[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses two transcription factors, Rta and Zta, which are involved in the transcriptional activation of EBV lytic genes. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism by which Rta activates transcription of the Zta-encoding gene, BZLF1, through the ZII element in the gene promoter. In a DNA affinity precipitation assay, ATF2 was found to associate with an Rta-interacting protein, MCAF1, at the ZII element. The interaction between Rta, MCAF1, and ATF2 at the same site in the ZII region was further verified in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The complex appears to be crucial for the activation of BZLF1 transcription, as the overexpression of two ATF2-dominant negative mutants, or the introduction of MCAF1 siRNA into 293T cells, were both found to substantially reduce Rta-mediated transcription levels of BZLF1. Moreover, this study also found that the Rta-MCAF1-ATF2 complex binds to a typical AP-1 binding sequence on the promoter of BMRF2, a key viral gene for EBV infection. Mutation of this sequence decreased Rta-mediated promoter activity significantly. Taken together, these results indicate a critical role for MCAF1 in AP-1-dependent Rta activation of BZLF1 transcription.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90698. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a transcription factor, Rta, which is required to activate the transcription of EBV lytic genes. This study demonstrates that treating P3HR1 cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, causes the accumulation of SUMO-Rta and promotes the expression of EA-D. GST-pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation studies reveal that RNF4, a RING-domain-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, interacts with Rta. RNF4 also targets SUMO-2-conjugated Rta and promotes its ubiquitination in vitro. Additionally, SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs) in RNF4 are important to the ubiquitination of Rta because the RNF4 mutant with a mutation at the motifs eliminates ubiquitination. The mutation of four lysine residues on Rta that abrogated SUMO-3 conjugation to Rta also decreases the enhancement of the ubiquitination of Rta by RNF4. This finding demonstrates that RNF4 is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase of Rta. Finally, knockdown of RNF4 enhances the expression of Rta and EA-D, subsequently promoting EBV lytic replication and virions production. Results of this study significantly contribute to efforts to elucidate a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates Rta ubiquitination to influence the lytic development of EBV.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses an immediate-early protein, Rta, to activate the transcription of EBV lytic genes. This protein usually binds to Rta-response elements or interacts with Sp1 or Zta via a mediator protein, MCAF1, to activate transcription. Rta is also known to interact with TBP and TFIIB to activate transcription. This study finds that Rta interacts with TAF4, a component of TFIID complex, in vitro and in vivo, and on the TATA sequence in the BcLF1 promoter. Rta also interacts with TAF4 and Sp1 on Sp1-binding sequences on TATA-less promoters, including those of BNLF1, BALF5, and the human androgen receptor. These interactions are important to the transcriptional activation of these genes by Rta since introducing TAF4 shRNA substantially reduces the ability of Rta to activate these promoters. This investigation reveals how Rta interacts with TFIID to stimulate transcription.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54075. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zta, encoded by the BZLF1 gene of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a transcription factor that is expressed during the immediate-early stage of the lytic cycle. The expression of Zta is crucial to viral lytic development. Earlier studies showed that Ku80 is a binding partner of Zta in ZKO-293 cells and is co-purified with Zta. This study verifies the interaction between Ku80 and Zta by using glutathione S-transferase-pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and also by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. This investigation also reveals that Ku80 binds to Zta on Zta-response elements in the BHLF1 promoter, enhancing the promoter activity. This study also reveals that the interaction between Zta and Ku80 involves the C-terminal region of Zta and the 425 aa N-terminal region of Ku80. The interaction between these two proteins and the enhancement of transcription that is activated by Zta suggest that Ku80 is important to EBV lytic development.
Journal of General Virology 03/2011; 92(Pt 3):661-8. · 3.13 Impact Factor