[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dovitinib is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, fibroblast growth factor receptors and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. Dovitinib is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHOD: In this study, we used five HCC cell lines and five endothelial cell lines to validate molecular and cellular targets of dovitinib. RESULTS: Tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis were significantly suppressed in an orthotopic HCC model. Immunoblotting revealed that among known dovitinib targets, only PDGFR-beta was expressed in two HCC cell lines, while four of five endothelial lines expressed PDGFR-beta, FGFR-1, and VEGFR-2. Dovitinib inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and motility at 0.04 mumol/L, a pharmacologically relevant concentration; it was unable to inhibit the proliferation or motility of HCC cells at the same concentration. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that dovitinib significantly decreased the microvessel density of xenograft tumors, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in HCC cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that dovitinib inhibits HCC growth and metastasis preferentially through an antiangiogenic mechanism, not through direct targeting of HCC cells.
Journal of Translational Medicine 12/2012; 10(1):245. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastatic potential among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in NPC progression remains unknown. Our multivariate survival analyses of 255 patients with NPC revealed that higher IL-8 expression in primary NPC tissue was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival of the patients. In vitro study revealed that IL-8 was highly expressed in the established high-metastasis NPC clone S18 relative to the low-metastasis cells. Suppression of IL-8 by short-hairpin RNA reduced the expression of IL-8 in S18 cells and subsequently inhibited migration, invasion, and hepatic metastasis of the cells without influencing cellular growth. Overexpression of IL-8 in S26 cells resulted in increased migration, invasion, and metastasis capabilities of the cells without affecting cellular growth. Exogenous IL-8 enhanced the migration and invasion of low-metastasis CNE-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be induced by IL-8 in various NPC cell lines. The high level of phosphorylated AKT in S18 cells could be suppressed by knocking down IL-8 expression. Further, IL-8-promoted migration and invasion could be abolished by either the application of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the knock down of AKT expression by using small-interfering RNA. In summary, IL-8 serves as an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival for patients with NPC. IL-8 promotes NPC metastasis via autocrine and paracrine means, involving activation of AKT signaling and inducing EMT in NPC cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serglycin belongs to a family of small proteoglycans with Ser-Gly dipeptide repeats, and it is modified with different types of glycosaminoglycan side chains. Intracellular serglycin affects the retention and secretion of proteases, chemokines, or other cytokines by physically binding to these factors in secretory granules. Extracellular serglycin has been found to be released by several types of human cancer cells, and it is able to promote the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Serglycin can bind to CD44, which is another glycoprotein located in cellular membrane. Serglycin's function of promoting cancer cell metastasis depends on glycosylation of its core protein, which can be achieved by autocrine as well as paracrine secretion mechanisms. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate serglycin signaling mechanisms with the goal of targeting them to prevent cancer cell metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is known for its high-metastatic potential. Here we report the identification of the proteoglycan serglycin as a functionally significant regulator of metastasis in this setting. Comparative genomic expression profiling of NPC cell line clones with high- and low-metastatic potential revealed the serglycin gene (SRGN) as one of the most upregulated genes in highly metastatic cells. RNAi-mediated inhibition of serglycin expression blocked serglycin secretion and the invasive motility of highly metastatic cells, reducing metastatic capacity in vivo. Conversely, serglycin overexpression in poorly metastatic cells increased their motile behavior and metastatic capacity in vivo. Growth rate was not influenced by serglycin in either highly or poorly metastatic cells. Secreted but not bacterial recombinant serglycin promoted motile behavior, suggesting a critical role for glycosylation in serglycin activity. Serglycin inhibition was associated with reduced expression of vimentin but not other epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins. In clinical specimens, serglycin expression was elevated significantly in liver metastases from NPC relative to primary NPC tumors. We evaluated the prognostic value of serglycin by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays from 263 NPC patients followed by multivariate analyses. High serglycin expression in primary NPC was found to be an unfavorable independent indicator of distant metastasis-free and disease-free survival. Our findings establish that glycosylated serglycin regulates NPC metastasis via autocrine and paracrine routes, and that it serves as an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival in NPC patients.
Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(8):3162-72. · 9.28 Impact Factor