ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Effluent white cell count (WCC) is among the important prognostic factors for peritonitis outcome, but its trend has never been studied. We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and outcomes of peritonitis episodes having different trends in effluent WCC change in the first 5 days. METHODS: For each peritonitis episode, we examined the patient's demographic and biochemical data, serial effluent WCC, and organisms cultured. Peritonitis-associated death and transfer to hemodialysis were defined as treatment failure. RESULTS: Based on the trend of effluent WCC in the first 5 days, we divided 190 peritonitis episodes into group A (WCC persistently declined), group B (WCC declined after a transient increase), group C (WCC increased after a transient decline), and group D (WCC persistently increased). In group A, peritonitis was caused mostly by gram-positive organisms, and effluent WCC declined the most quickly, leading to a good prognosis. Although the elevation of effluent WCC was prolonged in group B, and the infections were, compared with those in group A, more often caused by gram-negative organisms, outcomes were not worse. In group C, the effluent WCC was more likely to be higher than 100/μL on day 5, and the infection was, compared with those in groups A and B, less likely to be caused by gram-positive organisms. Accordingly, membership in group C independently predicted the worst outcome of peritonitis even adjusted for age, sex, and causative organism. CONCLUSIONS: Different trends of change in effluent WCC during the early stage of peritonitis represent different clinical patterns and outcomes. Further investigation for optimizing outcomes is required.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 06/2013;
ABSTRACT: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may increase the risk of obesity. Data in regards to the consumption of SSBs is insufficient in the Chinese population, especially in middle school students experiencing rapid nutritional transition. We aimed to describe the consumption of SSBs among junior high school students and explore the relationship between SSB intake and adolescents' overweight/obesity in Beijing.
This was a cross-sectional study under which 322 (46%) male and 380 (54%) female (age 11-15 y, median 13 y) were recruited from two middle schools of Xicheng District in Beijing. All subjects completed a questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days.
Prevalence of overweight was 21.1% in males and 11.6% in females. Prevalence of obesity was 22.7% in males and 10.3% in females. Of the students, 7.7% consumed SSBs at least once per day. Students whose storage of SSBs at home is more than 1 type are more likely to consume higher quantities of SSBs everyday (p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, OR of high SSBs intake group versus low SSBs intake group was 2.6. Students whose parents had a higher BMI had a higher risk of overweight/obesity (OR=1.13, p=0.007).
Among middle school students in Beijing, prevalence of obesity is more severe than that of overweight. Sugar-sweetened beverages have been the most popular drinks, and consumption of SSBs has a positive association with levels of overweight/obesity among male students.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2012; 21(3):425-30. · 1.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Objective. Peritoneal protein clearance (PrC) is recognized as a new marker of systemic endothelial dysfunction and predictor of mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Given that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) could improve endothelial dysfunction in the general population, we aim to explore whether this benefit is present in the PD population.
We analysed data from a PD cohort with data prospectively collected. The PrC, defined daily doses (DDDs) of ACEI/ARBs, as well as other clinical variables were recorded at baseline and then repeatedly measured at 3- to 6-month intervals till to death or censoring. A total of 156 patients were treated with ACEI/ARBs with 0.60 of median time-averaged DDDs, the untreated group consisted of 149 patients who received none of the above drugs during the follow-up.
The baseline and time-averaged PrC were 69.9 ± 34.7 mL/day and 75.2 ± 28.3 mL/day, respectively. Time-averaged PrC was an independent predictor of mortality adjusted for recognized confounders in a multivariate Cox regression model (P = 0.037). There were no significant differences in the time course of PrC (P = 0.82) and peritoneal protein loss (P = 0.83) between the ACEI/ARBs group and the untreated group after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, baseline C-reactive protein, mean blood pressure and baseline PrC or baseline peritoneal protein loss in the generalized linear mixed model.
We conclude that ACEI/ARBs did not correlate with a decreased PrC in this observational study. The effect of higher doses of ACEI/ARBs needs to be determined in future interventional studys.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 01/2011; 26(8):2684-90. · 3.40 Impact Factor