Tatsuya Sueyoshi

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

Are you Tatsuya Sueyoshi?

Claim your profile

Publications (55)232.15 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The solute carrier family 13 member 5 (SLC13A5) is a sodium-coupled transporter that mediates cellular uptake of citrate, which plays important roles in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Recently, the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) initially characterized as a xenobiotic sensor, has been functionally linked to the regulation of various physiological processes that are associated with lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Here, we show that the SLC13A5 gene is a novel transcriptional target of PXR and altered expression of SLC13A5 affects lipid accumulation in human liver cells. The prototypical PXR activator rifampicin markedly induced the mRNA and protein expression of SLC13A5 in human primary hepatocytes. Utilizing cell-based luciferase reporter assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we identified and functionally characterized two enhancer modules located upstream of the SLC13A5 gene transcription start site, that are associated with regulation of PXR-mediated SLC13A5 induction. Functional analysis further revealed that rifampicin can enhance lipid accumulation in human primary hepatocytes; and knockdown of SLC13A5 expression alone leads to significant decrease of the lipid content in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results uncover SLC13A5 as a novel target gene of PXR and may contribute to drug-induced steatosis and metabolic disorders in humans. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
    Molecular pharmacology 01/2015; 87(4). DOI:10.1124/mol.114.097287 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 (2,2('),4,4(')-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is a thyroid hormone disruptor in mice; hepatic induction of various metabolic enzymes and transporters has been suggested as the mechanism for this disruption. Utilizing Car(-/-) and Pxr(-/-) mice as well as human primary hepatocytes, here we have demonstrated that BDE-47 activated both mouse and human nuclear receptor constitutive activated/androstane receptor (CAR). In mouse livers, CAR, not PXR, was responsible for Cyp2b10 mRNA induction by BDE-47. In human primary hepatocytes, BDE-47 was able to induce translocation of YFP-tagged human CAR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus andCYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNAs expressions. BDE-47 activated human CAR in a manner akin to the human CAR ligand CITCO (6-(4-Chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime) in luciferase-reporter assays using Huh-7 cells. In contrast, mouse CAR was not potently activated by BDE-47 in the same reporter assays. Furthermore, human PXR (pregnane X receptor) was effectively activated by BDE-47 while mouse PXR was weakly activated in luciferase-reporter assays. Our results indicate that BDE-47 induces CYP genes through activation of human CAR in addition to the previously identified pathway through human PXR.
    Toxicological Sciences 11/2013; DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kft243 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr(52), which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr(38) by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR.
    Science Signaling 05/2013; 6(274):ra31. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2003705 · 7.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dataset: Julkaisu 29
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Constituent chemicals in garlic extract are known to induce phase I and phase II enzymes in rodent livers. Here we have utilized Car(+/+) and Car(-/-) mice to demonstrate that the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR regulated the induction of the estrogen sulfotransferase Sult1e1 gene by diallyl sulfide (DAS) treatment in mouse liver. DAS treatment caused CAR accumulation in the nucleus, resulting in a remarkable increase of SULT1E1 mRNA (3,200 fold) and protein in the livers of Car(+/+) females but not of Car(-/-) female mice. DAS also induced other CAR-regulated genes such as Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11 and Gadd45β. Compared with the rapid increase of these mRNA levels, which began as early as 6 hours after DAS treatment, the levels of SULT1E1 mRNA began increasing after 24 hours. This slow response to DAS suggested that CAR required an additional factor to activate the Sult1e1 gene or that this activation was indirect. Despite the remarkable induction of SULT1E1, there was no decrease in the serum levels of endogenous E2 or increase of estrone sulfate while the clearance of exogenously administrated E2 was accelerated in DAS treated mice.
    PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e21229. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021229 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PXR activation may affect energy metabolism as well as the endocrine and immune systems. In this study, we characterized and compared the agonistic activities of a variety of pesticides against human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR). We tested the hPXR and mPXR agonistic activity of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 12 acid amides, 7 triazines, 7 ureas, and 44 others) by reporter gene assays using COS-7 simian kidney cells. Of the 200 pesticides tested, 106 and 93 activated hPXR and mPXR, respectively, and a total of 111 had hPXR and/or mPXR agonistic activity with greater or lesser inter-species differences. Although all of the pyrethroids and most of the organochlorines and acid amides acted as PXR agonists, a wide range of pesticides with diverse structures also showed hPXR and/or mPXR agonistic activity. Among the 200 pesticides, pyributicarb, pretilachlor, piperophos and butamifos for hPXR, and phosalone, prochloraz, pendimethalin, and butamifos for mPXR, acted as particularly potent activators at low concentrations in the order of 10⁻⁸-10⁻⁷ M. In addition, we found that several organophosphorus oxon- and pyributicarb oxon-metabolites decreased PXR activation potency compared to their parent compounds. These results suggest that a large number of structurally diverse pesticides and their metabolites possess PXR-mediated transcriptional activity, and their ability to do so varies in a species-dependent manner in humans and mice.
    Toxicology 02/2011; 280(3):77-87. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2010.11.008 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is known as a xeno-sensor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic excretion and energy metabolism. This study tested a variety of polyphenols for their ability to modulate CAR activity. HepG2 cells were transfected with a CAR expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid containing the human CYP2B6 regulatory region and then treated with flavonoids, catechins, and other bioactive polyphenols. Luciferase assays revealed that baicalein (5,6,7-OH flavone) was a potent activator of both human and mouse CAR. Catechin gallates also activated human and mouse CAR. Wild-type and CAR knockout mice were treated with baicalein and chrysin (5,7-OH flavone), and their liver mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A significant increase in cyp2b10 mRNA content was observed only in wild-type mice fed chrysin. These results suggest that dietary flavonoids regulate CAR activity and thereby accelerate both detoxification and energy metabolism.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2010; 58(4):2168-73. DOI:10.1021/jf903711q · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upon activation by therapeutics, the nuclear xenobiotic/ constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) regulates various liver functions ranging from drug metabolism and excretion to energy metabolism. CAR can also be a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we have characterized the conserved threonine 38 of human CAR as the primary residue that regulates nuclear translocation and activation of CAR. Protein kinase C phosphorylates threonine 38 located on the α-helix spanning from residues 29–42 that constitutes a part of the first zinc finger and continues into the region between the zinc fingers. Molecular dynamics study has revealed that this phosphorylation may destabilize this helix, thereby inactivating CAR binding to DNA as well as sequestering it in the cytoplasm. We have found, in fact, that helix-stabilizing mutations reversed the effects of phosphorylation. Immunohistochemical study using an anti-phospho-threonine 38 peptide antibody has, in fact, demonstrated that the classic CAR activator phenobarbital dephosphorylates the corresponding threonine 48 of mouse CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse liver and translocates CAR into the nucleus. These results define CAR as a cell signal-regulated constitutive active nuclear receptor. These results also provide phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the threonine as the primary drug target for CAR activation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; 284(50):34785-34792. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upon activation by therapeutics, the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR regulates various liver functions ranging from drug metabolism and excretion to energy metabolism. CAR can also be a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we have characterized the conserved threonine 38 of human CAR as the primary residue that regulates nuclear translocation and activation of CAR. Protein kinase C phosphorylates threonine 38 located on the alpha-helix spanning from residues 29 to 42 that constitutes a part of the first zinc finger and continues into the region between the zinc fingers. Molecular dynamics study has revealed that this phosphorylation may destabilize this helix, thereby inactivating CAR binding to DNA as well as sequestering it in the cytoplasm. We have found, in fact, helix stabilizing mutations reversed the effects of phosphorylation. Immunohistochemical study using an anti-phospho threonine 38 peptide antibody has, in fact, demonstrated that the classic CAR activator phenobabrital dephosphorylates the corresponding threonine 48 of mouse CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse liver and translocates CAR into the nucleus. These results define CAR as a cell signal-regulated constitutive active nuclear receptor. These results also provide phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of the threonine as the primary drug target for CAR activation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upon activation by therapeutics, the nuclear xenobiotic/ constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) regulates various liver functions ranging from drug metabolism and excretion to energy metabolism. CAR can also be a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we have characterized the conserved threonine 38 of human CAR as the primary residue that regulates nuclear translocation and activation of CAR. Protein kinase C phosphorylates threonine 38 located on the alpha-helix spanning from residues 29-42 that constitutes a part of the first zinc finger and continues into the region between the zinc fingers. Molecular dynamics study has revealed that this phosphorylation may destabilize this helix, thereby inactivating CAR binding to DNA as well as sequestering it in the cytoplasm. We have found, in fact, that helix-stabilizing mutations reversed the effects of phosphorylation. Immunohistochemical study using an anti-phospho-threonine 38 peptide antibody has, in fact, demonstrated that the classic CAR activator phenobarbital dephosphorylates the corresponding threonine 48 of mouse CAR in the cytoplasm of mouse liver and translocates CAR into the nucleus. These results define CAR as a cell signal-regulated constitutive active nuclear receptor. These results also provide phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the threonine as the primary drug target for CAR activation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(50):34785-92. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.048108 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a role not only in drug metabolism and transport but also in various other biological processes. Ginkgo biloba is a herbal medicine commonly used to manage memory impairment. Treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with G. biloba extract increases the mRNA expression of CYP3A23, which is a target gene for rat PXR. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that G. biloba extract activates PXR. Treatment of mouse PXR (mPXR) or human PXR (hPXR)-transfected HepG2 cells with G. biloba extract at 200 microg/ml increased mPXR and hPXR activation by 3.2- and 9.5-fold, respectively. Dose-response analysis showed a log-linear increase in hPXR activation by the extract over the range of 200 to 800 microg/ml. To determine whether G. biloba extract induces hPXR target gene expression, cultured LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were treated for 72 h with the extract. G. biloba extract at 200, 400, and 800 microg/ml increased CYP3A4 mRNA expression by 1.7-, 2.4-, and 2.5-fold, respectively. The same concentrations of the extract increased CYP3A5 (1.3-3.6-fold) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB) 1 (2.7-6.4-fold) mRNA expression. At concentrations (5 and 10 microM) that did not down-regulate PXR gene expression and were not cytotoxic, L-sulforaphane (an hPXR antagonist) decreased CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 gene expression in cells treated with G. biloba extract. In summary, G. biloba extract activated mPXR and hPXR in a cell-based reporter gene assay and induced CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 gene expression in hPXR-expressing LS180 cells.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 09/2008; 36(11):2270-6. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.023499 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a promiscuous xenobiotic sensor, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) regulates the expression of multiple drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in liver. The constitutively activated nature of CAR in the cell-based transfection assays has hindered its use as a predictor of metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Here, we have identified 1-(2-chlorophenylmethylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline-carboxamide (PK11195), a typical peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand, as a selective and potent inhibitor of human (h) CAR. In cell-based transfection assays, PK11195 inhibited the constitutive activity of hCAR more than 80% at the concentration of 10 microM, and the PK11195-inhibited activity was efficiently reactivated by the direct CAR activator, 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl) oxime, but not by the indirect hCAR activator, phenobarbital. Mammalian two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays showed that PK11195 repressed the interactions of hCAR with the coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1 and glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 to inhibit hCAR activity. The inhibition by PK11195 specifically occurred to the hCAR: PK1195 strongly activated human pregnane X receptor (PXR), whereas it did not alter the activity of the mouse CAR and mouse PXR. In addition, PBR played no role in the PK11195 inhibition of hCAR because the inhibition fully occurred in the HeLa cells in which the PBR was knocked down by small interfering RNA. In the Car(-/-) mouse liver, PK11195 translocated enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-hCAR into the nucleus. These results are consistent with the conclusion that PK11195 is a novel hCAR-specific antagonist that represses the CAR-coactivator interactions to inhibit the receptor activity inside the nucleus. Thus, PK11195 can be used as a chemical tool for studying the molecular basis of CAR function.
    Molecular pharmacology 06/2008; 74(2):443-53. DOI:10.1124/mol.108.046656 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), a member of the nuclear steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, activates transcription of numerous hepatic genes upon exposure to therapeutic drugs and environmental pollutants. Sequestered in the cytoplasm, this receptor signals xenobiotic exposure, such as phenobarbital (PB), by translocating into the nucleus. Unlike other hormone receptors, translocation can be triggered indirectly without binding to xenobiotics. We have now identified a membrane-associated subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R16A, or abbreviated as R16A) as a novel CAR-binding protein. When CAR and R16A are coexpressed in mouse liver, CAR translocates into the nucleus. Close association of R16A and CAR molecule on liver membrane was shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis using expressed yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-CAR and CFP-R16A fusion proteins. R16A can form dimer through its middle region, where protein kinase A phosphorylation sites are recently identified. Translocation of CAR by R16A correlates with the ability of R16A to form an intermolecular interaction via the middle region. Moreover, this interaction is enhanced by PB treatment in mouse liver. R16A specifically interacted with PP1beta in HepG2 cells despite the highly conserved structure of PP1 family molecules. PP1beta activity was inhibited by R16A in vitro and coexpression of PP1beta in liver can prevent YFP-CAR translocation into mouse liver. Taken together, R16A at the membrane may mediate the PB signal to initiate CAR nuclear translocation, through a mechanism including its dimerization and inhibition of PP1beta activity, providing a novel model for the translocation of nuclear receptors in which direct interaction of ligands and the receptors may not be crucial.
    Molecular pharmacology 05/2008; 73(4):1113-21. DOI:10.1124/mol.107.042960 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upon drug activation, the nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates not only hepatic drug but also energy metabolism. Using Pxr(-/-) mice, we have now investigated the PXR-mediated repression of lipid metabolism in the fasting livers. Treatment with PXR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) down-regulated the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (in beta-oxidation) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate-CoA synthase 2 (in ketogenesis) in wild-type (Pxr(+/+)) mice only. In contrast, the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (in lipogenesis) mRNA was up-regulated in the PCN-treated Pxr(+/+) mice. Reflecting these up- and down-regulations and consistent with decreased energy metabolism, the levels of hepatic triglycerides and of serum 3-hydroxybutylate were increased and decreased, respectively, in the PCN-treated Pxr(+/+) mice. Using gel shift, glutathione S-transferase pull-down and cell-based reporter assays, we then examined whether PXR could cross-talk with the insulin response forkhead factor FoxA2 to repress the transcription of the Cpt1a and Hmgcs2 genes, because FoxA2 activates these genes in fasting liver. PXR directly bound to FoxA2 and repressed its activation of the Cpt1a and Hmgcs2 promoters. Moreover, ChIP assays showed that PCN treatment attenuated the binding of FoxA2 to these promoters in fasting Pxr(+/+) but not Pxr(-/-) mice. These results are consistent with the conclusion that PCN-activated PXR represses FoxA2-mediated transcription of Ctp1a and Hmgcs2 genes in fasting liver.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2007; 282(13):9768-76. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M610072200 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR) are capable of regulating CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 gene expression. However, the majority of currently identified CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 inducers are confirmed activators of hPXR but not hCAR. To compare these receptors with respect to their chemical selectivities, 16 drugs known to induce CYP3A4 and/or CYP2B expression were evaluated for relative activation of hPXR versus hCAR. Because of the high basal but low chemical-induced activation of hCAR in immortalized cells, alternative methods were used to evaluate hCAR activation potential. Thirteen of the 16 compounds were classified as moderate to strong hPXR activators. In contrast, carbamazepine (CMZ), efavirenz (EFV), and nevirapine (NVP) were classified as negligible or weak hPXR activators at concentrations associated with efficacious CYP2B6 reporter or endogenous gene induction in primary human hepatocytes, suggesting potential activation of hCAR. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that these three drugs efficiently induced nuclear accumulation of in vivo-transfected enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-hCAR and significantly increased expression of a CYP2B6 reporter gene when hCAR was expressed in CAR-/- mice. In addition, using a recently identified, chemically responsive splice variant of hCAR (hCAR3), the hCAR activation profiles of the 16 compounds were evaluated. By combining results from the hPXR- and hCAR3-based reporter gene assays, these inducers were classified as hPXR, hCAR, or hPXR/hCAR dual activators. Our results demonstrate that CMZ, EFV, and NVP induce CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 preferentially through hCAR and that hCAR3 represents a sensitive tool for in vitro prediction of chemical-mediated human CAR activation.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 02/2007; 320(1):72-80. DOI:10.1124/jpet.106.112136 · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulated evidence suggests that cross-talk between the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) results in shared transcriptional activation of CYP2B and CYP3A genes. Although most data imply symmetrical cross-regulation of these genes by rodent PXR and CAR, the actual selectivities of the corresponding human receptors are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of human (h) PXR and hCAR cross-talk by comparing the selectivities of these receptors for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Human hepatocyte studies revealed nonselective induction of both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hPXR activation but marked preferential induction of CYP2B6 by selective hCAR activation. Gel shift assays demonstrated that hPXR exhibited strong and relatively equal binding to all functional response elements in both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes, whereas hCAR displayed significantly weak binding to the CYP3A4 proximal ER6 motif. In cell-based transfection assays, hCAR displayed greater activation of CYP2B6 reporter gene expression compared with CYP3A4 with constructs containing both proximal and distal regulatory elements. Furthermore, in agreement with binding observations, transfection assays using promoter constructs containing repeats of CYP2B6 DR4 and CYP3A4 ER6 motifs revealed an even greater difference in reporter activation by hCAR. In contrast, hPXR activation resulted in less discernible differences between CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 reporter gene expression. These results suggest asymmetrical cross-regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hCAR but not hPXR in that hCAR exhibits preferential induction of CYP2B6 relative to CYP3A4 because of its weak binding and functional activation of the CYP3A4 ER6.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2006; 317(3):1200-9. DOI:10.1124/jpet.105.098160 · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The constitutive active receptor (CAR) in mouse primary hepatocytes undergoes okadaic acid (OA)-sensitive nuclear translocation after activation by xenobiotics such as phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP). We have now mimicked this TCPOBOP-dependent and OA-sensitive translocation of mouse CAR (mCAR) in HepG2 cells and have demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A regulates this nuclear translocation. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis of various Ser and Thr residues delineated the translocation activity to Ser-202. Mutation of Ser-202 to Asp (S202D) prevented mCAR translocation into the nucleus of TCPOBOP-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, in the livers of Car-/- mice, the YFP-tagged S202D mutant did not translocate into the nucleus after PB treatment. To examine whether Ser-202 can be phosphorylated, flag-tagged wild-type mCAR or flag-tagged S202A mutant was expressed in HepG2 cells and subjected to Western blot analysis using an antibody specific to a peptide containing phospho-Ser-202. A high molecular weight phosphorylated form of CAR was detected only with the wild-type mCAR. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the dephosphorylation of Ser-202 is a required step that regulates the xenobiotic-dependent nuclear translocation of mCAR.
    Molecular Pharmacology 05/2006; 69(4):1095-102. DOI:10.1124/mol.105.019505 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mouse nuclear receptor CAR (constitutively active receptor) is a transcription factor that is activated by phenobarbital-type inducers such as TCPOBOP {1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene} in liver in vivo. However, CAR is constitutively active in cell-based transfection assays, the molecular mechanism for which has not been elucidated yet. In the model structure of CAR, Thr176 constitutes a part of the ligand-binding surface, but its side chain is not directed toward the surface, instead it forms a hydrogen bond with Thr350 in the AF2 (activation function 2) domain of CAR. Thr350 is known to regulate CAR activity [Ueda, Kakizaki, Negishi, and Sueyoshi (2002) Mol. Pharmacol. 61, 1284-1288]. Thr176 was mutated to various amino acids to examine whether this interaction played a role in conferring the constitutive activity. Hydrophobic and positively charged amino acids at position 176 abrogated the constitutive activity, whereas polar and negatively charged amino acids retained it. When one of the small hydrophobic amino acids, such as alanine or valine, was substituted for threonine, the mutants were fully activated by TCPOBOP. The co-activator SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) regulated the activity changes associated with the mutations. Thr248 and Ser230 are the Thr176-corresponding residues in human pregnane X receptor and mouse vitamin D3 receptor respectively, interacting directly with the conserved threonine in the AF2 domains. Thr248 and Ser230 also regulated the ligand-dependent activity of these receptors by augmenting binding of the receptors to SRC-1. Thr176, Thr248 and Ser230 are conserved residues in the NR1I (nuclear receptor 1I) subfamily members and determine their activity.
    Biochemical Journal 07/2005; 388(Pt 2):623-30. DOI:10.1042/BJ20041572 · 4.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 glucuronidates endogenous metabolites, such as bilirubin, and exogenous substances, and plays a critical role in their detoxification and excretion. In a previous article, we described the phenobarbital response activity to a 290-base pair (bp) distal enhancer sequence (-3499/-3210) of the human UGT1A1 gene that is activated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Here, we show that dexamethasone at submicromolar concentrations enhances the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activator-mediated expression of the UGT1A1 gene and protein in HepG2 cells. We investigated the molecular mechanism of UGT1A1 induction by glucocorticoids at submicromolar concentrations and PXR activators and the functional cross-talk between the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and CAR/PXR. The glucocorticoid-response element (GRE) was characterized by cotransfection experiments, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Analysis of the human UGT1A1 promoter revealed GREs at -3404/-3389 and -3251/-3236 close to the CAR/PXR response element gtNR1 (-3382/-3367). Furthermore, in an in vitro reporter gene assay, dexamethasone effectively enhanced CAR/PXR-mediated transactivation of the 290-bp distal enhancer module in HepG2 cells and CV-1 cells in the presence of exogenously expressed GR and glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1). In glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, CAR and PXR interacted with GRIP1. Together, these results demonstrate a rational mechanistic basis for UGT1A1 induction by glucocorticoids and PXR activators, showing that activated GR enhances CAR/PXR-mediated UGT1A1 regulation with the transcriptional cofactor GRIP1 and that GR may be involved synergistically in the xenobiotic-responsive regulation of UGT1A1 by CAR/PXR.
    Molecular Pharmacology 04/2005; 67(3):845-55. DOI:10.1124/mol.104.007161 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the enzyme that detoxifies neurotoxic bilirubin by conjugating it with glucuronic acid. In addition to bilirubin, UGT1A1 conjugates various endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds such as estrogens and the active metabolite of the anticancer drug irinotecan SN-38. Thus, activation by specific inducers of the UGT1A1 gene is critical in treating patients with unconjugated hyperbili-rubinemia and in preventing side effects of drug treatment such as SN-38-induced toxicity. This chapter describes the experimental processes used to identify the 290-bp distal enhancer module at -3499/-3210 of the UGT1A1 gene and to characterize its regulation by nuclear receptors: constitutive active/androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor.
    Methods in Enzymology 02/2005; 400:92-104. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(05)00006-6 · 2.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
232.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2013
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology
      • • Section on Human Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1995–2011
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology (LRDT)
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (PSC)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1999–2003
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Pharmaceutics
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland