[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and severe respiratory failure are complications of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which in experimental studies increases after activin A release, is known to be related to the severity of H1N1 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 and their association with the severity of respiratory failure in critically ill H1N1 patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock requiring intensive care in Finnish adult population has increased to 0.60 11000 /y. Despite improved prognosis, hospital mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock is high 24.1%. Key recommendations include prompt administration of antimicrobial therapy, optimally after blood cultures, quantitative fluid resuscitation and imaging studies to identify possible source of infection. Crystalloids are suitable for fluid resuscitation. Norepinephrine is the first-choice vasopressor in septic shock. Hydrocortisone should be considered only if fluid and vasopressor treatment does not restore hemodynamics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials in septic shock continue to fail due, in part, to inequitable and sometimes unknown distribution of baseline mortality risk between study arms. Investigators advocate that interventional trials in septic shock require effective outcome risk stratification. We derived and tested a multibiomarker-based approach to estimate mortality risk in adults with septic shock.
Previous genome-wide expression studies identified 12 plasma proteins as candidates for biomarker-based risk stratification. The current analysis used banked plasma samples and clinical data from existing studies. Biomarkers were assayed in plasma samples obtained from 341 subjects with septic shock within 24 hours of admission to the ICU. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to generate a decision tree predicting 28-day mortality based on a combination of both biomarkers and clinical variables. The derived tree was first tested in an independent cohort of 331 subjects, then calibrated using all subjects (n = 672), and subsequently validated in another independent cohort (n = 209).
Multiple ICUs in Canada, Finland, and the United States.
Eight hundred eighty-one adults with septic shock or severe sepsis.
The derived decision tree included five candidate biomarkers, admission lactate concentration, age, and chronic disease burden. In the derivation cohort, sensitivity for mortality was 94% (95% CI, 87-97), specificity was 56% (50-63), positive predictive value was 50% (43-57), and negative predictive value was 95% (89-98). Performance was comparable in the test cohort. The calibrated decision tree had the following test characteristics in the validation cohort: sensitivity 85% (76-92), specificity 60% (51-69), positive predictive value 61% (52-70), and negative predictive value 85% (75-91).
We have derived, tested, calibrated, and validated a risk stratification tool and found that it reliably estimates the probability of mortality in adults with septic shock.
Critical care medicine 12/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate post-resuscitation care, implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in Finland. METHODS: We included all adult OHCA patients admitted to 21 ICUs in Finland from March 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011 in this prospective observational study. Patients were followed (mortality and neurological outcome evaluated by Cerebral Performance Categories, CPC) within 1 year after cardiac arrest. RESULTS: This study included 548 patients treated after OHCA. Of those, 311 patients (56.8 %) had a shockable initial rhythm (incidence of 7.4/100,000/year) and 237 patients (43.2 %) had a non-shockable rhythm (incidence of 5.6/100,000/year). At ICU admission, 504 (92 %) patients were unconscious. TH was given to 241/281 (85.8 %) unconscious patients resuscitated from shockable rhythms, with unfavourable 1-year neurological outcome (CPC 3-4-5) in 42.0 % with TH versus 77.5 % without TH (p < 0.001). TH was given to 70/223 (31.4 %) unconscious patients resuscitated from non-shockable rhythms, with 1-year CPC of 3-4-5 in 80.6 % (54/70) with TH versus 84.0 % (126/153) without TH (p = 0.56). This lack of difference remained after adjustment for propensity to receive TH in patients with non-shockable rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: One-year unfavourable neurological outcome of patients with shockable rhythms after TH was lower than in previous randomized controlled trials. However, our results do not support use of TH in patients with non-shockable rhythms.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 02/2013; · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inducer of vascular endothelial leakage in severe infections. Fluid accumulation into alveoli is a general finding in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Severe acute respiratory failure with ARDS is a complication of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Accordingly, we studied the HBP levels in critically ill patients with infection of influenza A(H1N1).Critically ill patients in four intensive care units (ICUs) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed infection of influenza A(H1N1) were prospectively evaluated. We collected clinical data and blood samples at ICU admission and on day 2. Twenty-nine patients participated in the study. Compared with normal plasma levels, the HBP concentrations were highly elevated at baseline and at day 2: 98 ng/mL (62-183 ng/mL) and 93 ng/mL (62-271 ng/mL) (p 0.876), respectively. HBP concentrations were correlated with the lowest ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fraction of inspired oxygen (PF ratio) during the ICU stay (rho = -0.321, p <0.05). In patients with and without invasive mechanical ventilation, the baseline HBP levels were 152 ng/mL (72-237 ng/mL) and 83 ng/mL (58-108 ng/mL) (p 0.088), respectively. The respective values at day 2 were 223 ng/mL (89-415 ng/mL) and 81 ng/mL (55-97 ng/mL) (p <0.05). The patients with septic shock/severe sepsis (compared with those without) did not have statistically significant differences in HBP concentrations at baseline or day 2. HBP concentrations are markedly elevated in all critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection. The increase in HBP concentrations seems to be associated with more pronounced respiratory dysfunction.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Finnish ICUs. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multi-centre study comprised adult emergency admissions and elective patients whose stay exceeded 24 h during a 5-month period in 17 Finnish ICUs. We defined AKI first by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria supplemented with a baseline creatinine and second with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We screened the patients' AKI status and risk factors for up to 5 days. RESULTS: We included 2,901 patients. The incidence (95 % confidence interval) of AKI was 39.3 % (37.5-41.1 %). The incidence was 17.2 % (15.8-18.6 %) for stage 1, 8.0 % (7.0-9.0 %) for stage 2 and 14.1 % (12.8-15.4 %) for stage 3 AKI. Of the 2,901 patients 296 [10.2 % (9.1-11.3 %)] received renal replacement therapy. We received an identical classification with the new KDIGO criteria. The population-based incidence (95 % CI) of ICU-treated AKI was 746 (717-774) per million population per year (reference population: 3,671,143, i.e. 85 % of the Finnish adult population). In logistic regression, pre-ICU hypovolaemia, diuretics, colloids and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for AKI. Hospital mortality (95 % CI) for AKI patients was 25.6 % (23.0-28.2 %) and the 90-day mortality for AKI patients was 33.7 % (30.9-36.5 %). All AKIN stages were independently associated with 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AKI in the critically ill in Finland was comparable to previous large multi-centre ICU studies. Hospital mortality (26 %) in AKI patients appeared comparable to or lower than in other studies.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 01/2013; · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prognostic information of chromogranin A (CgA), a marker associated with adrenergic tone and myocardial function, in patients with severe sepsis.
CgA levels were measured at the time of study inclusion and 72 h later in 232 patients with severe sepsis recruited from 24 ICUs in Finland (FINNSEPSIS study).
Sixty-five patients (28%) died during the index hospitalization. CgA levels at inclusion and after 72 h correlated with several established indices of risk in sepsis. Patients who died during the hospitalization had higher baseline CgA levels than hospital survivors: 14.0 (Q1-3, 7.4-27.4) versus 9.1 (5.9-15.8) nmol/l, P = 0.002, and after 72 h: 16.2 (9.0-31.1) versus 9.8 (6.0-18.0) nmol/l, P = 0.001. Prior cardiovascular disease (P = 0.04) and cardiovascular SOFA levels on day 3 (P = 0.03) were associated with higher CgA levels after 72 h by linear regression. CgA levels on study inclusion and after 72 h were independently associated with hospital mortality by logistic regression: OR (logarithmically transformed CgA levels) 1.95 (95% CI 1.01-3.77), P = 0.046 and OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.18-3.49), P = 0.01, respectively. The prognostic accuracy was comparable for CgA measurements and SAPS II score, and the addition of CgA measurements to the SAPS II score improved risk stratification of the patients as assessed by the category-free net reclassification index. A CgA level >6.6 nmol/l on study inclusion was associated with septic shock during the hospitalization.
CgA levels measured during hospitalization for severe sepsis are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and may provide additional prognostic information in patients with severe sepsis.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 04/2012; 38(5):820-9. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term sedation with midazolam or propofol in intensive care units (ICUs) has serious adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine, an α(2)-agonist available for ICU sedation, may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and enhance patient comfort.
To determine the efficacy of dexmedetomidine vs midazolam or propofol (preferred usual care) in maintaining sedation; reducing duration of mechanical ventilation; and improving patients' interaction with nursing care.
Two phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blind trials carried out from 2007 to 2010. The MIDEX trial compared midazolam with dexmedetomidine in ICUs of 44 centers in 9 European countries; the PRODEX trial compared propofol with dexmedetomidine in 31 centers in 6 European countries and 2 centers in Russia. Included were adult ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation who needed light to moderate sedation for more than 24 hours (midazolam, n = 251, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 249; propofol, n = 247, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 251).
Sedation with dexmedetomidine, midazolam, or propofol; daily sedation stops; and spontaneous breathing trials.
For each trial, we tested whether dexmedetomidine was noninferior to control with respect to proportion of time at target sedation level (measured by Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale) and superior to control with respect to duration of mechanical ventilation. Secondary end points were patients' ability to communicate pain (measured using a visual analogue scale [VAS]) and length of ICU stay. Time at target sedation was analyzed in per-protocol population (midazolam, n = 233, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 227; propofol, n = 214, vs dexmedetomidine, n = 223).
Dexmedetomidine/midazolam ratio in time at target sedation was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.97-1.18) and dexmedetomidine/propofol, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08). Median duration of mechanical ventilation appeared shorter with dexmedetomidine (123 hours [IQR, 67-337]) vs midazolam (164 hours [IQR, 92-380]; P = .03) but not with dexmedetomidine (97 hours [IQR, 45-257]) vs propofol (118 hours [IQR, 48-327]; P = .24). Patients' interaction (measured using VAS) was improved with dexmedetomidine (estimated score difference vs midazolam, 19.7 [95% CI, 15.2-24.2]; P < .001; and vs propofol, 11.2 [95% CI, 6.4-15.9]; P < .001). Length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality were similar. Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam patients had more hypotension (51/247 [20.6%] vs 29/250 [11.6%]; P = .007) and bradycardia (35/247 [14.2%] vs 13/250 [5.2%]; P < .001).
Among ICU patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation, dexmedetomidine was not inferior to midazolam and propofol in maintaining light to moderate sedation. Dexmedetomidine reduced duration of mechanical ventilation compared with midazolam and improved patients' ability to communicate pain compared with midazolam and propofol. More adverse effects were associated with dexmedetomidine.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00481312, NCT00479661.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2012; 307(11):1151-60. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence, treatment, and outcome of influenza A(H1N1) in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) with special reference to corticosteroid treatment.
During the H1N1 outbreak in Finland between 11 October and 31 December 2009, we prospectively evaluated all consecutive ICU patients with high suspicion of or confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection. We assessed severity of acute disease and daily organ dysfunction. Ventilatory support and other concomitant treatments were evaluated and recorded daily throughout the ICU stay. The primary outcome was hospital mortality.
During the 3-month period altogether 132 ICU patients were tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for influenza A(H1N1). Of these patients, 78% needed non-invasive or invasive ventilatory support. The median (interquartile) length of ICU stay was 4 [2-12] days. Hospital mortality was 10 of 132 [8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-12%]. Corticosteroids were administered to 72 (55%) patients, but rescue therapies except prone positioning were infrequently used. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores in patients with and without corticosteroid treatment were 31 [24-36] and 6 [2-8] vs. 22 [5-30] and 3 [2-6], respectively. The crude hospital mortality was not different in patients with corticosteroid treatment compared to those without: 8 of 72 (11%, 95% CI 4-19%) vs. 2 of 60 (3%, 95% CI 0-8%) (P = 0.11).
The majority of H1N1 patients in ICUs received ventilatory support. Corticosteroids were administered to more than half of the patients. Despite being more severely ill, patients given corticosteroids had comparable hospital outcome with patients not given corticosteroids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. We studied serum levels of MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1) in a multicentre, prospective cohort study of patients with sepsis treated in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We analyzed serum samples taken on ICU admission from 248 critically ill sepsis patients. MMP-8, -9 and TIMP-1 serum levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis than in healthy controls. Serum MMP-8 levels among non-survivors (n=33) were significantly (p=0.006) higher than among survivors (n=215). Serum TIMP-1 but not MMP-9 levels were significantly higher among non-survivors than survivors (p<0.0001, p=0.079, respectively). Systemic MMP-8 is upregulated in sepsis suggesting that MMP-8 may contribute to the host response during sepsis. High serum MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels at ICU admission were seen among patients with fatal outcome. With this background, clinical studies examining the ability of MMP-inhibitors (such as the non-antimicrobial properties of tetracyclines) to diminish the MMP-mediated inflammatory response are needed to develop novel therapies in order to improve the outcome of sepsis.
Pharmacological Research 07/2011; 64(6):590-4. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microvascular flap surgery is a common technique in reconstructive surgery. The wide indications and variable patients provide challenge also for anesthesiologist. Both hypotension and hypoperfusion can be harmful to the flap. Hypotensive patients are treated with fluid resuscitation and vasopressors (e.g., norepinephrine), if needed. As vasoconstrictors, vasopressors might impair microvascular flap perfusion. In this experimental pig model we studied the effect of sevoflurane-induced hypotension on the perfusion of microvascular and superiorly pedicled rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. In addition, we evaluated the effect of norepinephrine on flap perfusion when it was used for correction of hypotension. Microdialysis (MD) was used to detect metabolic changes, as it is a sensitive method to detect early changes of tissue metabolism and ischemia in different tissue components of soft tissue flaps. The main finding of this study was that moderate degree of normovolemic hypotension or the use of norepinephrine for the correction of this hypotension did not affect flap perfusion as assessed by MD. More studies are clearly needed to confirm the safety of norepinephrine in clinical use in microsurgery.
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 06/2011; 27(7):419-26. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute hemodynamic instability increases morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether early non-invasive cardiac output monitoring enhances hemodynamic stabilization and improves outcome.
A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted in three European university hospital intensive care units in 2006 and 2007. A total of 388 hemodynamically unstable patients identified during their first six hours in the intensive care unit (ICU) were randomized to receive either non-invasive cardiac output monitoring for 24 hrs (minimally invasive cardiac output/MICO group; n = 201) or usual care (control group; n = 187). The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients achieving hemodynamic stability within six hours of starting the study.
The number of hemodynamic instability criteria at baseline (MICO group mean 2.0 (SD 1.0), control group 1.8 (1.0); P = .06) and severity of illness (SAPS II score; MICO group 48 (18), control group 48 (15); P = .86)) were similar. At 6 hrs, 45 patients (22%) in the MICO group and 52 patients (28%) in the control group were hemodynamically stable (mean difference 5%; 95% confidence interval of the difference -3 to 14%; P = .24). Hemodynamic support with fluids and vasoactive drugs, and pulmonary artery catheter use (MICO group: 19%, control group: 26%; P = .11) were similar in the two groups. The median length of ICU stay was 2.0 (interquartile range 1.2 to 4.6) days in the MICO group and 2.5 (1.1 to 5.0) days in the control group (P = .38). The hospital mortality was 26% in the MICO group and 21% in the control group (P = .34).
Minimally-invasive cardiac output monitoring added to usual care does not facilitate early hemodynamic stabilization in the ICU, nor does it alter the hemodynamic support or outcome. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate technologies used to measure stroke volume and cardiac output--especially their impact on the process of care--before any large-scale outcome studies are attempted.
The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Clinical Trials identifier NCT00354211).
Critical care (London, England) 06/2011; 15(3):R148. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc deficiency leads to susceptibility to infections and may affect pulmonary epithelial cell integrity. Low zinc levels have also been associated with a degree of organ failure and decreased survival in critically ill children. Accordingly, the purpose of the study was to assess serum zinc in adult patients with acute respiratory failure, its association with ventilatory support time, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), organ dysfunction and 30-day mortality.
We included consecutive patients with acute respiratory failure during an eight-week prospective, observational multicentre study (the FINNALI-study). Acute respiratory failure was defined as a need for either non-invasive or invasive positive pressure ventilation for >6 h regardless of the underlying cause or risk factors. After informed consent, a sample for zinc measurement was drawn at 6 h after the start of treatment and analysed from 551 of these patients.
Low serum zinc was frequent (95.8%) at the onset acute respiratory failure. The median interquartile range [IQR] was 4.7 [3.0-6.9] μmol/l. The median [IQR] serum zinc levels in non-infectious, sepsis and septic shock patients were 5.0 [3.1-7.1], 5.1 [3.5-7.3] and 3.8 [2.6-5.9] μmol/l, respectively, P<0.01. Baseline zinc levels were not associated with ventilatory support time (P=0.98) or ICU LOS (P=0.053). The area under curve in receiver operating characteristics analysis for serum zinc regarding 30-day mortality was 0.55 (95% CI 0.49-0.60).
Serum zinc on initiation of ventilation had no predictive value for 30-day mortality, ventilatory support time or intensive care unit LOS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early use of corticosteroids in patients affected by pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection, although relatively common, remains controversial.
Prospective, observational, multicenter study from 23 June 2009 through 11 February 2010, reported in the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) H1N1 registry.
Two hundred twenty patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with completed outcome data were analyzed. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 155 (70.5%). Sixty-seven (30.5%) of the patients died in ICU and 75 (34.1%) whilst in hospital. One hundred twenty-six (57.3%) patients received corticosteroid therapy on admission to ICU. Patients who received corticosteroids were significantly older and were more likely to have coexisting asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic steroid use. These patients receiving corticosteroids had increased likelihood of developing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) [26.2% versus 13.8%, p < 0.05; odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5]. Patients who received corticosteroids had significantly higher ICU mortality than patients who did not (46.0% versus 18.1%, p < 0.01; OR 3.8, CI 2.1-7.2). Cox regression analysis adjusted for severity and potential confounding factors identified that early use of corticosteroids was not significantly associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.4, p = 0.4] but was still associated with an increased rate of HAP (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8, p < 0.05). When only patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were analyzed, similar results were observed.
Early use of corticosteroids in patients affected by pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection did not result in better outcomes and was associated with increased risk of superinfections.
European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 02/2011; 37(2):272-83. · 5.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By tradition colloid solutions have been used to obtain fast circulatory stabilisation in shock, but high molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (HES) may cause acute kidney failure in patients with severe sepsis. Now lower molecular weight HES 130/0.4 is the preferred colloid in Scandinavian intensive care units (ICUs) and 1st choice fluid for patients with severe sepsis. However, HES 130/0.4 is largely unstudied in patients with severe sepsis.
The 6S trial will randomize 800 patients with severe sepsis in 30 Scandinavian ICUs to masked fluid resuscitation using either 6% HES 130/0.4 in Ringer's acetate or Ringer's acetate alone. The composite endpoint of 90-day mortality or end-stage kidney failure is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome measures are severe bleeding or allergic reactions, organ failure, acute kidney failure, days alive without renal replacement therapy or ventilator support and 28-day and 1/2- and one-year mortality. The sample size will allow the detection of a 10% absolute difference between the two groups in the composite endpoint with a power of 80%.
The 6S trial will provide important safety and efficacy data on the use of HES 130/0.4 in patients with severe sepsis. The effects on mortality, dialysis-dependency, time on ventilator, bleeding and markers of resuscitation, metabolism, kidney failure, and coagulation will be assessed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this survey was to investigate clinicians' current approach to the haemodynamic management and resuscitation endpoints in septic shock.
This cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire-based survey was sent to the clinical director of selected ICUs in 16 European countries. The questionnaire consisted of two parts and 25 questions. The first part retrieved general information on the hospital and ICU, and the second part of the questionnaire collected detailed information on the approach to haemodynamic management of septic shock.
Of 481 clinicians invited to participate, 237 (49.3%) responded. Ninety-two questionnaires were excluded because of more than 20% missing responses, rendering 145 (30.1%) for statistical analysis. Administration of albumin (P = 0.007), gelatine preparations (P = 0.002), Ringer's solution (P = 0.02) and isotonic saline (P = 0.001) for fluid resuscitation varied between respondents from different countries. Further differences between respondents from different countries were observed for the choice of the first-line inotropic drug (P < 0.001), use of supplementary vasopressin (P = 0.02), supplementary fludrocortisone (P = 0.05) and measurement of cardiac output with the transpulmonary thermodilution (P = 0.001), lithium dilution (P = 0.004) and oesophageal Doppler (P = 0.005) technique. Mean arterial blood pressure (87%), central venous oxygen saturation (65%), central venous pressure (59%), systolic arterial blood pressure (48%), mixed venous oxygen saturation (42%) and cardiac index (42%) were the six haemodynamic variables most commonly claimed to be used as resuscitation endpoints.
The current approach to the haemodynamic management of septic shock patients in a selected cohort of European ICU clinicians is in agreement with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines with the exception of the haemodynamic goals.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 11/2010; 28(4):284-90. · 2.79 Impact Factor