Yu-Hao Zhou

Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (25)77.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of alcohol intake is increasing among women in some populations. Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between alcohol intake and major cardiovascular outcomes or total mortality in women compared with men. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles published prior to June 2014. Among these potential included prospective studies, the different dose categories of alcohol intake were compared with the lowest alcohol intake or non-drinkers between women and men for the outcomes of major cardiovascular or total mortality. We included 23 prospective studies (18 cohorts) reporting data on 489,696 individuals. The summary relative risk ratio (RRR; female to male) for total mortality was significantly increased with moderate alcohol intake compared with the lowest alcohol intake (RRR, 1.10; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.21; P = 0.047); no such significance was observed with other levels of alcohol intake (low intake: RRR, 1.07; 95 % CI: 0.98-1.17; P = 0.143; heavy intake: RRR, 1.09; 95 % CI: 0.99-1.21; P = 0.084). There was no evidence of a sex difference in the relative risk for coronary disease, cardiac death, stroke, or ischemic stroke between participants with low to heavy alcohol intake compared with those who never consumed alcohol or had the lowest alcohol intake. Women with moderate to heavy alcohol intake had a significantly increased risk of total mortality compared with men in multiple subpopulations. Control of alcohol intake should be considered for women, particularly for young women who may be susceptible to binge drinking.
    BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1):773. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2081-y · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Min-Min Zhang · Wei Qian · Ying-Yi Qin · Jia He · Yu-Hao Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: To summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the effect of probiotics by using a meta-analytic approach. In July 2013, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, the Cochrane Library, and three Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Medical Current Content, and Chinese Scientific Journals database) to identify relevant RCTs. We included RCTs investigating the effect of a combination of probiotics and standard therapy (probiotics group) with standard therapy alone (control group). Risk ratios (RRs) were used to measure the effect of probiotics plus standard therapy on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates, adverse events, and patient compliance using a random-effect model. We included data on 6997 participants from 45 RCTs, the overall eradication rates of the probiotic group and the control group were 82.31% and 72.08%, respectively. We noted that the use of probiotics plus standard therapy was associated with an increased eradication rate by per-protocol set analysis (RR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.08-1.15; P < 0.001) or intention-to-treat analysis (RR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.10-1.16; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the incidence of adverse events was 21.44% in the probiotics group and 36.27% in the control group, and it was found that the probiotics plus standard therapy significantly reduced the risk of adverse events (RR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.48-0.71; P < 0.001), which demonstrated a favorable effect of probiotics in reducing adverse events associated with H. pylori eradication therapy. The specific reduction in adverse events ranged from 30% to 59%, and this reduction was statistically significant. Finally, probiotics plus standard therapy had little or no effect on patient compliance (RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.68-1.39; P = 0.889). The use of probiotics plus standard therapy was associated with an increase in the H. pylori eradication rate, and a reduction in adverse events resulting from treatment in the general population. However, this therapy did not improve patient compliance.
    04/2015; 21(14):4345-57. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4345
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    ABSTRACT: Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that “neural-like cells” may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve.
    Stem cell International 01/2015; 2015:1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/941625 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have reported inconsistent results concerning the existence of associations of folate intake and serum folate levels with prostate cancer risk. This study sought to summarise the evidence regarding these relationships using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. In January 2014, we performed electronic searches of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies examining the effect of folate on the incidence of prostate cancer. Only prospective studies that reported effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidence of prostate cancer for more than 2 categories of folate were included. Overall, we included 10 prospective studies reporting data on 202,517 individuals. High dietary folate intake had little or no effect on prostate cancer risk (risk ratio [RR] = 1.02; 95%CI = 0.95-1.09; P = 0.598). The dose-response meta-analysis suggested that a 100 mug per day increase in dietary folate intake has no significant effect on the risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.99-1.02; P = 0.433). However, high serum folate levels were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.05-1.39; P = 0.008). The dose-response meta-analysis indicated that a 5 nmol/L increment of serum folate levels was also associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.04; 95%CI = 1.00-1.07; P = 0.042). Our study indicated that dietary folate intake had little or no effect on prostate cancer risk. However, increased serum folate levels have potentially harmful effects on the risk of prostate cancer.
    BMC Public Health 12/2014; 14(1):1326. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1326 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to summarize the current evidence on the strength of associations between tea consumption and the incidence of cancer at different sites. We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant articles published before October 2013. Prospective studies that reported effect estimates of cancer incidence, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for more than two categories of tea consumption were included. We analysed 87 datasets (57 articles), which included a total of 49 812 incident cases. Overall, high tea consumption had no significant effect on the risk of gastric, rectal, colon, lung, pancreatic, liver, breast, prostate, ovarian, bladder cancers or gliomas. However, high tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of oral cancer (risk ratio 0.72; 95% CI 0.54-0.95; P=0.021). A dose-response meta-analysis suggested that an increase in tea consumption by one cup per day was associated with a reduced risk of oral cancer (risk ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-0.98; P=0.022), but had little effect on the incidence of other cancers. Subgroup analysis indicated that an increase in the consumption of black tea by one cup per day was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Moreover, in western countries, we found that an increase in the consumption of tea by one cup per day was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer. Increased tea consumption has no significant effect on the risk of common malignancies. For some cancer types, associations differ according to sex, ethnicity and tea type.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000094 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Chi Zhang · Ying-Yi Qin · Xin Wei · Fei-Fei Yu · Yu-Hao Zhou · Jia He
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    ABSTRACT: Studies that investigated the association between tea consumption and the risk of major cardiovascular events have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies in order to summarize the evidence regarding the association between tea consumption and major cardiovascular outcomes or total mortality. In July 2014, we performed electronic searches in PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library, followed by manual searches of reference lists from the resulting articles to identify other relevant studies. Prospective observational studies that reported effect estimates, with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cardiac death, stroke death, or total mortality for more than two dosages of tea consumption were included. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes associated with an increase in tea consumption by 3 cups per day. Of the 736 citations identified from database searches, we included 22 prospective studies from 24 articles reporting data on 856,206 individuals, and including 8,459 cases of CHD, 10,572 of stroke, 5,798 cardiac deaths, 2,350 stroke deaths, and 13,722 total deaths. Overall, an increase in tea consumption by 3 cups per day was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (relative risk [RR], 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.53-0.99; P = 0.045), cardiac death (RR, 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.63-0.86; P < 0.001), stroke (RR, 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.73-0.92; P = 0.001), total mortality (RR, 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.63-0.91; P = 0.003), cerebral infarction (RR, 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.72-0.98; P = 0.023), and intracerebral hemorrhage (RR, 0.79; 95 % CI: 0.72-0.87; P < 0.001), but had little or no effect on stroke mortality (RR, 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.83-1.05; P = 0.260). The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that increased tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CHD, cardiac death, stroke, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage, as well as total mortality.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 10/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1007/s10654-014-9960-x · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    Chi Zhang · Zhi-Yong Wang · Ying-Yi Qin · Fei-Fei Yu · Yu-Hao Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: Background Observational studies suggest that B vitamin supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk in adults, but this association remains controversial. This study aimed to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating B vitamin supplementation for the primary or secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes and to perform a cumulative meta-analysis to determine the evidence base. Methodology and Principal Findings In April 2013, we searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant RCTs. We included RCTs investigating the effect of B vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcome. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect using a random-effect model. Statistical heterogeneity scores were assessed using the Q statistic. We included data on 57,952 individuals from 24 RCTs: 12 primary prevention trials and 12 secondary prevention trials. In 23 of these trials, 10,917 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) occurred; in 20 trials, 7,203 deaths occurred; in 15 trials, 3,422 cardiac deaths occurred; in 19 trials, 3,623 myocardial infarctions (MI) occurred; and in 18 trials, 2,465 strokes occurred. B vitamin supplementation had little or no effect on the incidence of MACE (RR, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93–1.03; P = 0.37), total mortality (RR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.97–1.05; P = 0.77), cardiac death (RR, 0.96; 95% CI: 0.90–1.02; P = 0.21), MI (RR, 0.99; 95% CI: 0.93–1.06; P = 0.82), or stroke (RR, 0.94; 95% CI: 0.85–1.03; P = 0.18). Conclusion/Significance B vitamin supplementation, when used for primary or secondary prevention, is not associated with a reduction in MACE, total mortality, cardiac death, MI, or stroke.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107060. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107060 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous observational studies regarding the existence of an association between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed electronic searches of the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies published through June 2013. Only prospective observational studies that reported breast cancer effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for more than 2 folate intake categories were included. We excluded traditional case-control studies because of possible bias from various confounding factors. Overall, we included 14 prospective studies that reported data on 677,858 individuals. Folate intake had little effect on the breast cancer risk (relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest category = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.05; P = 0.451). Dose-response meta-analysis also suggested that a 100 µg/day increase in folate intake had no significant effect on the risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–1.01; P = 0.361). Furthermore, we used restricted cubic splines to evaluate the nonlinear relationship between folate intake and the risk of breast cancer, and discovered a potential J-shaped correlation between folate intake and breast cancer risk (P = 0.007) and revealed that a daily folate intake of 200–320 µg was associated with a lower breast cancer risk; however, the breast cancer risk increased significantly with a daily folate intake >400 µg. Conclusion/Significance Our study revealed that folate intake had little or no effect on the risk of breast cancer; moreover, a dose-response meta-analysis suggested a J-shaped association between folate intake and breast cancer.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100044. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100044 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Yu-Fei Zhang · Jian Lu · Fei-Fei Yu · Hong-Fang Gao · Yu-Hao Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: Background Studies have reported inconsistent results for the existence of an association between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and risk of lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship using a dose response meta-analytic approach. Methodology and Principal Findings We searched the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases for related articles published through July 2013. Only prospective studies that reported effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer incidence for greater than 2 categories of PUFA intake were included. We did random-effects meta-analyses of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of lung cancer associated with a 5 g per day increase in PUFA intake. Overall, we included 8 prospective cohort studies reporting data on 1,268,442 individuals. High PUFA intake had little or no effect on lung cancer risk (risk ratio [RR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78–1.06; P = 0.230). Furthermore, the dose-response meta-analysis also suggested that a 5 g per day increase in PUFA has no significant effect on the risk of lung cancer (RR, 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96–1.01; P = 0.142). Finally, the findings of dose response curve suggested that PUFA intake of up to 15 g/d seemed to increase the risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, PUFA intake greater than 15 g/d was associated with a small beneficial effect and borderline statistical significance. Subgroup analyses for 5 g per day increment in PUFA indicated that the protective effect of PUFA was more evident in women (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87–1.01; P = 0.095) than in men (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98–1.02; P = 0.784). Conclusion/Significance Our study indicated that PUFA intake had little or no effect on lung cancer risk. PUFA intake might play an important role in lung cancer prevention in women.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99637. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099637 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol intake is inconsistently associated with the risk of stroke morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding this relationship by using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. We performed electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant prospective studies. Only prospective studies that reported effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stroke morbidity and mortality for more than 2 categories of alcohol intake were included. We included 27 prospective studies reporting data on 1,425,513 individuals. Low alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of total stroke (risk ratio [RR], 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.95; P=0.005), ischemic stroke (RR, 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74-0.90; P<0.001), and stroke mortality (RR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.53-0.85; P=0.001), but it had no significant effect on hemorrhagic stroke. Moderate alcohol intake had little or no effect on the risks of total stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and stroke mortality. Heavy alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of total stroke (RR, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43; P=0.034), but it had no significant effect on hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and stroke mortality. Low alcohol intake is associated with a reduced risk of stroke morbidity and mortality, whereas heavy alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of total stroke. The association between alcohol intake and stroke morbidity and mortality is J-shaped.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2014; 174(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.04.225 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the existence of an association between folate intake and the risk of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding this relationship by using a dose-response meta-analytic approach. In September 2013, we performed electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies examining the effect of folate intake on the incidence of lung cancer. Only prospective cohort studies that reported the effect estimates about the incidence of lung cancer with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for more than 2 categories of folate intake were included. Overall, we examined 9 cohort studies reporting the data of 566,921 individuals. High folate intake had little effect on the risk of lung cancer (risk ratio [RR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-1.01; P = 0.076). Dose-response meta-analysis also suggested that a 100 µg/day increase in folate intake had no significant effect on the risk of lung cancer (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.318). Subgroup analysis suggested that the potential protective effect of low folate intake (100-299 µg/day) was more evident in women than men, while the opposite was true of high folate intake (>400 µg/day). Finally, subgroup analyses of a 100 µg/day increment in folate intake indicated that its potential protective effect was more evident in men than in women. Our study revealed that folate intake had little or no effect on the risk of lung cancer. Subgroup analyses indicated that an increased folate intake was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in men. Furthermore, low folate intake may be a protective factor for women, and high folate intake for men.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93465. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093465 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Yu-Fei Zhang · Hong-Fang Gao · An-Ji Hou · Yu-Hao Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: Omega-3 fatty acids are known to prevent cardiac death. However, previous observational studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cancer risk in adults. We conducted a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of cancer incidence, nonvascular death, and total mortality. In February 2013, we performed electronic searches in PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify randomized controlled trials on cancer incidence, nonvascular death, and total mortality. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of cancer incidence, nonvascular death, and total mortality using a random-effect model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of the 8,746 identified articles, we included 19 trials reporting data on 68,954 individuals. These studies reported 1,039 events of cancer, 2,439 events of nonvascular death, and 7,025 events of total mortality. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation had no effect on cancer incidence (RR, 1.10; 95%CI: 0.97-1.24; P = 0.12), nonvascular death (RR, 1.00; 95%CI: 0.93-1.08; P = 1.00), or total mortality (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.88-1.03; P = 0.24) when compared to a placebo. Subgroup analysis indicated that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was associated with a reduction in total mortality risk if the proportion of men in the study population was more than 80%, or participants received alpha-linolenic acid. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation does not have an effect on cancer incidence, nonvascular death, or total mortality.
    BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):204. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-204 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Xiao Zhang · Chun Xiang · Yu-Hao Zhou · An Jiang · Ying-Yi Qin · Jia He
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    ABSTRACT: Statins are commonly used to lower total cholesterol levels in the general population to prevent cardiovascular events. However, the effects of statins in patients with chronic kidney disease remain unclear. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, proceedings of major meetings, and reference lists of articles for relevant literature. Only randomized clinical trials were included. Outcomes analysed included cardiovascular disease, total mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, and possible drug-related adverse events. Subgroup analyses were also performed based on the population characteristics and clinical indexes. Twelve trials met our inclusion criteria. Overall, statin therapy resulted in a 24% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease (RR = 0.76,95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72- 0.80), a 21% reduction in the risk of total mortality (RR = 0.79,95% CI, 0.72-0.86), a 34% reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction (RR = 0.66,95% CI, 0.52-0.83), a 30% reduction in the risk of stroke (RR = 0.70,95% CI, 0.57-0.85), and a 17% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.83,95% CI, 0.73- 0.93). No statistically significant drug-related adverse events were noted. Subgroup analysis indicated that some important factors such as baseline creatinine level >=1.5 mg/dL, baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and cardiovascular disease history could affect cardiovascular outcomes. Statin therapy had a clear effect on cardiovascular disease, total mortality, stroke, and myocardial infarction in patients with mild to moderate renal disease. Subgroup analysis indicated that baseline GFR, baseline creatinine level, and a history of cardiovascular disease might play an important role in the cardiovascular outcomes.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 02/2014; 14(1):19. DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-14-19 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Chi Zhang · Feng-Ling Chi · Tian-Hao Xie · Yu-Hao Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: B vitamins have been extensively used to reduce homocysteine levels; however, it remains uncertain whether B vitamins are associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of B vitamins on stroke. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify studies for our analysis. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the risk of stroke. The analysis was further stratified based on factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of the 13,124 identified articles, we included 18 trials reporting data on 57,143 individuals and 2,555 stroke events. B-vitamin supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the risk of stroke (RR, 0.91, 95%CI: 0.82-1.01, P = 0.075; RD, -0.003, 95%CI: -0.007-0.001, P = 0.134). Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg. Furthermore, in a cumulative meta-analysis for stroke, the originally proposed nonsignificant B-vitamin effect was refuted by the evidence accumulated up to 2006. There is a small effect with borderline statistical significance based on data gathered since 2007. Our study indicates that B-vitamin supplementation is not associated with a lower risk of stroke based on relative and absolute measures of association. Subgroup analyses suggested that B-vitamin supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of stroke if included trials had a man/woman ratio of more than 2 or subjects received dose of folic acid less than 1 mg.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81577. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081577 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Wei Fu · Li-Ren Ding · Cheng Zhuang · Yu-Hao Zhou
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    ABSTRACT: Previous trials have shown that zinc supplementation can decrease the risk of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria in children; however, the effects of zinc supplementation on mortality remain unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the benefits and risks of zinc supplementation on both total mortality and cause-specific mortality. We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials in preschool children reporting total mortality or cause-specific mortality. Relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of the effect of zinc supplementation on the risk of mortality using a random effect model. Of the 1,520 identified articles, we included 8 trials reporting data on 87,854 children. Overall, zinc supplementation had no effect on total mortality (RR, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.56-1.04; P = 0.084), diarrhea-related mortality (RR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.53-1.20; P = 0.276), pneumonia-related mortality (RR, 0.52; 95% CI: 0.11-2.39; P = 0.399), malaria-related mortality (RR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.06; P = 0.196), or other causes of mortality (RR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.67-1.44; P = 0.917). Subgroup analysis indicated that zinc supplementation was associated with a reduction in total mortality risk if the participants were boys, aged greater than 12 months, and the duration of the follow-up period was less than 12 months. Zinc supplementation does not have an effect on total mortality, diarrhea-related mortality, pneumonia-related mortality, malaria-related mortality, or other causes of mortality. Subgroup analysis suggested that zinc supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of total mortality if the participants were boys, aged greater than 12 months, and the duration of the follow-up period was less than 12 months.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79998. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079998 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether calcium or vitamin D supplementation reduces serious vascular outcomes in older people remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of calcium or vitamin D supplementation on the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes. We performed electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant randomized controlled trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to measure the effect of calcium or vitamin D supplementation on the risk of major vascular outcomes with a random-effect model. Of the 1643 identified studies, we included 11 trials reporting data on 50,252 individuals. These studies reported 2685 major cardiovascular events, 1097 events of myocardial infarction, and 1350 events of stroke. Calcium or vitamin D supplementation did not have an effect on major cardiovascular events (OR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.12; P=0.54), myocardial infarction (OR, 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.22; P=0.21), or stroke (OR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91-1.13; P=0.80) when compared to the effect with a placebo. Subgroup analysis indicated that calcium supplementation alone might play an important role in increasing the risk of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, but this difference could not be identified as statistically significant. Furthermore, males seem to experience more harmful effects with supplements of calcium or vitamin D than the effects experienced by females. Calcium supplementation might increase the risk of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, and stroke compared to the risk with a placebo.
    International journal of cardiology 08/2013; 169(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.08.055 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Abciximab is a widely used adjunctive therapy for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the effect of intracoronary (IC) administration of abciximab on cardiovascular events remains unclear when compared with intravenous (IV) therapy. Methodology and Principal Findings We systematically searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases and reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings for obtaining relevant literature. All eligible trials included ACS patients who received either IC administration of abciximab or IV therapy. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular events, and secondary outcomes included total mortality, reinfarction, and any possible adverse events. Of 660 identified studies, we included 9 trials reporting data on 3916 ACS patients. Overall, IC administration of abciximab resulted in 45% reduction in relative risk for major cardiovascular events (RR; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24−60%), 41% reduction in RR for reinfarction (95% CI, 7−63%), and 44% reduction in RR for congestive heart failure relative to IV therapy (95% CI, 8−66%); however, compared to IV therapy, IC administration of abciximab had no effect on total mortality (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45−1.07). No other significant differences were identified between the effect of IC abciximab administration and IV therapy. Conclusions/Significance IC administration of abciximab can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events, reinfarction, and congestive heart failure when compared with IV therapy.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e58077. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058077 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Chi Zhang · Yu-Hao Zhou · Chun-Li Xu · Feng-Ling Chi · Hai-Ning Ju
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    ABSTRACT: Background The efficacy of treatments that lower glucose in reducing the risk of incident stroke remains unclear. We therefore did a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of intensive control of glucose in the prevention of stroke. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library for trials published between 1950 and June, 2012. We included randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of intensive control of glucose on incident stroke compared with standard care. Summary estimates of relative risk (RR) reductions were calculated with a random effects model, and the analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. Of 649 identified studies, we included nine relevant trials, which provided data for 59197 patients and 2037 events of stroke. Overall, intensive control of glucose as compared to standard care had no effect on incident stroke (RR, 0.96; 95%CI 0.88–1.06; P = 0.445). In the stratified analyses, a beneficial effect was seen in those trials when body mass index (BMI) more than 30 (RR, 0.86; 95%CI: 0.75–0.99; P = 0.041). No other significant differences were detected between the effect of intensive control of glucose and standard care when based on other subset factors. Conclusions/Significance Our study indicated intensive control of glucose can effectively reduce the risk of incident stroke when patients with BMI more than 30.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54465. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054465 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Yu-Hao Zhou · Xiao-Fei Ye · Fei-Fei Yu · Xiao Zhang · Ying-Yi Qin · Jian Lu · Jia He
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    ABSTRACT: Background Fibrates has been extensively used to improve plasma lipid levels and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of fibrates on stroke is unclear at the present time. We therefore carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of fibrates on stroke. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings to identify studies for our analysis. We included randomized placebo controlled trials which reported the effects of fibrates on stroke. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of fibrates on the risk of stroke under random effect model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. Results Overall, fibrate therapy was not associated with a significant reduction on the risk of stroke (RR, 1.02, 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.16, P = 0.78). In the subgroup analyses, we observed that gemfibrozil therapy showed a beneficial effect on stroke (RR, 0.72, 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.98, P = 0.04). Similarly, fibrate therapy comparing to placebo had no effect on the incidence of fatal stroke. Subgroup analysis suggested that fibrate therapy showed an effect on fatal stroke when the Jadad score more than 3 (RR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.17 to 1.00, P = 0.049). Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that fibrate therapy may play a role in fatal stroke (RR, 0.49, 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.93, P = 0.03) for patients with previous diabetes, cardiovascular disease or stroke. Conclusions Our study indicated that fibrate therapy might play an important role in reducing the risk of fatal stroke in patients with previous diabetes, cardiovascular disease or stroke. However, it did not have an effect on the incidence of stroke.
    BMC Neurology 01/2013; 13(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-13-1 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-obesity drugs are widely used to prevent the complications of obesity, however, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors are unclear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensively systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors. We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literatures. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors compared to placebo. Overall, orlistat produced a reduction of 2.39 kg (95%CI-3.34 to -1.45) for weight, a reduction of 0.27 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.36 to -0.17) for total cholesterol, a reduction of 0.21 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.12) for LDL, a reduction of 0.12 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.20 to -0.04) for fasting glucose, 1.85 mmHg reduction (95%CI: -3.30 to -0.40) for SBP, and a reduction of 1.49 mmHg (95%CI: -2.39 to -0.58) for DBP. Sibutramine only showed effects on weight loss and triglycerides reduction with statistical significances. Rimonabant was associated with statistically significant effects on weight loss, SBP reduction and DBP reduction. No other significantly different effects were identified between anti-obesity therapy and placebo. We identified that anti-obesity therapy was associated with a decrease of weight regardless of the type of the drug. Orlistat and rimonabant could lead to an improvement on cardiovascular risk factors. However, Sibutramine may have a direct effect on cardiovascular risk factors.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39062. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039062 · 3.23 Impact Factor