ABSTRACT: We show carbon monoxide (CO) distributions at different vertical levels over the subtropical southern Indian Ocean, analyzing an observation campaign using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectrometry performed in 2007 at Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E). The CO pollution levels detected by the FTIR measurements during the campaign show a doubling of the CO total columns during the Southern Hemisphere biomass burning season. Using correlative data from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument and back trajectories analyses, we show that the potential primary sources for CO throughout the troposphere in 2007 are southern Africa (June–August) and South America (September–October). A secondary potential contribution from Southeast Asia and Indonesia-Malaysia was identified in the upper troposphere, especially in July and September. We examine the relation between the Asian monsoon anticyclone seasonal cycle and this result. We also investigate the relative contribution of different areas across the globe to the CO concentration in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean in 2007 using backward simulations combining the Lagrangian model FLEXPART 6.2, the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2.1) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv3.2-FT2000). We confirm the predominance of the African and South American contributions in the CO concentration in the southern subtropical Indian Ocean below 11 km. We show that CO transported from Australia makes only a small contribution to the total CO concentration observed over Reunion Island, and that the long-range transport of CO coming from Southeast Asia and Indonesia-Malaysia is important, especially from June until September in the upper troposphere.
Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres.