Won Lee

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (7)32.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with 7-day point prevalence abstinence (abstinence) in randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies in individuals grouped by pharmacotherapy randomization to inform the development of personalized smoking cessation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantified association of four SNPs at three nAChRs with abstinence in eight randomized clinical trials. Participants were 2633 outpatient treatment-seeking, self-identified European ancestry individuals smoking at least 10 cigarettes/day, recruited through advertisement, prescribed pharmacotherapy, and provided with behavioral therapy. Interventions included nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline, placebo (PLA), or combined NRT and bupropion, and five modes of group and individual behavioral therapy. Outcome measures tested in multivariate logistic regression were end of treatment and 6 month (6MO) abstinence, with demographic, behavioral, and genetic covariates. RESULTS: 'Risk' alleles previously associated with smoking heaviness were significantly (P<0.05) associated with reduced abstinence in the PLA pharmacotherapy group (PG) at 6MO [for rs588765, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.41 (0.17-0.99)], and at end of treatment and at 6MO [for rs1051730, 0.42 (0.19-0.93) and 0.31 (0.12-0.80)], and with increased abstinence in the NRT PG at 6MO [for rs588765, 2.07 (1.11-3.87) and for rs1051730, 2.54 (1.29-4.99)]. We observed significant heterogeneity in rs1051730 effects (F=2.48, P=0.021) between PGs. CONCLUSION: chr15q25.1 nAChR SNP risk alleles for smoking heaviness significantly increase relapse with PLA treatment and significantly increase abstinence with NRT. These SNP-PG associations require replication in independent samples for validation, and testing in larger sample sizes to evaluate whether similar effects occur in other PGs.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 12/2012; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Insulin, glucose, and other insulin-related proteins that mediate insulin signaling are associated with colorectal neoplasia risk, but associations with common genetic variation in insulin axis genes are less clear. In this study, we used a comprehensive tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) approach to define genetic variation in six insulin axis genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, IRS1, and IRS2) and three genes associated with estrogen signaling (ESR1, ESR2, and PGR). METHODS: We assessed associations between SNPs and distal colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk in a case-control study of 1,351 subjects. Cases were individuals with one or more adenomas diagnosed during sigmoidoscopy, and controls were individuals with no adenomas at the sigmoidoscopy exam. We used unconditional logistic regression assuming an additive model to assess SNP-specific risks adjusting for multiple comparisons with P (act). RESULTS: Distal adenoma risk was significantly increased for one SNP in IGF2 [per minor allele OR = 1.41; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.67; P (act) = 0.005] and decreased for an ESR2 SNP (per minor allele OR = 0.78; 95 % CI = 0.66, 0.91; P (act) = 0.041). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity of these associations by race, sex, BMI, physical activity, or, in women, hormone replacement therapy use. Risk estimates did not differ in the colon versus rectum or for smaller (<1 cm) versus larger (>1 cm) adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that selected genetic variability in IGF2 and ESR2 may be modifiers of CRA risk.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 05/2012; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Folate-associated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) is an important pathway in colorectal neoplasia risk but data on genetic variation in this pathway are largely limited to studies of single SNPs in selected genes. We used a comprehensive tagSNP approach to study the association between genetic variation in 11 genes in the FOCM pathway and risk of incident distal colorectal adenomas in a sigmoidoscopy-based case-control study. We included 655 cases (one or more adenomas) and 695 controls (no adenomas) recruited from one of two Kaiser Permanente clinics between 1991 and 1995. We assessed a total of 159 tagSNPs selected using Haploview Tagger as well as selected non-synonymous SNPs. We used unconditional logistic regression to model the association between SNPs and risk of distal adenomas, assuming a log-additive model. Five SNPs in the SLC19A1 (RFC1) gene: rs1051266 (G80A), rs283895, rs2236484, rs12482346, and rs2838958 were associated with adenoma risk after correction for multiple testing (all corrected p values ≤ 0.043). The non-synonymous SLC19A1 SNP G80A interacted significantly with the MTHFR C677T genotype (interaction p value = 0.018). Our data suggest that genetic variation in SLC19A1 may modify the risk of distal colorectal adenoma.
    Cancer Causes and Control 01/2011; 22(4):541-52. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Folate-associated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Variation in FOCM genes may explain some of the underlying risk of colorectal cancer. This study utilized data from 1,805 population-based colorectal cancer cases and 2,878 matched sibling controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We used a comprehensive haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tagSNP) approach to select 395 tagSNPs in 15 genes involved in folate and vitamin B(12) metabolism. Genotyping was done using the Illumina GoldenGate or Sequenom platforms. Risk factor and dietary data were collected using self-completed questionnaires. Microsatellite instability (MSI) status was determined using standard techniques, and tumor subsite was obtained from pathology reports. The association between SNPs and colorectal cancer was assessed using conditional logistic regression with sibships as the matching factor and assuming a log additive or codominant model. In the log additive model, two linked (r(2) = 0.99) tagSNPs in the DHFR gene (rs1677693 and rs1643659) were associated with a significant decrease in colorectal cancer risk after correction for multiple testing (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.94; P = 0.029; and odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.95; P = 0.034 for rs1677693 and rs1643659, respectively). These two linked (r(2) = 0.99) tagSNPs and one tagSNP in the MTR gene (rs4659744) were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk only among individuals not using multivitamin supplements. Overall, we found only moderate evidence that genetic variation in 15 folate pathway genes may affect colorectal cancer risk except in non-multivitamin users. This study suggests that multivitamin supplement use may modify the association between folate pathway genes and colorectal cancer risk in a post-folic-acid-supplemented population.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 07/2010; 19(7):1812-21. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MTHFR C677T TT genotype is associated with a 15% to 18% reduction in colorectal cancer risk, but it is not clear if other variants of the gene are associated with colorectal cancer risk. We used a tagSNP approach to comprehensively evaluate associations between variation in the MTHFR gene and colorectal cancer risk using a large family-based case-control study of 1,750 population-based and 245 clinic-based families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We assessed 22 TagSNPs, selected based on pairwise r(2) >95%, using the Haploview Tagger and genotyped the TagSNPs on the Illumina GoldenGate or Sequenom platforms. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and colorectal cancer was assessed using log-additive, codominant, and recessive models. From studying the population-based families, the C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms were associated with a decreased colorectal cancer risk overall [odds ratio (OR), 0.81; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.63-1.04; and OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.07, respectively]. The 677 TT genotype was associated with a decreased risk of microsatellite-stable/microsatellite-low tumors (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97) and an increased risk of microsatellite-high tumors (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 0.91-5.43; P(interaction) = 0.01), as well as an increased risk of proximal cancers and a decreased risk of distal and rectal cancers (P(interaction) = 0.02). No other single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with risk overall or within subgroups. The 677 TT and 1298 CC genotypes may each be associated with a decrease in colorectal cancer risk. We observed little evidence of additional genetic variability in the MTHFR gene relevant to colorectal cancer risk.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 01/2010; 19(1):89-100. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence has been previously demonstrated, there is substantial variability among individuals in treatment response. We performed a systems-based candidate gene study of 1295 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 58 genes within the neuronal nicotinic receptor and dopamine systems to investigate their role in smoking cessation in a bupropion placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Putative functional variants were supplemented with tagSNPs within each gene. We used global tests of main effects and treatment interactions, adjusting the P-values for multiple correlated tests. An SNP (rs2072661) in the 3' UTR region of the beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRNB2) has an impact on abstinence rates at the end of treatment (adjusted P = 0.01) and after a 6-month follow-up period (adjusted P = 0.0002). This latter P-value is also significant with adjustment for the number of genes tested. Independent of treatment at 6-month follow-up, individuals carrying the minor allele have substantially decreased the odds of quitting (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.18-0.55). Effect of estimates indicate that the treatment is more effective for individuals with the wild-type (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.20-3.81) compared with individuals carrying the minor allele (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.32-2.19), although this difference is only suggestive (P = 0.10). Furthermore, this SNP demonstrated a role in the time to relapse (P = 0.0002) and an impact on withdrawal symptoms at target quit date (TQD) (P = 0.0009). Overall, while our results indicate strong evidence for CHRNB2 in ability to quit smoking, these results require replication in an independent sample.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2008; 17(18):2834-48. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have implicated the 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene (LT) pathway in cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may have important implications for asthmatics because several drugs that target this pathway are currently used to treat asthma. We sought to determine whether montelukast, a cysteinyl LT antagonist, and low-dose theophylline affected serum inflammatory and lipid CVD risk factors in a recently completed clinical trial in asthmatic patients. Patients were randomized to receive either montelukast (10 mg/d), theophylline (300 mg/d), or placebo. A baseline run-in period of 7 to 14 days was followed by treatment for 6 months. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured 1 month and 6 months after treatment. Patients with moderate-to-severe asthma receiving montelukast (n = 60) had significantly lower serum CRP compared to placebo (n = 73) after 1 month (1.7 mg/L vs 3.2 mg/L, respectively; p < 0.006) and 6 months of treatment (2.3 mg/L vs 3.5 mg/L, respectively; p < 0.04). At both time points, serum levels of all lipids were also significantly lower in the montelukast and theophylline groups compared to placebo, but these effects were primarily observed in individuals who were also receiving inhaled corticosteroids as monotherapy for asthma. Asthmatic patients receiving montelukast and, to some extent, low-dose theophylline have lower levels of CVD-associated inflammatory biomarkers and lipid levels. These observations suggest these asthma medications may have some beneficial value in asthmatics with respect to CVD risk, although the effects on HDL-C levels should also be taken into consideration.
    Chest 10/2007; 132(3):868-74. · 7.13 Impact Factor