Vanessa M. Patrick

Boston College, USA, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (34)16.76 Total impact

  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Kelly Haws
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    ABSTRACT: Subtle differences in language can influence consumer perception. We examine the difference between using the conjunctions “and” versus “with” in communicating value in product combinations. We theorize that individuals engage in a lexical inferencing process when encoding the semantic meaning of words used in natural language. Drawing on this theory, we show that the conjunction “and” is a value equivalent frame and connotes that both items in a product combination are of equal value, while the conjunction “with” is a value discriminant frame and subtly connotes that one item may be of greater value than another. We present a set of three experiments to demonstrate that (1) the conjunction “with” subtly connotes greater value than “and”, (2) this effect is observed when the product combination has two products that are unequal (not equal) in intrinsic value; study 1) and (3) the effect is enhanced by an analytical processing style (studies 2 and 3).
    06/2012;
  • Nicole L Mead, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Scholars long have examined self-control strategies through the lens of resistance, emphasizing that willpower is the primary psychological resource that humans use to suppress hardwired visceral responses. However, resistance is often fallible because it draws from limited resources while simultaneously increasing desire for the forbidden good. The present work examines a novel strategy that facilitates self-control through desire-reduction rather than willpower-enhancement: postponing pleasures. Participants who postponed consumption of a tempting snack consumed less of that snack in the short- and long-term, relative to participants who resisted, delayed gratification, or indulged. Consistent with theorizing, reduced consumption of the postponed snack in the longer-term (one week post-experiment) was accounted for by diminished desire for the snack. Whereas indefinite postponement diminished consumption, specific postponement resulted in ingestion.
    06/2012;
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, C.W. Park, Henrik Hagtvedt
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    ABSTRACT: Some products have a transformative impact on our consumption behaviors, occur relatively rarely, and, are recognized only in hindsight. In this research we aim to investigate the characteristics of these products and the acquisition motivations they evoke. Depth interviews are utilized to uncover the nature of acquisition motivations that transform the evolution of consumption over time. We discuss the theoretical, managerial, and public policy implications of these motivations, and suggest directions for further investigation.
    06/2012;
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Henrik Hagtvedt
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    ABSTRACT: Image modification is a frequently used technique in advertising, but there exists little theory or empirical research to assess whether, when, and how image modification influences consumer response. Further, apparent contradictions arise when extrapolating perspectives from the extant literature, with one stream of literature suggesting that familiar images have a favorable influence and another stream suggesting that novel images do. We propose that the two perspectives do not always conflict and present a theory of novelizing the familiar, suggesting that a combination of familiarity and novelty in visual images may in fact be optimal. We present three experiments to support this theory in the context of modified images. In addition, we implicate perceived ingenuity, the recognition of creative cleverness in a stimulus, as the consumer response that underlies effective image modification.
    06/2012;
  • Henrik Hagtvedt, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Luxury brands often partner with charities. Prior research suggests that these partnerships can be successful because altruism feels good. We propose an alternative explanation: that the association with charity allows consumers to experience the pleasure of luxury with less guilt than they might otherwise feel. In three experiments we demonstrate that charity co-branding has a favorable influence on purchase intent toward luxury products, via a mechanism of guilt reduction (Studies 1 and 2), while this influence is diminished for consumers with a reward (vs. indulgence) motivation (Study 3).
    06/2012;
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Sonja Prokopec
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    ABSTRACT: The current research suggests that what determines whether a luxury brand is diluted by a successful brand extension is the extent to which the lower-end extension is able to satiate the consumer’s desire for the luxury brand experience. We thus propose a theory of dream substitution to explain when and why a successful luxury brand extension can result in dilution of the luxury brand.
    06/2012;
  • Julia Belyavsky Bayuk, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that a difficult (versus easy) investment process increases retirement savings (a "no pain, no gain" effect) for individuals who have limited information about retirement.
    06/2012;
  • Sonja Prokopec, Francine Espinoza, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research shows that mental budgets are effective self-regulatory tools because they are set around a self-control goal and allow consumers to monitor their choices against this goal. Our research bridges the domains of mental budgeting and construal level theory to show that (1) mental budgets are more effective self-control devices when consumers make decisions for present versus future consumption (study 1) and (2) concrete (vs. abstract) mindsets increase reliance on mental budgets for both present and future decisions (studies 2 and 3).
    06/2012;
  • Lauren Labrecque, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Color carries meaning and can influence consumers’ thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Many disciplines, such as neuroscience, psychophysics, visual cognition, and biology have used new technologies to gain insights in understanding the complexities of color perception, yet there exists relatively little research in the field of marketing. This paper aims to reestablish the importance of color research in marketing, draw attention to the complex nature of this research and to fuel further investigation and the development of new insights about color as it relates to marketing. The authors offer an integrated conceptual framework centered on the embodied and referential meanings of color, and highlight the complexities and nuances that researchers must consider in order to develop this area. Insights from and gaps in the extant literature are highlighted to present a set of questions and propositions for future research in this area of investigation.
    06/2012;
  • Candice Hollenbeck, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the accessibility of social media and networking sites, consumers still feel lonely.The current research investigates a particular form of loneliness experienced by cancer survivors – survivor loneliness – and seeks to understand the role of technology as a coping mechanism. Prior research shows that loneliness can be reduced by increasing social support via technology and that technological tools such as communal forums can serve as important tools to alleviate loneliness. However, do all cancer patients use technology in the same way? Our findings illustrate that cancer survivors differ in their motivation and ability to rely on available technology to cope with lonely feelings. In addition, to alleviate social isolation, patients must be able to engage in congenial conversation within an online patient support community. Utilizing depth interviews with cancer survivors, our study helps promote the well-being of this population by providing insights and offering recommendations regarding their use of technology.
    06/2012;
  • Amar Cheema, Vanessa M. Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Across five studies, the authors demonstrate that warm (versus cool) temperatures deplete resources, increase System 1 processing, and influence performance on complex choice tasks. Real-world lottery data (Pilot Study) and a lab experiment (Study 1) demonstrate the effect of temperature on complex choice: individuals are less likely to make difficult gambles in warmer temperatures. Study 2 implicates resource depletion as the underlying process; warm temperatures lower cognitive performance for non-depleted individuals, but don’t affect the performance of depleted individuals. Study 3 illustrates the moderating role of task complexity to show that warm temperatures are depleting and decrease willingness to make a difficult product choice. Study 4 juxtaposes the effects of depletion and temperature to reveal that warm temperatures hamper performance on complex tasks because of the participants’ increased reliance on System 1 (heuristic) processing.
    05/2012;
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Henrik Hagtvedt
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    ABSTRACT: This research is based on the insight that the language we use to describe our choices serves as a feedback mechanism that either enhances or impedes our goal-directed behavior. Specifically, we investigate the influence of a linguistic element of self-talk, in which a refusal may be framed as “I don’t” (vs. “I can’t”), on resisting temptation and motivating goal-directed behavior. We present a set of four studies to demonstrate the efficacy of the “don’t” (vs. “can’t”) framing (studies 1–3) when the source of the goal is internal (vs. external; studies 2A and 2B), as well as the mediating role of psychological empowerment (studies 1, 2A, and 2B). We demonstrate this novel and effective refusal strategy with actual choice (study 1) and with behavioral intent (studies 2A and 2B) and also illustrate its applicability in the real world in a longitudinal intervention-based field study (study 3).
    Journal of Consumer Research 01/2012; · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Henrik Hagtvedt
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    ABSTRACT: This research investigates the influence of refusal frames on persuasiveness in an interpersonal context. Specifically, the refusal frame “I don’t” is more persuasive than the refusal frame “I can’t” because the former connotes conviction to a higher degree. This perceived conviction is tied to the identity-signaling function of the refusal frame. Two studies demonstrate that 1) the “don’t” frame is more persuasive than the “can’t” frame, 2) perceived conviction mediates the influence of refusal frame on persuasiveness, and 3) attributions to the refuser’s identity explain perceived conviction.
    01/2012;
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    Henrik Hagtvedt, Vanessa M Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: Broadly speaking, artworks are accorded a special significance and are recognized as powerful communication tools. In the current research, the authors posit that the "specialness" of artworks may be diminished simply by emphasizing that which is depicted in them. This emphasis results in the artwork being viewed as a mere illustration rather than a work of art. Specifically, the influence of an "artwork as art" is context independent, but the influence of an "artwork as illustration" is context dependent. The authors demonstrate this phenomenon in two experiments, in the context of products associated with artworks. In a third experiment, they further demonstrate that an abstract (concrete) mind-set aligns with the influence of an artwork as art (illustration).
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 08/2011; 37(12):1624-32. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value.
    NeuroImage 03/2011; 55(1):420-33. · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Henrik Hagtvedt
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    ABSTRACT: The critical incident study looks at the phenomenon of aesthetic incongruity resolution from the behavioral outcome perspective and investigates the product characteristics associated with the buy more versus return option. The data were coded by two independent coders, blind to the hypotheses, to shed additional light on the phenomenon of aesthetic incongruity resolution. These coders identified the different product categories that were mentioned, as well as the nature of these products (hedonic/functional), and they rated the products in terms of design salience based on the respondents’ descriptions. Full agreement was reached by the coders via discussion regarding the product categories and nature of the product. For design salience, the average rating between coders is reported. The data are presented by the critical incident condition (i.e., behavioral outcome of buy more versus return) and by gender.
    Journal of Marketing Research 01/2011; 48(2). · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Vanessa M. Patrick, Laura A. Peracchio
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available for this submission
    Journal of Consumer Psychology - J CONSUM PSYCHOL. 01/2010; 20(4):393-397.
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    Henrik Hagtvedt, Vanessa M Patrick
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    ABSTRACT: This research proposes a feelings-based account of brand extension evaluation and demonstrates that the promise of pleasure (hedonic potential) associated with luxury brands is a key driver of brand extendibility. In four studies, we contrast a luxury brand with a value brand. Both brand concepts lead to equally favorable brand evaluations, but the luxury brand concept results in more favorable brand extension evaluations due to the hedonic potential inherent in this concept. However, the luxury brand is shown to be sensitive to inconsistent brand cues, leading to diminished hedonic potential and consequently decreased brand and brand extension evaluations. The legendary Scheherazade of Arabian Nights fame kept herself from being beheaded by the promise of pleasure from her fascinating stories. She enraptured the king, who typically executed his virgin wives after one night of being with them, by telling him a story that made him eagerly anticipate her next exciting new story, night after night, for one thousand and one nights. The promise of pleasure is indeed powerful, and evokes in us the motivation to re-experience pleasurable feelings again and again. We draw inspiration from this tale to investigate how, like Scheherazade, luxury brands make a similar promise of pleasure, not only for the experience of that product alone but also for other products that bear the same brand name. The central thesis of this research is that luxury brands are more extendible than value brands by virtue of their hedonic potential, or, in other words, their promise of pleasure.
    07/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that anticipating pride from resisting temptation facilitates self-control due to an enhanced focus on the self while anticipating shame from giving in to temptation results in self-control failure due to a focus on the tempting stimulus. In two studies we demonstrate the effects of anticipating pride (vs. shame) on self-control thoughts and behavior over time (Studies 1 and 2) and illustrate the process mechanism of self vs. stimulus focus underlying the differential influence of these emotions on self-control (Study 2). We present thought protocols, behavioral data (quantity consumed) and observational data (number/size of bites) to support our hypotheses. Consumers often anticipate how their choices will make them feel. Anticipating feelings from consumption is important because anticipated emotions can help to clarify our preferences (Kahneman & Snell, 1992) and influence the choices we make (Gilbert et al., 1998). Despite their relevance to consumer choice, the impact of anticipated emotions on emotional and behavioral regulation, especially in the domain of self-control is under-studied (Baumeister et al., 2007, 2008), though posited to be quite powerful (MacInnis & Patrick, 2006). More than two thousand years ago Socrates asserted in Plato's Phaedrus (approximately 370 BC) that there are two horses in the soul, the one—unruly, governed by passions and constantly pulling in the direction of pleasure; the other restrained, dutiful, obedient and governed by a sense of shame. Shame can be a powerful regulator of human behavior (Tangney & Dearing, 2002). However, when faced with a tempting stimulus, one might anticipate not only shame from succumbing to the temptation, as proposed by Socrates, but also pride from not succumbing and resisting temptation (c.f.
    07/2009;
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    Vanessa M. Patrick, Matthew Lancellotti, Henrik Hagtvedt
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    ABSTRACT: Prior research has demonstrated that consumers who take an opportunity and are satisfied (satisfied takers) are likely to avail of a future opportunity when it is presented again but those who forsake an opportunity and experience regret (regretful forsakers) are less likely to do so, exhibiting inaction inertia. In this research we demonstrate when and why regret for inaction may result in the intent to avail of a future opportunity and compare this intent with that of satisfied consumers. Specifically, we demonstrate in two studies that (1) when consumers forgo an opportunity and experience regret, they are motivated to avail of a similar opportunity when it is presented in the future, and (2) this intent by regretful forsakers may be more intense than that experienced by satisfied customers due to the elicitation of mental imagery regarding the anticipated consumption episode.
    Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 01/2009; 37(2):181-190. · 2.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

153 Citations
71 Downloads
999 Views
16.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Boston College, USA
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Marketing
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Southern California
      • Marshall School of Business
      Los Angeles, California, United States