[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sources of single photons are key elements in the study of basic quantum
optical concepts and applications in quantum information science. Among the
different sources available, semiconductor quantum dots excel with their
straight forward integrability in semiconductor based on-chip solutions and the
potential that photon emission can be triggered on demand. Usually, the photon
emission event is part of a cascaded biexciton-exciton emission scheme.
Important properties of the emitted photon such as polarization and time of
emission are either probabilistic in nature or pre-determined by electronic
properties of the system. In this work, we study the direct two-photon emission
from the biexciton. We show that emission through this higher-order transition
provides a much more versatile approach to generate a single photon. In the
scheme we propose, the two-photon emission from the biexciton is enabled by a
laser field (or laser pulse) driving the system into a virtual state inside the
band gap. From this intermediate virtual state, the single photon of interest
is then spontaneously emitted. Its properties are determined by the driving
laser pulse, enabling all-optical on-the-fly control of polarization state,
frequency, and time of emission of the photon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emitters based on semiconductor quantum dots are promising sources for
both single photons and pairs of polarization-entangled photons.
Typically, single photons are generated through a photon emission event
bringing the electronic system from a single-exciton state back to the
ground state. In the case of entangled photons two photons are generated
through a cascaded emission from the biexciton to either one of the
single-exciton states and then back to the ground state. Alternatively,
emission of two photons can also be achieved through a higher-order
two-photon process bringing the quantum dot directly from the biexciton
state (through a virtual intermediate state) back to the ground state.
Here we discuss in particular how this two-photon process can lead to
certain conceptual advantages in both the generation of
polarization-entangled photon pairs and generation of single photons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atomistic simulations in the framework of the density functional theory have been used to model morphologic and vibrational properties of lithium niobate–lithium tantalate mixed crystals as a function of the [Nb]/[Ta] ratio. Structural parameters such as the crystal volume and the lattice parameters a and c vary roughly linearly from LiTaO3 to LiNbO3, showing only minor deviations from the Vegard behavior. Our ab initio calculations demonstrate that the TO1, TO2 and TO4 vibrational modes become harder with increasing Nb concentration. TO3 becomes softer with increasing Nb content, instead. Furthermore, the investigated zone center A1-TO phonon modes are characterized by a pronounced stoichiometry dependence. Frequency shifts as large as 30 cm−1 are expected as the [Nb]/[Ta] ratio grows from 0 to 1. Therefore, spectroscopic techniques sensitive to the A1 modes (such as Raman spectroscopy), can be employed for a direct and non-destructive determination of the crystal composition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a finite-difference time-domain method, we theoretically investigate the optical spectra of crossing perpendicular photonic crystal waveguides with quantum dots embedded in the central rod. The waveguides are designed so that the light mainly propagates along one direction and the cross talk is greatly reduced in the transverse direction. It is shown that when a quantum dot (QD) is resonant with the cavity, strong coupling can be observed via both the transmission and crosstalk spectrum. If the cavity is far off-resonant from the QD, both the cavity mode and the QD signal can be detected in the transverse direction since the laser field is greatly suppressed in this direction. This structure could have strong implications for resonant excitation and in-plane detection of QD optical spectroscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the quantum properties and statistics of photons emitted by a quantum-dot biexciton inside a cavity. In the biexciton-exciton cascade, fine-structure splitting between exciton levels degrades polarization-entanglement for the emitted pair of photons. However, here we show that the polarization-entanglement can be preserved in such a system through simultaneous emission of two degenerate photons into cavity modes tuned to half the biexciton energy. Based on detailed theoretical calculations for realistic quantum-dot and cavity parameters, we quantify the degree of achievable entanglement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of localized vibrational modes both at the positive and at the negative LiNbO<sub>3</sub> (0001) surface is demonstrated by means of first-principles calculations and Raman spectroscopy measurements. First, the phonon modes of the crystal bulk and of the (0001) surface are calculated within the density functional theory. In a second step, the Raman spectra of LiNbO<sub>3</sub> bulk and of the two surfaces are measured. The phonon modes localized at the two surfaces are found to be substantially different, and are also found to differ from the bulk modes. The calculated and measured frequencies are in agreement within the error of the method. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be sensitive to differences between bulk and surface and between positive and negative surface. It represents therefore an alternative method to determine the surface polarity, which does not exploit the pyroelectric or piezoelectric properties of the material.
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 10/2011; · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We numerically investigate the interaction dynamics of coupled cavities in planar photonic crystal slabs in different configurations. The single cavity is optimized for a long lifetime of the fundamental mode, reaching a Q-factor of ≈43, 000 using the method of gentle confinement. For pairs of cavities we consider several configurations and present a setup with strongest coupling observable as a line splitting of about 30 nm. Based on this configuration, setups with three cavities are investigated.Highlights► Numerical study of strongly interacting planar photonic crystal cavities. ► Optimization of Q factor to 43,000 for single cavity. ► For two pair of cavities strongest coupling is found for an angle of 30°. ► For three cavities a linear arrangement is optimal.
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications 10/2011; 9(4):345-350. · 1.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser irradiation damage in ZnTe epilayers was analyzed in situ by power-density-dependent and time-resolved micro-Raman spectroscopy. Damage by ablation or compound decomposition on the sample surface was revealed by the decrease of the ZnTe–nLO mode intensity with the increase of laser power density. The appearance of the peaks associated with the stronger crystalline-tellurium modes, tellurium aggregates and second-order Raman scattering at room temperature μ-Raman spectra was observed for higher power densities than 4.4 × 105 W cm−2. The Raman signal time transients of ZnTe–nLO and crystalline-tellurium modes reveal an exponential evolution of the laser irradiation damage and a fast formation of crystalline tellurium aggregates on the layer surface.
Semiconductor Science and Technology 09/2011; 26(10):105023. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Confocal Raman spectroscopy was performed as an archetype imaging method to study the ferroelectric domain structure of periodically poled lithium niobate. More precisely, the linkage out of spatial resolution and spectral information proved itself as very useful. Here a specific modulation of the Raman lines by the local variation of polarity and a non-symmetric measuring-signal across the domain structure were found, which allows for imaging of domain boundaries as well as oppositely orientated domains. The high potential of this method is demonstrated by the visualization of the ferroelectric domain structures based on various phonon modes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silicon oxynitride (SiON) layers for telecommunication device application are grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) for various gas compositions of SiH4, N2O and NH3. Processing and annealing effects on the oxynitride films were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements. By reduction of the silane (SiH4) gas flow and enhancement of the PECVD deposition temperature, the absorption loss due to NH bands can be nearly completely erased. Furthermore the surface roughness can be reduced by decreasing the gas flow and rising the deposition temperature. First waveguide structures are introduced and their characterization is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vibrational properties of the LiNbO3 (0001) surfaces have been investigated both from first principles and with Raman spectroscopy measurements. Firstly, the phonon modes of bulk and of the (0001) surface are calculated by means of the density functional theory. Our calculations reveal the existence of localised vibrational modes both at the positive and at the negative surface. The surface vibrations are found at energies above and within the bulk bands. Phonon modes localised at the positive and at the negative surface differ substantially. In a second step, the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 bulk and of the two surfaces have been measured. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be sensitive to differences between bulk and surface and between positive and negative surface. The calculated and measured frequencies are in agreement within the error of the method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uniform mesoporous Si double layers are formed on 4 inch p-type wafers with an off orientation of 6º towards by means of electrochemical etching in ethanoic-based HF electrolytes. These substrates are of interest for the epitaxial growth of III–V compound semiconductor stacks on their top for the production of multi-junction solar cells and very thin electronic devices. We demonstrate transfer of porous layers after an annealing process in hydrogen atmosphere. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction analysis confirms that the substrate orientation is conserved during the etching and annealing steps. Confocal μ-Raman spectroscopy analysis shows a decrease in the Raman signal intensity after etching and a subsequent increase after annealing while no shift is observed. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy, analysis the surface appearance after the etching and annealing steps can be visualized. The mean surface roughness varies during the process from 0.55nm for the unprocessed wafers to 0.27nm after etching and 0.78nm after annealing. The decrease of average roughness after etching is caused by an electropolishing step prior to porous formation. Despite of slight increase of mean surface roughness after annealing the samples are still appropriate for high quality epitaxial growth and subsequent lift-off.
Thin Solid Films 01/2011; 520(1):606-609. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fluorescence study of acetonitrile solutions of bis(tetramethylguanidine)propane, copper(I)-iodide and [Cu(btmgp)I] was performed and the chemical reaction of the latter species with O2 was investigated at room temperature. The actual quenching process via O2 gassing was studied and an exponential dependence of the fluorescence intensity with respect to the complex concentration was observed.Furthermore the survey was deepened on time resolved fluorescence properties of solved [Cu(btmgp)I] in a wider concentration range. The applicability of this complex for O2 sensing inside a microreactor system was proven by confocal fluorescence measurements. It was shown that the investigated system can be used for oxygen sensing in the copper concentration range from 10−2 to 10−9mol/l.
Journal of Luminescence 10/2010; 130(10):1958-1962. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report on investigations on CdSe quantum dots incorporated in ZnSe based Schottky photodiodes with near-field shadow masks. Photoluminescence and photocurrent of individual quantum dots were studied as a function of the applied bias voltage. The exciton energy of the quantum dot ground state transition was shifted to the excitation energy by using the Stark effect tuning via an external bias voltage. Under the condition of resonance with the laser excitation energy we observed a resonant photocurrent signal due to the tunnelling of carriers out of the quantum dots at electric fields above 500 kV/cm.
Physica E Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 09/2010; · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Damage caused by laser irradiation on the surface of ZnTe epilayers was studied by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZnTe LO-phonon overtones up to four order and TO + (n − 1)LO zone-center phonons were observed in the resonant micro-Raman spectra at room temperature. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the origin of two features observed at low frequencies around 120 and 140 cm−1 in the Raman spectrum of ZnTe are discussed and resolved. These Raman peaks were not detected by using a low excitation laser power density on a Zn-terminated ZnTe surface; however, with the increase of the laser power density they were found to arise irreversibly. The correspondence of these peaks in a wave number with the strongest Raman peaks of the crystalline tellurium phase and the intensity enhancement behavior with the laser power in a similar way as for CdTe strongly suggests the formation of crystalline tellurium aggregates on the layer surface due to laser irradiation damage. AFM data reveal the occurrence of laser ablation on the ZnTe surface even though the surface temperature of the sample is below the melting point.
Semiconductor Science and Technology 06/2010; 25(7):075003. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot, the one-exciton ground-state transition defines a two-level system, which appears as an extremely narrow resonance of only a few μeV width. The resonant interaction of this two-level system with cw laser fields can be studied in detail by photocurrent spectroscopy, revealing the fine structure of the excitonic ground state as well as the effects of nonlinear absorption and power broadening. For the case of pulsed laser fields and in the absence of decoherence, the two-level system represents a qubit. Excitations with ps laser pulses result in qubit rotations, which appear as Rabi oscillations in photocurrent experiments. Double pulse experiments further allow us to infer the decoherence time and to perform coherent control on a two level system.
Israel Journal of Chemistry (Online) 03/2010; 46(4):349 - 356. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An intentional positioning of optically active quantum dots using site-selective growth by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and focused ion beam (FIB) implantation in an all-ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) setup has been successfully demonstrated. A square array of periodic holes on GaAs substrate was fabricated with FIB of 30keV Ga+ ions followed by an in situ annealing step. Subsequently, the patterned holes were overgrown with an optimized amount of InAs in order to achieve site-selective growth of the QDs on the patterned holes. Under well-optimized conditions, a selectivity of single quantum dot growth in the patterned holes of 52% was achieved. Thereafter, carrier injection and subsequent radiative recombination from the positioned InAs/GaAs self-assembled QDs was investigated by embedding the QDs in the intrinsic part of a GaAs-based p–i–n junction device. Electroluminescence spectra taken at 77K show interband transitions up to the fifth excited state from the QDs.
Physica E Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 01/2010; 42(10):2749-2752. · 1.86 Impact Factor