[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant growth and development. Recent studies imply that plants show various responses to non-extreme ambient temperatures. Previously, we have found that a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 (Capsicum chinense) shows developmental defects at temperatures below 24°C. In this study, to gain new insights into the temperature sensitivity of cv. Sy-2, temperature-sensitive genes were screened using microarray techniques. At restrictive temperature of 20°C, almost one-fourth of the 411 up-regulated genes were defense related or predicted to be defense related. Further expression analyses of several defense-related genes showed that defense-related genes in cv. Sy-2 were constitutively expressed at temperatures below 24°C. Moreover, accumulation of high level of salicylic acid (SA) in cv. Sy-2 grown at 20°C suggests that the defense response is activated in the absence of pathogens. To confirm that the defense response is induced in cv. Sy-2 below 24°C, we evaluated the resistance to biotrophic bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora capsici. Cv. Sy-2 showed enhanced resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, but not to C. capsici.
Journal of Plant Research 03/2011; 125(1):137-45. DOI:10.1007/s10265-011-0414-1 · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fusion between the plastid psbA promoter and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome by stable plastid transformation. GFP was synthesized actively and exclusively in the chloroplasts. Tubular projections filled with GFP but containing no chlorophyll were visualized for the first time in chloroplasts of these transplastomic plants. Occasionally, the tubules connect chloroplasts with each other, suggesting the possibility of the exchange of endogenous proteins. However, the fusion of protoplasts between the transplastomic and wild-type plants showed that such chloroplast connections might be rare in mesophyll protoplasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most photosystem I and II plastid genes are transcribed by a plastid encoded Escherichia coli-like RNA polymerase (PEP). In this study, we show that both promoter selectivity and light-dependency of PEP change dramatically during development in wheat leaves. In the leaf tip, psbA and psbD promoter activities are light induced, whilst psbC, psbE and 16S rRNA promoters do not function efficiently irrespective of light conditions. In contrast to the leaf tip, in the basal portion all PEP promoters studied function in the dark as well as the light, except for psbD. Using in vitro transcription, we found that PEP in the illuminated leaf tip can initiate transcription from the -35 destructed psbA promoter, but the -35 element is essential for transcription in the basal portion. There is an extended -10 element in the psbA promoter, recognized by the PEP in the illuminated leaf tip or purified sigma 70-type Escherichia coli RNA polymerase but not by the PEP in the leaf base. These results suggest that during wheat leaf development, PEP in the leaf base that is functional for most PEP promoters even in the dark is replaced by the light-dependent PEP selectively transcribing the psbA and psbD promoters.
The Plant Journal 06/1999; 18(4):407-15. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00465.x · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of mRNAs derived from the plastid-encoded psbD light-responsive promoter (LRP) is controlled by a circadian clock(s) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The circadian oscillations in the psbD LRP mRNA level persisted for at least three cycles in continuous light and for one cycle in continuous dark, with maxima in subjective morning and minima in subjective early night. In vitro transcription in chloroplast extracts revealed that the circadian cycles in the psbD LRP mRNA level were dominantly attributed to the circadian-regulated transcription of the psbD LRP. The effects of various mutations introduced into the promoter region on the psbD LRP activity in vitro suggest the existence of two positive elements located between -54 and -36, which generally enhance the transcription activity, and an anomalous core promoter structure lacking the functional "-35" element, which plays a crucial role in the circadian fluctuation and light dependency of psbD LRP transcription activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plastid rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase, in higher plants is transcribed from a sigma70 promoter by the eubacterial-type RNA polymerase. To identify regulatory elements outside of the rbcL -10/-35 promoter core, we constructed transplastomic tobacco plants with uidA reporter genes expressed from rbcL promoter derivatives. Promoter activity was characterized by measuring steady state levels of uidA mRNA on RNA gel blots and by measuring promoter strength in run-on transcription assays. We report here that the rbcL core promoter is sufficient to obtain wild-type rates of transcription. Furthermore, the rates of transcription were up to 10-fold higher in light-grown leaves than in dark-adapted plants. Although the rates of transcription were lower in the dark, rbcL mRNA accumulated to similar levels in light-grown and dark-adapted leaves. Accumulation of uidA mRNA from most rbcL promoter deletion derivatives directly reflected the relative rates of transcription: high in the light-grown and low in the dark-adapted leaves. However, uidA mRNA accumulated to high levels in a light-independent fashion as long as a segment encoding a stem-loop structure in the 5' untranslated region was included in the promoter construct. This finding indicates that lower rates of rbcL transcription in the dark are compensated by increased mRNA stability.
The Plant Cell 11/1998; 10(10):1713-22. DOI:10.1105/tpc.10.10.1713 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reveal the molecular mechanism of involvement of photosystem II (PSII)-L protein in the electron transfer in PSII, effects of mutations in PSII-L on the photochemistry of PSII were investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and flash photolysis. Wild type and a series of mutant versions of PSII-L were overproduced in Escherichia coliand chromatographically purified. Plastoquinone 9 (PQ-9) depleted PSII reaction center core complex consisting of CP47/D1/D2/Cytb-559/PSII-I/PSII-W was prepared and reconstituted with the wild type and each mutant version of PSII-L together with or without PQ-9. EPR signal indicating the formation of Tyr-Z+P680Pheo- state upon room-temperature illumination disappeared in CP47/D1/D2/Cytb-559/PSII-I/PSII-W, and it was recovered when the complex was reconstituted with the wild-type PSII-L. Mutation of a few amino acid residues in the carboxyl-terminal region of PSII-L, such as substitution of a triad of Tyr34, Phe35, and Phe36 by Leu, selectively resulted in the loss of the capability of PSII-L to recover the light-induced formation of Tyr-Z+P680Pheo- state in the reconstituted complex. Hydropathy profile of PSII-L suggests that it spans the membrane once by a hydrophobic stretch of the carboxyl-terminal side as its carboxyl end to face to the lumen. If this is the case, the amino acid residues essential for PSII-L to function are expected to be located close to the donor side of P680, suggesting the interaction of PSII-L with Tyr-Z (and/or Tyr-D) or P680 to facilitate the oxidation of Tyr-Z by P680+ to form Tyr-Z+P680Pheo- state in PSII. Evidence against PSII-L being involved in the electron transfer from Pheo- to QA was obtained by the flash photolysis experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels are involved in the regulation of several plant genes. However, to our knowledge, no regions of genes or specific cis elements have been shown to be involved in the regulation of plant gene expression by cytosolic Ca2+ signaling. The maize (Zea mays) gene cab-m1, which encodes a light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein, is positively photoregulated in mesophyll cells (MC) but not in bundle-sheath cells (BSC). This gene is highly preferentially expressed in maize MC versus BSC. In situ transient expression assays have revealed that exposure of tissues to ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), which chelates Ca2+, blocks the photostimulation of cab-m1 full promoter (-1026 to + 14) activity in MC of leaf segments of dark-grown maize seedlings. EGTA has no effect on expression in BSC. These results suggest that light-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in MC is required for the enhancement of cab-m1 expression in MC. Deletion of the sequence from -1026 to -360 completely abolished Ca2+ responsiveness of cab-m1 expression in MC. On the other hand, a 54-bp fragment in the 5' flanking region (-953 to -899 relative to the translation start site) conferred Ca2+ responsiveness on a -359 core promoter: reporter gene, suggesting that Ca2+ signaling is mediated via specific sequences in this short fragment. Furthermore, possible involvement of Ca(2+)-calmodulin in the signal transduction chain for regulating cab-m1 expression was suggested by the results of inhibitor experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish a system for over-production of PSII-L protein which is a component of photosystem II (PSII) complex, a plasmid designated as pMAL-psbL was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. A fusion protein of PSII-L and maltose-binding proteins (53 kDa on SDS-PAGE) was accumulated in E. coli cells to a level of 10% of the total protein upon isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The carboxyl-terminal part of 5.0 kDa was cleaved from the fusion protein and purified by an anion exchange column chromatography in the presence of detergents. This 5.0 kDa protein was identified as PSII-L by amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and the chromatographic behavior on an anion exchange gel. A few types of mutant PSII-L were also prepared by the essentially same procedure except for using plasmids which contain given mutations in psbL gene. Plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) depleted PSII reaction center core complex consisting of D1, D2, CP47, cytochrome b-559 (cyt b-559), PSII-I and PSII-W was reconstituted with PQ-9 and digalactosyldiglyceride (DGDG) together with the wild-type or mutant PSII-L produced in E. coli or isolated PSII-L from spinach. Significant difference between the wild-type PSII-L proteins from E. coli and spinach was not recognized in the effectiveness to recover the photo-induced electron transfer activity in the resulting complexes. The analysis of stoichiometry of PQ-9 per reaction center in the PQ-9 reconstituted PS II revealed that two molecules of PQ-9 were reinserted into a reaction center independent of the presence or absence of PSII-L. These results suggest that PSII-L recovers the electron transfer activity in the reconstituted RC by a mechanism different from the stabilization of PQ-9 in the Q(A) site of PSII. Ubiquinone-10 (UQ-10), but not plastoquinone-2 (PQ-2), substituted PQ-9 for recovering the PSII-L supported electron transfer activity in the reconstituted PSII reaction center complexes. The results obtained with the mutant PSII-L proteins revealed that the carboxyl terminal part rather than amino terminal part of PSII-L is crucial for recovering the electron transfer activity in the reconstituted complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9)-depleted PSII reaction center core complex, consisting of CP47/D1/D2/Cytb-559/I, was isolated from spinach PSII particles. PQ-9, lipids and several proteins were extracted from the original PSII particles and separated by several steps of chromatography to be reconstituted into the isolated complex. PQ-9 reconstituted in the complex with the help of thylakoid lipids (digalactosyldiglyceride) did not function as QA by itself. However, PQ-9 simultaneously reconstituted with L protein and the thylakoid lipids successfully functioned as QA in the complex. Other proteins of PSII origin, such as CP43, H, K, nuclear encoded 4.1 and 5.0 kDa proteins, are unable to restore the QA activity in the complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PS II reaction center core complexes consisting of CP47, D1, D2 and I proteins and α and β subunits of cytochrome b-559 were isolated from spinach PS II particles using a detergent solution containing 10 mM n-octyl β-d-thioglucopyranoside (OTG) and 17.5 mM n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside (OG). Retention of plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) in the particles was controlled at different levels from 0.1 to 0.7 per reaction center on average by changing the conditions of the detergent treatments, but primary quinone acceptor (QA) activity was not detected in every preparation. PQ-9, lipids and proteins extracted from the original PS II particles into the detergent solution were separated by several steps of column chromatography to be reconstituted into the isolated complexes. The purified PQ-9 was reinserted into the vacant QA site of the complex, but the QA activity was not restored by itself. However, when the reinsertion of PQ-9 was carried out together with the protein fraction involving the H, L and nuclear encoding 4.1 kDa proteins and the extracted lipids, QA activity was successfully restored in the resulting complexes. The addition of PQ-9 in the reconstitution medium in a molar ratio of 2:1 with the reaction center is sufficient to restore QA function in the PQ-9-depleted complex, suggesting that the added PQ-9 is reinserted in the native QA site of the complex and functions as the primary quinone acceptor under the influence of the H, L, and/or 4.1 kDa proteins and the lipids.