G. H. Rieke

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (943)3365 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Luminous debris disks of warm dust in the terrestrial planet zones around solar-like stars are recently found to vary, indicative of ongoing large-scale collisions of rocky objects. We use Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {\mu}m time-series observations in 2012 and 2013 (extended to 2014 in one case) to monitor 5 more debris disks with unusually high fractional luminosities ("extreme debris disk"), including P1121 in the open cluster M47 (80 Myr), HD 15407A in the AB Dor moving group (80 Myr), HD 23514 in the Pleiades (120 Myr), HD 145263 in the Upper Sco Association (10 Myr), and the field star BD+20 307 (>1 Gyr). Together with the published results for ID8 in NGC 2547 (35 Myr), this makes the first systematic time-domain investigation of planetary impacts outside the solar system. Significant variations with timescales shorter than a year are detected in five out of the six extreme debris disks we have monitored. However, different systems show diverse sets of characteristics in the time domain, including long-term decay or growth, disk temperature variations, and possible periodicity.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 805(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/77 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81 - 12.41 um) emission around the nearby main-sequence star eta Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% +/- 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (~2.6\,AU at the distance of eta Corvi) and shows no significant variation over 35{\deg} of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by Spitzer/IRS (~23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the Solar zodiacal cloud, unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (~3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust at the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU).
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/42 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels of survey sensitivity induced by weather conditions.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 01/2015; 216(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/24 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Habitable zone dust levels are a key unknown that must be understood to ensure the success of future space missions to image Earth analogues around nearby stars. Current detection limits are several orders of magnitude above the level of the Solar System's Zodiacal cloud, so characterisation of the brightness distribution of exo-zodi down to much fainter levels is needed. To this end, the large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will detect thermal emission from habitable zone exo-zodi a few times brighter than Solar System levels. Here we present a modelling framework for interpreting LBTI observations, which yields dust levels from detections and upper limits that are then converted into predictions and upper limits for the scattered light surface brightness. We apply this model to the HOSTS survey sample of nearby stars; assuming a null depth uncertainty of 10$^{-4}$ the LBTI will be sensitive to dust a few times above the Solar System level around Sun-like stars, and to even lower dust levels for more massive stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2014; 216(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/216/2/23 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The newly discovered variable emission by extreme debris disks provides a unique opportunity to learn about asteroid-sized bodies in young exoplanetary systems and to explore planetesimal collisions and their aftermaths during the era of terrestrial planet building. However, the baseline of existing observations is too short to characterize this behavior well. We propose to monitor variations in seven systems where they have already been identified, and to look for them in seven more systems that are likely to behave similarly, selected because their high levels of warm dust point to elevated rates of planetesimal collisions. This program requires 130 hours of observing time and will establish the time-domain study of debris disks as an important heritage of the Spitzer warm mission.
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    ABSTRACT: HD 95086 is a young early-type star that hosts (1) a 5 MJ planet at the projected distance of 56 AU revealed by direct imaging, and (2) a prominent debris disk. Here we report the detection of 69 um crystalline olivine feature from the disk using the Spitzer/MIPS-SED data covering 55-95 um. Due to the low resolution of MIPS-SED mode, this feature is not spectrally resolved, but is consistent with the emission from crystalline forsterite contributing 5% of the total dust mass. We also present detailed analysis of the disk SED and re-analysis of resolved images obtained by Herschel. Our results suggest that the debris structure around HD 95086 consists of a warm (175 K) belt, a cold (55 K) disk, and an extended disk halo (up to 800 AU), and is very similar to that of HR 8799. We compare the properties of the three debris components, and suggest that HD 95086 is a young analog of HR 8799. We further investigate and constrain single-planet, two-planet, three-planet and four-planet architectures that can account for the observed debris structure and are compatible with dynamical stability constraints. We find that equal-mass four-planet configurations of geometrically spaced orbits, with each planet of mass 5 MJ, could maintain the gap between the warm and cold debris belts, and also be just marginally stable for timescales comparable to the age of the system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; 799(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/146 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multiple epochs of near-IR spectroscopy for a sample of 25 young stars, including T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and FU Ori objects. Using the FSPEC instrument on the Bok 90-inch telescope, we obtained K-band spectra of the BrGamma transition of hydrogen, with a resolution of ~3500. Epochs were taken over a span of >1 year, sampling time-spacings of roughly one day, one month, and one year. The majority of our targets show BrGamma emission, and in some cases these are the first published detections. Time-variability is seen in approximately half of the targets showing BrGamma emission. We compare the observed variability with expectations for rotationally-modulated accretion onto the central stars and time-variable continuum emission or extinction from matter in the inner disk. Our observations are not entirely consistent with models of rotationally-modulated magnetospheric accretion. Further monitoring, over a larger number of epochs, will facilitate more quantitative constraints on variability timescales and amplitudes, and a more conclusive comparison with theoretical models.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 447(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2441 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes a workshop held on March, 2014, on the potential of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to revolutionize our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets through transit observations. JWST's unique combination of high sensitivity and broad wavelength coverage will enable the accurate measurement of transits with high signal-to-noise. Most importantly, JWST spectroscopy will investigate planetary atmospheres to determine atomic and molecular compositions, to probe vertical and horizontal structure, and to follow dynamical evolution, i.e. exoplanet weather. JWST will sample a diverse population of planets of varying masses and densities in a wide variety of environments characterized by a range of host star masses and metallicities, orbital semi-major axes and eccentricities. A broad program of exoplanet science could use a substantial fraction of the overall JWST mission.
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    ABSTRACT: We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of on-going ram-pressure stripping. H$_2$ emission is detected in all four; two show extraplanar H$_2$ emission. The emission usually has a warm (T $\sim$ $115 - 160$K) and a hot (T $\sim$ 400 $-$ 600K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically $10^{19} - 10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ with masses of $10^6 - 10^8 M_\odot$. The warm H$_2$ is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H$_2$ is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H$_2$ tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H$_2$ within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 $\mu$m is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The H$\alpha$ and 24 $\mu$m luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 796(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/796/2/89 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • K. D. Tyler, L. Bai, G. H. Rieke
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of dense environments on normal field galaxies are still up for debate despite much study since Abell published his catalog of nearby clusters in 1958. There are changes in color, morphology, and star formation properties when galaxies fall into groups and clusters, but the specifics of how and where these modifications occur are not fully understood. To look for answers, we focused on star-forming galaxies in A2255, an unrelaxed cluster thought to have recently experienced a merger with another cluster or large group. We used Hα, MIPS 24 μm, and WISE 22 μm to estimate total star formation rates (SFRs) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to find stellar masses (M *) for galaxies out to ~5 r 200. We compared the star-forming cluster galaxies with the field SFR-mass distribution and found no enhancement or suppression of star formation in currently star-forming galaxies of high mass (log (M */M ☉) 10). This conclusion holds out to very large distances from the cluster center. However, the core (r proj < 3 Mpc) has a much lower fraction of star-forming galaxies than anywhere else in the cluster. These results indicate that for the mass range studied here, the majority of the star formation suppression occurs in the core on relatively short timescales, without any enhancement prior to entering the central region. If any significant enhancement or quenching of star formation occurs, it will be in galaxies of lower mass (log (M */M ☉) < 10).
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 794(1):31. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/31 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of 0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 09/2014; 214(2):23. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/214/2/23 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The final assembly of terrestrial planets occurs via massive collisions, which can launch copious clouds of dust that are warmed by the star and glow in the infrared. We report the real-time detection of a debris-producing impact in the terrestrial planet zone around a 35-million year-old solar analog star. We observed a substantial brightening of the debris disk at 3-5 {\mu}m, followed by a decay over a year, with quasi-periodic modulations of the disk flux. The behavior is consistent with the occurrence of a violent impact that produced vapor out of which a thick cloud of silicate spherules condensed that were ground into dust by collisions. These results demonstrate how the time domain can become a new dimension for the study of terrestrial planet formation.
    Science 08/2014; 345(6200):1032-5. DOI:10.1126/science.1255153 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of ongoing coronagraphic simulations aimed at designing strategies for optimizing oper- ations of the coronagraphs in the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) on-board the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). In particular, the adverse effects on the point spread function caused by the phase mask coronagraphs and the observatory slew accuracy are known to limit our ability to position stars at the center of the coron- agraph. Here, we investigate these two effects on our ability to perform target acquisition (TA) and consider different scenarios involving single and multiple acquisitions to mitigate them. We assess the performance of the coronagraphs under various slew accuracy models as well as noise sources. In general, we find that scenarios that require fewer acquisitions yield final positions with smaller dispersions but larger offsets. Our Single TA scenario yields the best repeatability for all three slew accuracy models that we considered although a dual Twin TA strategy generally yields more accurate centering. We also investigate the use of the contamination control cover (CCC) inside MIRI during TA of bright objects, and ways to mitigate the resulting latent images when the CCC is not used. Our results are expressed in terms of achieved contrast with simple, single reference star subtraction. Given our preliminary prescription for latency, our simulations suggest that the CCC need not be used except for very bright sources; detailed guidelines will require additional information on the latent image decay time scale. Furthermore, we find that contrast is dependent on the observatory slew accuracy at any wavelength. The highest contrast is achieved with the highest slew accuracy model, although the background photon noise limits the contrast at longer wavelengths.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 {\mu}m) and photometric (24, 70 and 160 {\mu}m) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and 2MASS quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 {\mu}m. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 {\mu}m) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the SED shape of ~ 0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured - silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured - silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 {\mu}m, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the AGN. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze very deep IRAC and MIPS photometry of $\sim$ 12,500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and $\chi$ Persei, building upon on our earlier, shallower Spitzer studies (Currie et al. 2007a, 2008a). Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 {\mu}m and 24 $\mu$m indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 $\mu$m excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower-mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 $\mu m$ reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, although similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide better constraints. We combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times ($\tau_{o}$) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters (e.g. Bell et al. 2013), these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime. The transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is $\sim$ 1 Myr. Finally, 24 $\mu$m excess frequencies for 4-6 M$_{\odot}$ stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M$_{\odot}$ stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 796(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/796/2/127 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of debris disks allow for the study of planetary systems, even where planets have not been detected. However, debris disks are often only characterized by unresolved infrared excesses that resemble featureless blackbodies, and the location of the emitting dust is uncertain due to a degeneracy with the dust grain properties. Here we characterize the Spitzer IRS spectra of 22 debris disks exhibiting 10 micron silicate emission features. Such features arise from small warm dust grains, and their presence can significantly constrain the orbital location of the emitting debris. We find that these features can be explained by the presence of an additional dust component in the terrestrial zones of the planetary systems, i.e. an exozodiacal belt. Aside from possessing exozodiacal dust, these debris disks are not particularly unique; their minimum grain sizes are consistent with the blowout sizes of their systems, and their brightnesses are comparable to those of featureless warm debris disks. These disks are in systems with a range of ages, although the older systems with features are found only around A-type stars. The features in young systems may be signatures of terrestrial planet formation. Analyzing the spectra of unresolved debris disks with emission features may be one of the simplest and most accessible ways to study the terrestrial regions of planetary systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 793(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/57 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) program on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Emission and/or scattered light from the exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets (exo- Earths) around nearby stars. About 20% of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013, A&A, 555, A11; Siercho et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 33). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best ~ 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3σ). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We will describe the motivation for the survey and progress on target selection, not only the actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission but also those whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that will not be observed with LBTI. We briefly describe the detection of the debris disk around η Crv, which is the first scientific result from the LBTI coming from the commissioning of the instrument in December 2013, shortly after the first time the fringes were stabilized.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in the infrared emission from disks around pre-main sequence stars over the course of days to weeks appears to be common, but the physical cause of the changes in disk structure are not constrained. Here we present coordinated monitoring of one young cluster with the Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes aimed at studying the physical source of the variability. In fall 2011 we obtained ten epochs of Chandra ACIS photometry over a period of 30 days with a roughly 3 day cadence contemporaneous with 20 epochs of Spitzer [3.6],[4.5] photometry over 40 days with a roughly 2 day cadence of the IC 348 cluster. This cadence allows us to search for week to month long responses of the infrared emission to changes in the high-energy flux. We find no strong evidence for a direct link between the X-ray and infrared variability on these timescales among 39 cluster members with circumstellar disks. There is no significant correlation between the shape of the infrared and X-ray light curves, or between the size of the X-ray and infrared variability. Among the stars with an X-ray flare none showed evidence of a correlated change in the infrared photometry on timescales of days to weeks following the flare. This lack of connection implies that X-ray heating of the planet forming region of the disk is not significant, although we cannot rule out rapid or instantaneous changes in infrared emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 793(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/2 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its $\sim$130-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reduce the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 $\mu$m), as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 $\mu$m) of other surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deep mass sensitivity, especially around nearby adolescent ($\sim$0.1-1 Gyr) stars. LEECH's contrast is competitive with other extreme adaptive optics systems, while providing an alternative survey strategy. Additionally, LEECH is characterizing known exoplanetary systems with observations from 3-5$\mu$m in preparation for JWST.
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    ABSTRACT: Using photometry at just two wavelengths it is possible to fit a blackbody to the spectrum of infrared excess that is the signature of a debris disc. From this the location of the dust can be inferred. However, it is well known that dust in debris discs is not a perfect blackbody. By resolving debris discs we can find the actual location of the dust and compare this to that inferred from the blackbody fit. Using the Herschel Space Observatory we resolved many systems as part of the DEBRIS survey. Here we discuss a sample of 9 discs surrounding A stars and find that the discs are actually located between 1 and 2.5 times further from their star than predicted by blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variation in this ratio is due to differences in stellar luminosities, location of the dust, size distribution and composition of the dust.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1743921313008806

Publication Stats

26k Citations
3,365.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1975–2015
    • The University of Arizona
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Department of Planetary Sciences
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2005–2014
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      • • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of Szeged
      • Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics
      Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary
  • 2008
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Hertfordshire
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1998
    • Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
    • Central University of Venezuela
      Caracas, Distrito Federal, Venezuela
  • 1995
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1992
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1989
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1984
    • St. John's College
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1982
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1978–1981
    • University of Oregon
      • Department of Physics
      Eugene, Oregon, United States