Timothy P Kegelman

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States

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Publications (11)56.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background The extraordinary invasiveness of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) contributes to treatment failure and the grim prognosis of patients diagnosed with this tumor. Consequently, it is imperative to define further the cellular mechanisms that control GBM invasion and identify promising novel therapeutic targets. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-9 (MDA-9/syntenin) is a highly conserved PDZ domain-containing scaffolding protein that promotes invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo in human melanoma models. To determine whether MDA-9/syntenin is a relevant target in GBM, we investigated its expression in tumor samples and involvement in GBM invasion and angiogenesis.MaterialsWe assessed MDA-9/syntenin levels in available databases, patient tumor samples, and human-derived cell lines. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we analyzed changes in invasion, angiogenesis, and signaling in vitro. We used orthotopic xenografts with GBM6 cells to demonstrate the role of MDA-9/syntenin in GBM pathogenesis in vivo.ResultsMDA-9/syntenin expression in high-grade astrocytomas is significantly higher than normal tissue counterparts. Forced overexpression of MDA-9/syntenin enhanced Matrigel invasion, while knockdown inhibited invasion, migration, and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Moreover, overexpression of MDA-9/syntenin increased activation of c-Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor kappa-B, leading to elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and secretion of interleukin-8 with corresponding changes observed upon knockdown. GBM6 cells that stably express small hairpin RNA for MDA-9/syntenin formed smaller tumors and had a less invasive phenotype in vivo.Conclusions Our findings indicate that MDA-9/syntenin is a novel and important mediator of invasion in GBM and a key regulator of pathogenesis, and we identify it as a potential target for anti-invasive treatment in human astrocytoma.
    Neuro-Oncology 12/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation associated gene-9 (mda-9/syntenin) encodes an adapter scaffold protein whose expression correlates with and mediates melanoma progression and metastasis. Tumor angiogenesis represents an integral component of cancer metastasis prompting us to investigate a possible role of mda-9/syntenin in inducing angiogenesis. Genetic (gain-of-function and loss-of-function) and pharmacological approaches were employed to modify mda-9/syntenin expression in normal immortal melanocytes, early radial growth phase melanoma and metastatic melanoma cells. The consequence of modifying mda-9/syntenin expression on angiogenesis was evaluated using both in vitro and in vivo assays, including tube formation assays using human vascular endothelial cells, CAM assays and xenograft tumor animal models. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments confirm that MDA-9/syntenin induces angiogenesis by augmenting expression of several pro-angiogenic factors/genes. Experimental evidence is provided for a model of angiogenesis induction by MDA-9/syntenin in which MDA-9/syntenin interacts with the ECM activating Src and FAK resulting in activation by phosphorylation of Akt, which induces HIF-1α. The HIF-1α activates transcription of Insulin Growth Factor Binding Protein-2 (IGFBP-2), which is secreted thereby promoting angiogenesis and further induces endothelial cells to produce and secrete VEGF-A augmenting tumor angiogenesis. Our studies delineate an unanticipated cell non-autonomous function of MDA-9/syntenin in the context of angiogenesis, which may directly contribute to its metastasis-promoting properties. As a result, targeting MDA-9/syntenin or its downstream-regulated molecules may provide a means of simultaneously impeding metastasis by both directly inhibiting tumor cell transformed properties (autonomous) and indirectly by blocking angiogenesis (non-autonomous).
    Cancer Research 12/2012; · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structure-based modeling combined with rational drug design, and high throughput screening approaches offer significant potential for identifying and developing lead compounds with therapeutic potential. The present review focuses on these two approaches using explicit examples based on specific derivatives of Gossypol generated through rational design and applications of a cancer-specific-promoter derived from Progression Elevated Gene-3. The Gossypol derivative Sabutoclax (BI-97C1) displays potent anti-tumor activity against a diverse spectrum of human tumors. The model of the docked structure of Gossypol bound to Bcl-XL provided a virtual structure-activity-relationship where appropriate modifications were predicted on a rational basis. These structure-based studies led to the isolation of Sabutoclax, an optically pure isomer of Apogossypol displaying superior efficacy and reduced toxicity. These studies illustrate the power of combining structure-based modeling with rational design to predict appropriate derivatives of lead compounds to be empirically tested and evaluated for bioactivity. Another approach to cancer drug discovery utilizes a cancer-specific promoter as readouts of the transformed state. The promoter region of Progression Elevated Gene-3 is such a promoter with cancer-specific activity. The specificity of this promoter has been exploited as a means of constructing cancer terminator viruses that selectively kill cancer cells and as a systemic imaging modality that specifically visualizes in vivo cancer growth with no background from normal tissues. Screening of small molecule inhibitors that suppress the Progression Elevated Gene-3-promoter may provide relevant lead compounds for cancer therapy that can be combined with further structure-based approaches leading to the development of novel compounds for cancer therapy.
    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation associated gene-9 (MDA-9), synonymous with syntenin, is an adapter protein that provides a central role in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. MDA-9/syntenin transduces signals from the cell-surface to the interior through its interaction with a plethora of additional proteins and actively participates in intracellular trafficking and cell-surface targeting, synaptic transmission, and axonal outgrowth. Recent studies demarcate a seminal role of MDA-9/syntenin in cancer metastasis. In the context of melanoma, MDA-9/syntenin functions as a positive regulator of melanoma progression and metastasis through interactions with c-Src and promotes the formation of an active FAK/c-Src signaling complex leading to NF-k B and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. The present review provides a current perspective of our understanding of the important features of MDA-9/syntenin and its significant role in tumor cell metastasis with special focus on molecular mechanism of action.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2012; 17:1-15. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate is an essential excitatory neurotransmitter regulating brain functions. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-2 is one of the major glutamate transporters expressed predominantly in astroglial cells and is responsible for 90% of total glutamate uptake. Glutamate transporters tightly regulate glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft. Dysfunction of EAAT2 and accumulation of excessive extracellular glutamate has been implicated in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis of the 2.5  kb human EAAT2 promoter showed that NF-κB is an important regulator of EAAT2 expression in astrocytes. Screening of approximately 1,040 FDA-approved compounds and nutritionals led to the discovery that many β-lactam antibiotics are transcriptional activators of EAAT2 resulting in increased EAAT2 protein levels. Treatment of animals with ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, led to an increase of EAAT2 expression and glutamate transport activity in the brain. CEF has neuroprotective effects in both in vitro and in vivo models based on its ability to inhibit neuronal cell death by preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. CEF increases EAAT2 transcription in primary human fetal astrocytes through the NF-κB signaling pathway. The NF-κB binding site at -272 position was critical in CEF-mediated EAAT2 protein induction. These studies emphasize the importance of transcriptional regulation in controlling glutamate levels in the brain. They also emphasize the potential utility of the EAAT2 promoter for developing both low and high throughput screening assays to identify novel small molecule regulators of glutamate transport with potential to ameliorate pathological changes occurring during and causing neurodegeneration.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2011; 226(10):2484-93. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive tumor growth, diffuse tissue invasion, and neurodegeneration are hallmarks of malignant glioma. Although glutamate excitotoxicity is considered to play a key role in glioma-induced neurodegeneration, the mechanism(s) controlling this process is poorly understood. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is an oncogene that is overexpressed in several types of human cancers, including more than 90% of brain tumors. In addition, AEG-1 promotes gliomagenesis, particularly in the context of tumor growth and invasion, 2 primary characteristics of glioma. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of AEG-1 to glioma-induced neurodegeneration. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis in normal brain tissues and samples from glioma patients indicated a strong negative correlation between expression of AEG-1 and a primary glutamate transporter of astrocytes EAAT2. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in normal primary human fetal astrocytes and T98G glioblastoma multiforme cells revealed that AEG-1 repressed EAAT2 expression at a transcriptional level by inducing YY1 activity to inhibit CBP function as a coactivator on the EAAT2 promoter. In addition, AEG-1-mediated EAAT2 repression caused a reduction of glutamate uptake by glial cells, resulting in induction of neuronal cell death. These findings were also confirmed in samples from glioma patients showing that AEG-1 expression negatively correlated with NeuN expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that AEG-1 contributes to glioma-induced neurodegeneration, a hallmark of this fatal tumor, through regulation of EAAT2 expression.
    Cancer Research 08/2011; 71(20):6514-23. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), a unique member of the IL-10 gene family, displays a broad range of antitumor properties including cancer-specific induction of apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and modulation of anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we identify clusterin (CLU) as a MDA-7/IL-24 interacting protein in DU-145 cells and investigate the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in regulating CLU expression and mediating the antitumor properties of mda-7/IL-24 in prostate cancer. Ad.mda-7 decreased expression of soluble CLU (sCLU) and increased expression of nuclear CLU (nCLU). In the initial phase of Ad.mda-7 infection sCLU expression increased and CLU interacted with MDA-7/IL-24 producing a cytoprotective effect. Infection of stable clones of DU-145 prostate cancer cells expressing sCLU with Ad.mda-7 resulted in generation of nCLU that correlated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. In the presence of mda-7/IL-24, sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed G(2)/M phase arrest followed by apoptosis. Similarly, Ad.mda-7 infection decreased cell migration by altering cytoskeleton in sCLU-DU-145 cells. Ad.mda-7-treated sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed a significant reduction in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models and reduced angiogenesis when compared to the vector control group. Tumor tissue lysates demonstrated enhanced nCLU generated from sCLU with increased apoptosis in the presence of MDA-7/IL-24. Our findings reveal novel aspects relative to the role of sCLU/nCLU in regulating the anticancer properties of MDA-7/IL-24 that may be exploited for developing enhanced therapies for prostate cancer.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 07/2011; 227(5):1805-13. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 05/2011; 7(5):547-8. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) expression increases in multiple cancers and plays a crucial role in oncogenic transformation and angiogenesis, which are essential components in tumor cell development, growth, and progression to metastasis. Moreover, AEG-1 directly contributes to resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, another important hallmark of aggressive cancers. In the present study, we document that AEG-1 mediates protective autophagy, an important regulator of cancer survival under metabolic stress and resistance to apoptosis, which may underlie its significant cancer-promoting properties. AEG-1 induces noncanonical autophagy involving an increase in expression of ATG5. AEG-1 decreases the ATP/AMP ratio, resulting in diminished cellular metabolism and activation of AMP kinase, which induces AMPK/mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent autophagy. Inhibition of AMPK by siAMPK or compound C decreases expression of ATG5, ultimately attenuating AEG-1-induced autophagy. AEG-1 protects normal cells from serum starvation-induced death through protective autophagy, and inhibition of AEG-1-induced autophagy results in serum starvation-induced cell death. We also show that AEG-1-mediated chemoresistance is because of protective autophagy and inhibition of AEG-1 results in a decrease in protective autophagy and chemosensitization of cancer cells. In summary, the present study reveals a previously unknown aspect of AEG-1 function by identifying it as a potential regulator of protective autophagy, an important feature of AEG-1 that may contribute to its tumor-promoting properties.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2010; 107(51):22243-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Autophagy. 7(5):547-548.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), a unique member of the IL-10 gene family, displays a broad range of antitumor properties including cancer-specific induction of apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and modulation of anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we identify clusterin (CLU) as a MDA-7/IL-24 interacting protein in DU-145 cells and investigate the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in regulating CLU expression and mediating the antitumor properties of mda-7/IL-24 in prostate cancer. Ad.mda-7 decreased expression of soluble CLU (sCLU) and increased expression of nuclear CLU (nCLU). In the initial phase of Ad.mda-7 infection sCLU expression increased and CLU interacted with MDA-7/IL-24 producing a cytoprotective effect. Infection of stable clones of DU-145 prostate cancer cells expressing sCLU with Ad.mda-7 resulted in generation of nCLU that correlated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. In the presence of mda-7/IL-24, sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed G2/M phase arrest followed by apoptosis. Similarly, Ad.mda-7 infection decreased cell migration by altering cytoskeleton in sCLU-DU-145 cells. Ad.mda-7-treated sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed a significant reduction in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models and reduced angiogenesis when compared to the vector control group. Tumor tissue lysates demonstrated enhanced nCLU generated from sCLU with increased apoptosis in the presence of MDA-7/IL-24. Our findings reveal novel aspects relative to the role of sCLU/nCLU in regulating the anticancer properties of MDA-7/IL-24 that may be exploited for developing enhanced therapies for prostate cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 18051813, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology. 227(5):1805-1813.

Publication Stats

93 Citations
197 Downloads
963 Views
56.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2012
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Human and Molecular Genetics
      Richmond, VA, United States
  • 2011
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Institute of Oriental Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea