates remained stable from 2006 to 2011 (0-0·83 cases per 1000 kg IVIG distributed). In contrast, the TEE rate of one IVIG increased significantly from 0·33 cases in 2006 to nearly nine cases in 2010 (P < 0·001). The NAPTT testing of IG products with a low TEE rate revealed a NAPTT time >200 s and a NAPTT ratio >0·8, whereas TEE-associated batches of IG products with an increased TEE rate had a NAPTT ratio <0·8. After modifications of manufacturing processes, a normalization of NAPTT results and a decrease in TEE rates could be demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obwohl seit Jahrzehnten wirksame Einzel- oder Kombinationsimpfstoffe gegen Masern in Deutschland zur Verfügung stehen, kommt es immer wieder zu größeren Masernausbrüchen, in deren Folge Menschen schwer erkranken oder sterben. Einer der Gründe für die unzureichende Akzeptanz der Masernimpfung in der Bevölkerung ist möglicherweise die Angst vor unerwünschten Wirkungen und schweren Impfkomplikationen. Daher wurden alle Verdachtsfallberichte über unerwünschte Wirkungen nach Impfung mit masernhaltigen Impfstoffen, die aus Deutschland in den Jahren 2001 bis 2012 gemeldet wurden, zusammengefasst und bewertet. Dem PEI sind im Zeitraum vom 01.01.2001 bis zum 31.12.2012 insgesamt 1696 Verdachtsfälle von Nebenwirkungen mit 5297 Reaktionen nach Masernmono- und Kombinationsimpfstoffen berichtet worden. 76,7 % der Meldungen wurden als schwerwiegend klassifiziert. Die mittlere Melderate betrug ca. 5,7 Fallmeldungen auf 100.000 vom PEI für Deutschland freigegebenen Impfdosen. Die Auswertung der Meldungen weist auf die gute Verträglichkeit masernhaltiger Einzel- und Kombinationsimpfstoffe hin und zeigt eine konstant niedrige Rate von gemeldeten Komplikationen in Bezug auf die Anzahl der durchgeführten Impfungen. Vergleicht man die schweren und relativ häufigen Komplikationen der Maserninfektion mit den gemeldeten Verdachtsfallberichten, so ergibt sich eine uneingeschränkt positive Nutzen-Risiko-Bewertung der Masernimpfstoffe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Germany, routine RV-vaccination is not adopted into the national immunization schedule as of 2012. Because RV-vaccines were already on the market since 2006, in 2010 a moderate (58%) and low (22%) vaccine uptake was observed in the 5 eastern federal states (EFS) and the 11 western federal states (WFS), respectively. To assess the impact of RV-vaccination, we compared the incidence rates (IR) of RV-related hospitalizations before (2004‒2006) and in seasons after (2008/09-2010/11) RV-vaccine introduction in Germany by utilizing data from the national mandatory disease reporting system. In the EFS, the IR was significantly reduced in age-groups < 18 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 24 mo in 2009/10-2010/11. In the WFS an IR-reduction was observed only in age-groups < 12 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 18 mo in 2009/10-2010/11. Overall IR-reduction in age-groups < 24 mo comparing 2008-11 with 2004-06 was 36% and 25% in EFS and WFS, respectively. In addition, we computed IR-ratios (IRR) in the seasons after mid-2006 with negative binomial regression. The effect of vaccination was independent from the geographic region. Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in RV-related hospitalizations in the age-groups 6-23 mo. Most prominently, vaccination of 50% of infants led to an estimated decrease in age group 6-11 mo by 42%. No significant reduction was observed in age-groups ≥ 24 mo. In conclusion, in the German setting with low to moderate vaccine uptake, RV-related hospitalization incidence decreased substantially depending on the achieved vaccination coverage, but only in the first two years of life.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 09/2012; 8(10).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel immunosuppressive/modulating therapies with monoclonal antibodies (MABs) have been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a potentially fatal disease of the brain caused by the JC virus. Taking the complex diagnostic testing and heterogeneous clinical presentation of PML into account, an agreed case definition for PML is a prerequisite for a thorough assessment of PML.
A working group was established to develop a standardised case definition for PML which permits data comparability across clinical trials, postauthorisation safety studies and passive postmarketing surveillance. The case definition is designed to define levels of diagnostic certainty of reported PML cases following treatment with MABs. It was subsequently used to categorise retrospectively suspected PML cases from Germany reported to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute as the responsible national competent authority.
The algorithm of the case definition is based on clinical symptoms, PCR for JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid, brain MRI, and brain biopsy/autopsy. The case definition was applied to 119 suspected cases of PML following treatment with MABs and is considered to be helpful for case ascertainment of suspected PML cases for various MABs covering a broad spectrum of indications. Even if the available information is not yet complete, the case definition provides a level of diagnostic certainty.
The proposed case definition permits data comparability among different medicinal products and among active as well as passive surveillance settings. It may form a basis for meaningful risk analysis and communication for regulators and healthcare professionals.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 07/2012; 83(9):927-33. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A(H1N1)v2009 influenza vaccination of pregnant women was a challenge for health care providers, as little safety data were available.
We prospectively followed the pregnancies of women who were vaccinated at any time during pregnancy or ≤ 4 weeks prior to conception and compared these outcomes to a control cohort matched by the estimated date of birth. Primary endpoints: rate of spontaneous abortion and major malformations. Secondary endpoints: preeclampsia, gestational age at birth, and birth weight.
Pregnancy outcome of 323 women immunized with adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted A(H1N1)v2009 influenza vaccines from 2009-09-28 to 2010-03-31 were compared to 1329 control subjects. The risk for spontaneous abortions (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.36-2.19) and the rate of major malformations (all trimesters: OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.38-1.77; preconception and first trimester exposure: OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.13-2.64) did not vary between the two cohorts. Furthermore, there was no increase in preeclampsia, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation in the vaccinated cohort.
The results of our study do not indicate a risk for the pregnant woman and the developing embryo/fetus after H1N1 vaccination. We provide and apply methods novel in observational studies on pregnancy outcome, especially if a single dose exposure is investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acquired, monophasic inflammatory polyradiculoneuritis of autoimmune origin, which occurs after infection and occasionally also after vaccination. Seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines have in particular been implicated as triggers for GBS. However, a number of recent studies indicate that infection with influenza virus may also cause GBS. This review summarizes the epidemiological and experimental data of the association of GBS with exposure to influenza antigens by immunization (including vaccines against A/H1N1/2009) and infection. Vaccination against influenza is associated with a very low risk for the occurrence of GBS. In contrast infection with influenza may play a more important role as a triggering factor for GBS than previously assumed.
Der Nervenarzt 04/2012; 83(6):714-30. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of severe adverse events such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has the potential to limit the benefits of highly efficacious medicines being developed to fulfill unmet clinical needs across therapeutic areas. Following an Expert meeting in London in July 2011 (http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Report/2011/09/WC500111562.pdf), a research agenda, highlighting methodological, clinical, and communication elements, to mitigate the risk and improve the management of drug-induced PML has been agreed upon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on the frequency of immune-mediated and non-immune-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), the effect of risk-minimization measures was evaluated during a period of 5 years (2006-2010). Risk-minimization measures were implemented in 2008/2009, consisting of exclusion of female donors with a history of pregnancy or exclusion of female donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)/human neutrophil alloantigen (HNA) antibodies.
TRALI was confirmed according to the criteria of the International Haemovigilance Network. Based upon the results of donor testing of white-blood-cell antibodies (WBC-Ab) against HLA or HNAs, confirmed cases were classified as immune- or non-immune-mediated TRALI. Reporting rates were calculated on the basis of the annually transfused blood components, and pre- and post-implementation periods were compared.
In total, 60 immune-mediated (75%) and 20 non-immune-mediated (25%) TRALI reactions were confirmed. A total of 68 (64 women and four men) donors were involved: seven red-blood-cell concentrates donors (13%), six platelet concentrate donors (10%), and 48 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) donors (77%). The reporting rate of immune-mediated TRALI caused by FFP decreased continuously; from 12·71 per million units in 2006/2007 to 6·81 per million units in 2008/2009 and no case in 2010.
The comparison of the pre- and the post-implementation period demonstrated a significantly reduced risk of TRALI events comparing 2006/2007 with 2010 (P-value: <0·01). Furthermore, no case of TRALI-induced fatality occurred after the implementation of risk-minimization measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cases of severe childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by parents and health care providers. However, little is known about the type and frequency of seizures and epilepsy syndromes following vaccination. This study aims to describe the clinical features of children presenting with seizures after vaccination using a register-based cohort.
We surveyed the national German database of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) for reported seizures and epilepsies in children aged 0-6 years. All cases reported in 2006-2008 were analyzed retrospectively; available clinical information was reevaluated and classified by seizure type and epilepsy syndrome.
In total, 328 cases reported between 2006 and 2008 were included. Data supportive of seizures or epilepsy were present in 247 (75.3%) of 328 patients with a mean interval between the vaccination and the epileptic event of 24 h and 7.5 days for inactivated and attenuated vaccines, respectively. Fifty-one (15.5%) of 328 patients presented with syncope, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes, or other nonepileptic events. Information was insufficient for classification into epileptic versus nonepileptic events in 30 (11.3%) of 328 patients. For cases with confirmed seizures, febrile seizures were present in 121 (49%) of 247 cases, and 38 (15.4%) of 247 patients had single afebrile seizures. Status epilepticus was described in 21 (8.5%) of 247 patients. Thirty-one (12.6%) of 247 patients presented with various pediatric epilepsy syndromes. Severe childhood epilepsies (Dravet syndrome, West syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or Doose syndrome) were diagnosed in 29 (11.7%) of 247 patients, with the vaccination-associated event being the first documented seizure in 15 (51.7%) of 29 patients.
Vaccination-associated seizures present in the setting of various epilepsy syndromes, including severe childhood epilepsies in >10% of cases. Early diagnosis of the corresponding epilepsy syndromes and confirmation of an underlying etiology is important for treatment decisions, genetic counseling, and public health evaluation of vaccine safety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: METHODS: In order to evaluate the benefit of risk minimisation measures, reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (TTBI) were calculated on the basis of annual reports and distributed blood components. Following the implementation of risk minimisation measures in 2003 and 2008, a comparison of pre- and post-implementation periods was performed. RESULTS: During a period of 14 years, 90 cases of TTBI were confirmed, 34 were caused by red blood cell (RBC) concentrates, 5 by fresh frozen plasma, and 51 by platelet concentrates (PCs). The overall reporting frequency was 1 TTBI in 1.91 million RBC units; 1 TTBI in 0.094 million PC units, and 1 TTBI-associated fatality in 0.57 million PC units. From 2001-2004 the reporting rate was 13.7 per million PC units; 2005-2008, after the implementation of pre-donation sampling; it was 10.8 per million PC units (p > 0.5). After limitation of the shelf life (2008), the reporting rate decreased to 4.49 per million PC units (p = 0.12), and one case of related fatality was reported. Agents with low pathogenicity were reported in 14 of 41 immunosuppressed patients (34%) but only in 1 of 13 patients with non-haematological/oncological diseases. CONCLUSION: TTBI and associated fatalities could be gradually reduced by the risk minimisation measures, but further strategies such as implementation of sensitive screening tests or pathogen-reducing approaches should be discussed.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy 01/2011; 38(4):266-271. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On the basis of reports of serious transfusion reactions, measures aimed to improve the safety standard of the manufacturing process of blood components were evaluated from 1997-2008. Measures of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) as well as recommendations of the Advisory Committee "Blood" were considered. Reporting frequencies before and after the implementation of measures were compared. After the implementation of NAT pool testing, a reduction of virus transmission was seen for red blood cell concentrates (RBC) from 1.0/10(6) to 0.5/10(6) units and for platelet concentrates (PC) from 3.0/10(6) to 0.0/10(6) units. After the implementation of a pre-donation sampling, however, no reduction of bacterial infections associated with PC administration (>9.0/10(6)) was identified. To reduce the frequency of TRALI associated with FFP administration (11.2/10(6) units), the use of plasma from male donors or female donors without a history of pregnancy was established in September 2009. Without specific measures of risk reduction, the reporting frequency of severe allergic transfusion reaction increased for all blood components during the investigation period (from 0.8/10(6) to 6.2/10(6) RBC units). The benefit of measures to improve safety standards should be evaluated repeatedly by collecting precise hemovigilance data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an observational cohort study (2006-2007) the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut collected epidemiological data to investigate the frequency and causes of TRALI.
Diagnosis of TRALI was confirmed according to criteria of the European Haemovigilance Network. Subsequent testing of white blood cell antibodies (WBC-Ab) against HLA or human neutrophil alloantigens was performed.
Of a total of 187 reported TRALI cases, 44 could be confirmed consisting of 35 cases of antibody-mediated TRALI and nine cases of non-immune-mediated TRALI. Eight of 44 affected patients (18%) had a fatal outcome, seven cases with WBC-Ab positive plasma donors and one case with red blood cell donors. WBC antibodies were found in one male and 39 female donors. In 34 female donors, a history of pregnancy was confirmed. WBC-Ab positive donors presented four HLA class I antibodies, 15 HLA class II antibodies, 13 HLA class I and class II antibodies, one HNA-2a, and seven HNA-3a antibodies. WBC antibodies matching with recipient antigens were found exclusively in 28 female donors; 26 FFP donors, one platelet donor and one red blood cell donor. Reporting frequency of immune-mediated TRALI was 1:66,000 for fresh frozen plasma, 1:2.86 million for red blood cell concentrates and 1:420,000 for platelet concentrates. Reporting frequency of TRALI-related fatalities was 1:285,000 for FFP.
Haemovigilance data show the significance of female donors with a history of pregnancy for the development of antibody-mediated TRALI. Manufacturing of FFP from male plasma and female donor screening for WBC-Ab could represent preventive measures.