[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon -gamma release assays (IGRAs) provide a new diagnostic method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the diagnostic value of IGRAs for extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) has not been clarified. We searched several databases and selected papers with strict inclusion criteria, evaluated the evidence of commercially available IGRAs (QuantiFERON(®) -TB Gold QFT-G or QFT-GIT and T-SPOT(®) .TB) on blood and the tuberculin skin test (TST) using random effects models. Twenty studies with 1711 patients were included. After excluding indeterminate results, pooled sensitivity for the diagnosis of EPTB was 72% [95% confidence interval (CI) 65-79%] for QFT-G or GIT and 90% (95% CI, 86-93%) for T-SPOT; in high-income countries the sensitivity of QFT-G or GIT (79%, 95% CI 72-86%) was much higher than that (29%, 95% CI 14-48%) in low/middle-income countries. Pooled specificity for EPTB was 82% (95% CI 78-87%) for QFT-G or GIT and 68% (95% CI 64-73%) for T-SPOT. Pooled sensitivity of TST from four studies in high-income countries was lower than that of IGRAs. T-SPOT was more sensitive in detecting EPTB than QFT-G or GIT and TST. However, both IGRAs and TST have similar specificity for EPTB. IGRAs have limited value as diagnostic tools to screen and rule out EPTB, especially in low/middle-income countries. The immune status of patients does not affect the diagnostic accuracy of IGRAs for EPTB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linezolid is a new antibiotic with activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linezolid in the treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). We used a linezolid-containing regimen in the treatment of 14 XDR-TB patients. Two years of individualized chemotherapy regimens were adopted on the basis of the patients'medication history and the results of drug susceptibility testing. The patients received 600 mg of linezolid twice a day for the first 1-2 months, followed by once a day thereafter. Eleven patients (78.6%) showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms. Chest computed tomography revealed that 10 patients (71.4%) showed cavity closure. Smear conversion and culture conversion were achieved in all 14 patients (100%) with an average of 64 and 63 days, respectively. The exact proportions of serious and minor adverse events determined by linezolid were 21.4% (3/14) and 64.3% (9/14), respectively. These data show that linezolid-containing chemotherapy for the treatment of XDR-TB may significantly improve clinical symptoms, promote lesion absorption and cavity closure, and accelerate sputum conversion. Further, adverse reactions can be tolerated and resolved with suitable intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the expressions and the significance of CD(3)(+)CD(16)(+)CD(56)(+) NKT cells, CD(3)(-)CD(16)(+)CD(56)(+) NK cells and T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) pulmonary tuberculosis.
The data of 316 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis hospitalized in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from January 2008 to June 2009 were retrospectively analyzed, of whom 119 were newly diagnosed, and 197 were retreated patients. There were 204 males and 112 females, aged from 17 - 88 years, mean (44 ± 16) years. According to the results of drug-resistance, these patients were divided into a MDR group, an XDR group and a sensitive group. There were 146 patients in the MDR group, with 102 males and 44 females, aged from 19 - 84 years, mean (42 ± 16) years. There were 77 patients in the XDR group, with 42 males and 35 females, aged from 18 - 88 years, mean (50 ± 16) years. There were 93 patients in the susceptible group, with 60 males and 33 females, aged from 17 - 83 years, mean (43 ± 19) years. According to the distribution of cavitation in lung fields, these patients were also divided into 1 - 2 lung field affected group (n = 132), 3 - 4 lung field affected group (n = 49) and 5 - 6 lung field affected group (n = 9). The frequencies of NKT cells, NK cells and T cells from whole blood were tested by flow cytometry. Rank test (SAS software) was used for statistic analyses.
The expression rate of NKT cells and NK cells was the highest in the XDR group [11% (6% - 16%) and 7% (4% - 12%)], as compared to the MDR group [8% (5% - 14%) and 6% (4% - 11%)], and the susceptible group [7% (4% - 11%) and 5% (3% - 9%)], the difference being statistically significant (H = 6.478 - 8.369, P < 0.05). The expression rate of the NKT (14 ± 9)% and NK cells (11 ± 7)% in males of the XDR group was significantly higher than that in females [NKT (9 ± 5)% and NK cell (6 ± 4)%], while CD(4) (38 ± 10)% and CD(4)/CD(8) (1.9 ± 1.3) were significantly lower than those of the females [CD(4) (44 ± 10)% and CD(4)/CD(8)(2.2 ± 0.7)], the difference being statistically significant (z = -2.91 - -2.79, P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The expression rate of CD(4) (42 ± 9)% was the highest, but CD(8) (22 ± 8)% was the lowest in the 1 - 2 lung field group. While in the 5 - 6 lung field group, the expression rate of CD(4) (36 ± 11)% was the lowest, CD(8) (28 ± 12)% was the highest, and CD(4)/CD(8) (1.5 ± 0.8) was the lowest, the difference being statistically significant (H = 8.404 - 16.175, P < 0.01).
With the increasing level of drug resistance, the expression rate of NKT cells and NK cells increased, while the expression of T cell subsets did not change. The value of CD(4) and CD(4)/CD(8) in peripheral blood decreased, but CD(8) increased as the extent of cavitation increased in these patients. The impairment of cellular immune function in XDR-TB was more prominent in male patients.
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases 02/2011; 34(2):109-13.