Tsuyoshi Igami

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

Are you Tsuyoshi Igami?

Claim your profile

Publications (130)239.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Right-sided hepatectomy is often selected for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, due to the anatomic consideration that "the left hepatic duct is longer than that of the right hepatic duct". However, only one study briefly mentioned the length of the hepatic ducts. Our aim is to investigate whether the consideration is correct. In surgical study, the lengths of the resected bile duct were measured using pictures of the resected specimens in 475 hepatectomized patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. In radiological study, the estimated lengths of the bile duct to be resected were measured using cholangiograms reconstructed from computed tomography images in 61 patients with distal bile duct obstruction. In surgical study, the length of the resected left hepatic duct was 25.1 ± 6.4 mm in right trisectionectomy (n = 37) and 14.9 ± 5.7 mm in right hepatectomy (n = 167). The length of the right hepatic duct was 14.1 ± 5.7 mm in left hepatectomy (n = 149) and 21.3 ± 6.4 mm in left trisectionectomy (n = 122). In radiological study, the lengths of the bile duct corresponding to the surgical study were 34.1 ± 7.8, 22.4 ± 7.1, 20.8 ± 4.8, and 31.6 ± 5.3 mm, respectively. Both studies determined that the lengths of the resected bile ducts were (1) similar between right and left hepatectomies, (2) significantly shorter in right hepatectomy than in left trisectionectomy, and (3) the longest in right trisectionectomy. The aforementioned anatomical assumption is a surgeon's biased view. Based on our observations, a flexible procedure selection is recommended.
    World Journal of Surgery 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00268-015-3201-7 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammation-based prognostic scores have prognostic value in several kinds of cancer. However, little is known about their value in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated whether inflammation-based prognostic scores are associated with survival of patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Inflammation-based scores (i.e., the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, and prognostic nutritional index) were retrospectively evaluated in 534 patients who underwent resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Blood samples obtained 1-3 days before surgery after jaundice had fully resolved with biliary drainage and after cholangitis had subsided were used to obtain the scores. Of the four scores evaluated, the mGPS showed prognostic value, whereas the remaining three scores did not. Patients with an mGPS of 0 had significantly better survival than patients with an mGPS of 1 or 2 (41.9 % vs 26.3 % at 5 years, P < 0.001). An mGPS of 1 or 2 was significantly associated with a higher incidence of preoperative cholangitis, node metastasis, and distant metastasis (pM). Irrespective of the absence (n = 442) or presence (n = 92) of preoperative cholangitis, the survival of patients with an mGPS of 0 was significantly better than that of patients with an mGPS of 1 or 2. Multivariate analysis revealed that the mGPS, blood transfusion, histologic grade, curability (R status), lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors. As in other solid cancers, the mGPS is an independent prognostic factor in resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. This simple and inexpensive scoring system plays an important role in refining patient stratification and predicting survival.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00535-015-1103-y · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transhepatic portal vein (PV) stenting has been shown to be one of the most important treatments for patients with PV stenosis caused by hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. Ten consecutive patients with PV stenosis caused by the recurrence of a perihilar biliary malignancy underwent transhepatic PV stenting. A self-expandable metallic stent was deployed at the stenosis site. The patients were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the procedure, complications, and survival after the stent placement. The median interval between the primary resection and the PV stenting was 22 months. The initial hepatic resection was a left trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy in seven patients, a left hepatectomy with caudate lobectomy in one patient, a right anterior sectionectomy with caudate lobectomy following a left hepatectomy in one patient and a partial liver resection in one patient. The angle of the PV around the stenosis was greater in the patients with PV stenosis located in the right posterior PV. Eight patients with successful PV stent placement were able to receive anticancer treatment, with a median survival of 14 months. The remaining two patients without successful PV stent placement survived less than 6 months. Portal vein stenting might offer relief from the symptoms associated with PV hypertension and the opportunity for sustainable anticancer therapy in patients with recurrent perihilar biliary malignancy. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/jhbp.265 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a case of intraperitoneal hemorrhage from the extrahepatic portal vein after pancreaticoduodenectomy for distal bile duct carcinoma. A stent-graft was deployed from the superior mesenteric vein to the main portal vein using a transhepatic approach. After the procedure, the patient remained free of intraperitoneal hemorrhage and was discharged 2 months later.
    06/2015; 4(6):2058460115589338. DOI:10.1177/2058460115589338
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of preoperative screening colonoscopies in patients with biliary tract cancer. A total of 544 patients with biliary tract cancer who underwent preoperative screening colonoscopies between January 2005 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Synchronous colorectal neoplasia was detected in 199 patients (36.7 %), with adenocarcinomas detected in 21 (3.9 %) patients, carcinoids in two (0.4 %) patients, and adenomas in 176 (32.4 %) patients. Of those with adenomas, 32 patients were diagnosed with advanced adenomas, defined as adenomas with a maximum diameter of >1 cm, villous histology, or high-grade dysplasia because these characteristics implied the risk of malignant transformation. Fifty-five (10.1 %) of the patients with colorectal neoplasia required resection (11 surgical and 44 endoscopic resections). There were no major adverse events related to the resection. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that smoking status [ex-smoker + current smoker vs. non-smoker: odds ratio (OR) 2.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.30-4.21] and advanced age (≥70 vs. ≤69 years: OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.24-3.91) were independent risk factors of having a colorectal neoplasia that required resection. In patients with biliary tract cancer, preoperative screening colonoscopy was feasible and provided valuable clinical information. Synchronous colorectal neoplasia was detected in a substantial number of patients. Preoperative screening colonoscopies should be considered especially in high-risk patients such as smokers and elderly patients.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00535-015-1092-x · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To report a single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for a patient with cholecystitis that required endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage (ENGBD). A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with moderate acute cholecystitis and underwent antiplatelet therapy for a history of brain infarction. An ENGBD was performed as an initial treatment for his cholecystitis. After recovery from the cholecystitis, a SILC was performed using a SILS Port with an additional forceps. Because neither Rouviere's sulcus nor Calot's triangle could be identified with a favorable laparoscopic view, the fundus-first procedure was selected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged from the hospital on day 3 after surgery. In this case of a patient who had cholecystitis that required ENGBD, a SILC was successful performed using a combination of SILS Port with additional forceps and fundus-first procedure. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Medical Principles and Practice 05/2015; DOI:10.1159/000430951 · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical efficiency of portal vein (PV) stenting when performed with preoperative percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (PTPVE) in patients with severe PV stenosis due to tumor invasion.Methods Between 2007 and 2013, four consecutive patients (one male, three females; mean age, 52 years; age range, 25–73 years) with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and PV stenosis underwent PTPVE and PV stenting. Patients were analyzed with regard to the procedure, hypertrophy of the future remnant liver (FRL), and plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green by the FRL (ICGK-F). Further, the %FRL volume increase in PTPVE was compared between the stenting group and the usual PTPVE group who have perihilar cholangiocarcinomas without PV stenosis.ResultsPreoperative PTPVE with PV stenting was successfully performed and portal flow to the FRL improved after stenting in all four patients. The %FRL volume increase was 18–60% (mean, 34%) in the stenting group and was 12–51% (mean, 21%) in the usual PTPVE group. The ICGK-F value after PTPVE exceeded 0.05 in all four patients. All patients achieved R0 resection.Conclusions Preoperative PTPVE with PV stenting appears to be feasible in cases of severe PV tumor invasion and stenosis. This procedure may allow a broader indication for surgery.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 04/2015; 22(4). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.200 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of bacterial translocation (BT) to the mesenteric lymph nodes following the Pringle maneuver is well established; however, the incidence of BT to the portal circulation remains unclear. Portal blood of patients with suspected hilar malignancy who underwent major hepatobiliary resection with cholangiojejunostomy was sampled three times during surgery: immediately after laparotomy (PV-1); before liver transection and after skeletonization of the hepatoduodenal ligament (PV-2); and after completion of the liver transection (PV-3). The samples were analyzed for microbes with a bacterium-specific ribosomal RNA-targeted reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study, with a mean total Pringle time of 86 min. Microbes in the portal blood were detected in 11 (22%) of the 50 patients. The occurrence of microbes was not different among the PV-1 samples (8% = 4/50), PV-2 samples (14% = 7/50), and PV-3 samples (14% = 7/50) (P = 0.567). Obligate anaerobes were predominantly detected. The positivity of the PV-3 samples showed no correlation with the total Pringle time or with the occurrence of postoperative infectious complications. The total Pringle time did not affect the surgical outcomes, including infectious complications, liver failure, or mortality. The concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase on postoperative day 1 significantly correlated with the total Pringle time. The intermittent Pringle maneuver is unlikely to induce BT to the portal circulation and is safe, even in difficult, complicated hepatobiliary resections requiring long clamping times. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 03/2015; 22(6). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.239
  • Tsuyoshi Igami · Tomoki Ebata · Masato Nagino
    Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 03/2015; 73 Suppl 3:660-3.
  • Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 03/2015; 73 Suppl 3:644-8.
  • Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 03/2015; 73 Suppl 3:654-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prophylactic combined extrahepatic bile duct resection remains controversial for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma without extrahepatic bile duct invasion. The aim of this study is to resolve this issue and establish an appropriate surgery for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma. A total of 52 patients underwent surgical resection combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection for locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma without extrahepatic bile duct invasion, and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed for microvessel invasion (MVI), including lymphatic, venous, and/or perineural invasions, around the extrahepatic bile duct. Of the 52 patients, 8 (15 %) had MVI around the extrahepatic bile duct. All of the 8 patients had Stage IV disease. According to a survival analysis of the 50 patients who tolerated surgery, MVIs around the extrahepatic bile duct and distant metastasis were identified as independent prognostic factors. Survival for patients with MVI around the extrahepatic bile duct was dismal, with a lack of 2-year survivors. MVI around the extrahepatic bile duct is a sign of extremely locally advanced gallbladder carcinoma; therefore, prophylactic combined bile duct resection has no survival impact for patients without extrahepatic bile duct invasion.
    World Journal of Surgery 02/2015; 39(7). DOI:10.1007/s00268-015-3011-y · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma remains a highly morbid procedure. The association between preoperative sarcopenia and postoperative morbidity/mortality has been reported for various types of surgeries. The objective was to analyze the relationship between preoperative sarcopenia and postoperative morbidity/mortality in patients who underwent major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. This study included 256 patients who underwent major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection from 2008 to 2014. Preoperative sarcopenia was assessed by a measurement of the total psoas muscle area (TPA). The measured TPA was normalized by height. Preoperative sarcopenia was defined as the presence of a normalized TPA in the lowest sex-specific tertile. A total of 54 males and 31 females were determined to have preoperative sarcopenia. The length of the postoperative hospital stay for patients with sarcopenia was significantly longer than for those without sarcopenia (39 vs 30 days, p < 0.001). Patients with sarcopenia experienced a significantly higher rate of liver failure (ISGLS grade ≥ B) (33 vs 16 %), major complications with Clavien grade ≥ 3 (54 vs 37 %), and intra-abdominal abscess (29 vs 18 %) than those without sarcopenia (all p < 0.05). After a multivariate analysis, low normalized TPA (male <567 mm(2)/m(2); female <395 mm(2)/m(2)) was identified as an independent risk factor for the development of liver failure (odds ratio 2.46). This study demonstrated that preoperative sarcopenia increased the morbidity rate including the rate of liver failure, in patients who underwent major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection.
    World Journal of Surgery 02/2015; 39(6). DOI:10.1007/s00268-015-2988-6 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives This randomized clinical trial was designed to investigate whether inchinkoto has a hepatoprotective effect on postoperative outcome after major hepatectomy.Methods Sixty-one patients scheduled for major hepatectomy were randomly assigned to one of two groups in which preoperative inchinkoto was (inchinkoto group, n = 30) or was not (non-inchinkoto group, n = 31) administered. Inchinkoto was administered for at least 7 days before surgery. The primary endpoint was the incidence of post-hepatectomy liver damage. The expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and other oxygen stress-related markers in the liver were also determined.ResultsThere was no significant difference in clinical characteristics between the inchinkoto and non-inchinkoto groups. Serum levels in liver function tests and incidences of post-hepatectomy liver failure did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, there was a significantly higher induction of antioxidant factors in the liver, such as Nrf2 protein and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA, after hepatectomy in the inchinkoto group than in the non-inchinkoto group.Conclusions The preoperative administration of inchinkoto did not have a significant impact on the overall outcome of major hepatectomy. However, inchinkoto induced the expression of Nrf2 during hepatectomy and may have exerted an antioxidative effect on the liver.
    HPB 02/2015; 17(5). DOI:10.1111/hpb.12384 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although an aggressive surgical approach to perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) has improved survival, a prognosis of advanced PHC remains unsatisfactory. The overexpression of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) and recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis in some types of cancer. One hundred sixty-nine patients who underwent histologically curative resection for PHC were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for MET and RON. The association between a positive expression of MET or RON and clinicopathologic features as well as the patients' prognosis were analyzed. There were 27 patients (16 %) who had a positive expression for both MET and RON. Although clinicopathologic features in the either MET- or RON-negative group were not significantly different compared to the both MET- and RON-positive group, the prognosis tended to be worse in the patients with both MET and RON positivity. When the analysis was limited to patients with advanced-stage disease (stage III and IVa), a multivariate analysis revealed that both MET and RON positivity and lymph node metastasis were identified as independent poor prognostic factors. The overall survival rate for patients with both MET and RON positivity was worse than that with either MET or RON negativity in patients with advanced PHC. The poor prognosis in these patients was not associated with unfavorable clinicopathologic features. The examination of MET and RON expression in PHC may enable a tailored method for patient classification that could not otherwise be achieved using the conventional pathologic classification system.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2015; 22(7). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4170-z · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The clinicopathologic significance of mucin production in patients with papillary cholangiocarcinoma (PCC) is still controversial. We aimed at clarifying the similarities and differences between PCC cases with and without mucin secretion with regard to biological behavior and clinical course. Methods Among 644 patients with surgically resected cholangiocarcinoma (1998–2011), 184 (28 %) patients were considered to have PCC and were enrolled in the study. Those patients were divided into two groups based on whether their PCC was mucin-producing (PCC-M, n = 89) or not (PCC-NM, n = 95). The presence of mucin secretion was determined by the cut surface of the specimens and by pathologic examination. Results The clinicopathological features of PCC-M and PCC-NM largely overlapped. No significant between-group differences in malignant potential characteristics, including the depth of invasion, pathological T classification, and regional/periaortic lymph node metastasis, were observed (P = 0.193, 0.181, 0.083, and 0.674, respectively). However, a few clinicopathological differences existed between the two PCC types, i.e., the predominant histological type and epithelial subtype (P
    World Journal of Surgery 01/2015; 39(5). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2923-2 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Biliary strictures following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C), which are often associated with vascular injuries, remain a serious problem to manage. The aim of this study was to review our experiences with postoperative biliary stricture.Methods This study involved 14 consecutive patients with biliary strictures that resulted from bile duct injuries during Lap-C between 1997 and 2013. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed.ResultsPercutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) catheter dilatation was first attempted in eight patients, and five patients were successfully treated. Biliary re-stricture recurred in one patient after 34-month follow-up period. This patient underwent repeated catheter dilatations, which led to recurrent stricture resolution. All five patients maintained biliary tract patency over 72-month follow-up period. The remaining nine patients underwent surgical procedures, including hepaticojejunostomy in two patients, re-hepaticojejunostomy in two patients, and the remaining five patients, with biliary strictures involving the secondary biliary branch and concomitant vascular injuries underwent right hemihepatectomy with cholangiojejunostomy. There were no major postoperative complications. After 80-month follow-up period, all nine patients were alive without biliary stricture.ConclusionsPTBD catheter dilatation is recommended first for postoperative Lap-C-associated biliary strictures. In complicated injury patients with vascular injuries, right hemihepatectomy with cholangiojejunostomy should be indicated.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 12/2014; 21(12). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.151 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review our experiences with surgery for recurrent biliary tract cancer (BTC). Few studies have reported on surgical procedures for recurrent BTC; therefore, it is unclear whether this surgery has survival benefit. Between 1991 and 2010, 606 patients had recurrences after resection of BTC (gallbladder cancer, n = 135; cholangiocarcinoma, n = 471); 74 patients underwent resection for recurrence, whereas the remaining 532 did not. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Compared with the 532 patients without surgery for recurrence, the 74 patients with surgery had less advanced cancer, and their time to recurrence was significantly longer (1.4 vs 0.8 years; P < 0.001). A total of 89 surgical procedures for recurrence were performed in the 74 patients (1 time in 63 and ≥2 times in 11). Survival after recurrence was significantly better in the 74 patients with surgery than in the 532 without (32% vs 3% at 3 years; P < 0.001). Survival after surgery for recurrence was (1) similar between gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma; (2) significantly better in patients with initial disease-free interval of 2 or more years; (3) significantly worse in patients with chest or abdominal wall recurrences; and (4) significantly better in patients with pN0 disease in their primary cancer. Nodal status of the primary tumor and the site of initial recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors after surgery for recurrence. Surgical resection for recurrent BTC can be performed safely and offers a better chance of long-term survival in selected patients.
    Annals of Surgery 11/2014; 262(1). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000827 · 8.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The presence of cholangitis has been shown to impair liver regeneration capacity after major hepatectomy in a rat cholangitis model. It is unclear, however, whether the presence of cholangitis has any impact on liver generation in clinical settings. Objective To determine the effects of preoperative cholangitis on hepatic regeneration rates after preoperative portal vein embolizations (PVEs) and postoperative courses after major hepatectomies in humans. Methods From 1991 to 2012, 450 patients underwent preoperative PVEs and subsequent major hepatectomies. Among them, 72 patients (16.0%) had preoperative cholangitis. The volume change of the nonembolized lobe after PVE and the postoperative outcomes after a major hepatectomy were compared between cholangitis and noncholangitis groups. Results The average volume increase in the nonembolized lobe after PVE was almost identical in both the cholangitis (10.0%) and noncholangitis (9.5%) groups. The average term required to acquire institutional safety criteria, however, was longer in the cholangitis group (24.3 days) compared with the noncholangitis group (18.3 days) (P < .001). The postoperative maximum serum total bilirubin levels (5.7 mg/dL vs 8.1 mg/dL, P = .035), morbidity rate (56% vs 78%, P = .001), and postoperative hospital stay (44 days vs 53 days, P = .021) were all greater in the cholangitis group compared with the noncholangitis group. With multivariate logistic regression analyses, the presence of preoperative cholangitis was identified as one of the independent risk factors for postoperative morbidity. Conclusion These results indicate that patients with preoperative cholangitis should be carefully managed during their perioperative periods of PVE and after major hepatectomies.
    Surgery 11/2014; 156(5). DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2014.04.036 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma involving all major hepatic veins was diagnosed in a 62-year-old man. Multidetector-row computed tomography showed a massive tumor occupying segments 2-5, 7, and 8, with invasion of all major hepatic veins, although the inferior right hepatic vein, draining the venous flow of segment 6, was clearly visualized. Therefore, we planned an extended left trisectionectomy, involving resection of segments 1-5, 7, and 8, with extrahepatic bile duct resection and concomitant resection of all major hepatic veins. We performed portal vein embolization of the right anterior portal branch and the portal branch of segment 7 to identify the demarcation between segments 6 and 7 on the surface of the right lobe. We were able to divide the hepatic parenchyma between segments 6 and 7 and the planned surgery was accomplished, with repositioning of the confluence of the inferior right hepatic vein to prevent outflow blockage. The histological findings were pT3N0M0, Grade2, Stage III, and R0 resection, according to the UICC classification (seventh edition). Although remnant liver metastases were detected 75 months after surgery, the patient is still alive and being treated with chemotherapy, 88 months after surgery. We report this case to demonstrate how using portal vein embolization to identify the hepatic segment helps accomplish extended hepatectomy preserving only one segment and that R0 resection by extended hepatectomy with concomitant resection of all hepatic veins can achieve a satisfactory outcome.
    Surgery Today 10/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1007/s00595-014-1038-6 · 1.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

853 Citations
239.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Surgery
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2011
    • St. James University
      Сент-Джеймс, New York, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • Nagoya Second Red Cross Hospital
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Kyoto Daini Red Cross Hospital
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan