Thomas C. Luu

Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (39)64.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: At the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) we have started a long-term program that aims to determine beyond-the-Standard-Model (BSM) matrix elements using the gradient flow, and to understand the impact of BSM physics in nucleon and nuclear observables. Using the gradient flow, we propose to calculate the QCD component of key beyond the Standard Model (BSM) matrix elements related to quark and strong theta CP violation and the strange content within the nucleon. The former set of matrix elements impacts our understanding of Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs) of nucleons and nuclei (a key signature of BSM physics), while the latter contributes to elastic recoil of Dark Matter particles off nucleons and nuclei. If successful, these results will lay the foundation for extraction of BSM observables from future low-energy, high-intensity and high-accuracy experimental measurements.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The energy spectra of two nucleons in a cubic volume provide access to the two phase shifts and one mixing angle that define the S matrix in the S13-D13 coupled channels containing the deuteron. With the aid of recently derived energy quantization conditions for such systems, and the known scattering parameters, these spectra are predicted for a range of volumes. It is found that extractions of the infinite-volume deuteron binding energy and leading scattering parameters, including the S-D mixing angle at the deuteron pole, are possible from lattice QCD calculations of two-nucleon systems with boosts of |P|≤(2π)/(L)3 in volumes with 10fm≲L≲14fm. The viability of extracting the asymptotic D/S ratio of the deuteron wave function from lattice QCD calculations is discussed.
    Physical Review D 12/2013; · 4.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the use of twisted boundary conditions in extracting the nucleon mass and the binding energy of two-baryon systems, such as the deuteron, from Lattice QCD calculations. Averaging the results of calculations performed with periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions imposed upon the light-quark fields, or other pair-wise averages, improves the volume dependence of the deuteron binding energy from ~exp(-kappa*L)/L to ~exp(-sqrt(2)kappa*L)/L. However, a twist angle of pi/2 in each of the spatial directions improves the volume dependence from ~exp(-kappa*L)/L to ~exp(-2kappa*L)/L. Twist averaging the binding energy with a random sampling of twist angles improves the volume dependence from ~exp^(-kappa*L)/L to ~exp(-2kappa*L)/L, but with a standard deviation of ~exp(-kappa*L)/L, introducing a signal-to-noise issue in modest lattice volumes. Using the experimentally determined phase shifts and mixing angles, we determine the expected energies of the deuteron states over a range of cubic lattice volumes for a selection of twisted boundary conditions.
    11/2013; 89(7).
  • Conference Paper: The origin of mass
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of mass is one of the deepest mysteries in science. Neutrons and protons, which account for almost all visible mass in the Universe, emerged from a primordial plasma through a cataclysmic phase transition microseconds after the Big Bang. However, most mass in the Universe is invisible. The existence of dark matter, which interacts with our world so weakly that it is essentially undetectable, has been established from its galactic-scale gravitational effects. Here we describe results from the first truly physical calculations of the cosmic phase transition and a groundbreaking first-principles investigation into composite dark matter, studies impossible with previous state-of-the-art methods and resources. By inventing a powerful new algorithm, "DSDR," and implementing it effectively for contemporary supercomputers, we attain excellent strong scaling, perfect weak scaling to the LLNL BlueGene/Q two million cores, sustained speed of 7.2 petaflops, and time-to-solution speedup of more than 200 over the previous state-of-the-art.
    Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The quantization condition for interacting energy eigenvalues of the two-nucleon system in a finite cubic volume is derived in connection to the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This condition is derived using an auxiliary (dimer) field formalism that is generalized to arbitrary partial waves in the context of non-relativistic effective field theory. The quantization condition presented gives access to the scattering parameters of the two-nucleon systems with arbitrary parity, spin, isospin, angular momentum and center of mass motion, from a lattice QCD calculation of the energy eigenvalues. In particular, as it includes all non-central interactions, such as the two-nucleon tensor force, it makes explicit the dependence of the mixing parameters of nucleon-nucleon systems calculated from lattice QCD when there is a physical mixing among different partial-waves, e. g. S-D mixing in the deuteron channel. We provide explicit relations among scattering parameters and their corresponding point group symmetry class eigenenergies with orbital angular momentum l smaller than or equal to 3, and for center of mass boost vectors of the form 2\pi (2n_1, 2n_2, 2n_3)/L, 2\pi (2n_1, 2n_2, 2n_3+1)/L and 2\pi (2n_1+1, 2n_2+1, 2n_3)/L. L denotes the special extent of the cubic volume and n_1,n_2,n_3 are integers. Our results are valid below inelastic thresholds up to exponential volume corrections that are governed by the pion mass.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 05/2013; 88(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The scattering lengths and effective ranges that describe low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering are calculated in the limit of SU(3)-flavor symmetry at the physical strange-quark mass with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics. The calculations are performed with an isotropic clover discretization of the quark action in three volumes with spatial extents of L \sim 3.4 fm, 4.5fm and 6.7 fm, and with a lattice spacing of b \sim 0.145 fm. With determinations of the energies of the two-nucleon systems (both of which contain bound states at these up and down quark masses) at rest and moving in the lattice volume, Luscher's method is used to determine the low-energy phase shifts in each channel, from which the scattering length and effective range are obtained. The scattering parameters, in the 1S0 channel are found to be m_pi a^(1S0) = 9.50^{+0.78}_{-0.69}^{+1.10}_{-0.80} and m_pi r^(1S0) = {4.61^{+0.29}_{-0.31}^{+0.24}_{-0.26}, and in the 3S1 channel are m_pi a^(3S1) = 7.45^{+0.57}_{-0.53}^{+0.71}_{-0.49} and m_pi r^(3S1) = 3.71^{+0.28}_{-0.31}^{+0.28}_{-0.35}. These values are consistent with the two-nucleon system exhibiting Wigner's supermultiplet symmetry, which becomes exact in the limit of large-N_c. In both spin channels, the phase shifts change sign at higher momentum, near the start of the t-channel cut, indicating that the nuclear interactions have a repulsive core even at the SU(3)-symmetric point.
    Physical Review C 01/2013; 88(2). · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • Thomas Luu
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    ABSTRACT: I provide a short overview of the current status of nuclear physics calculations using lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD). I demonstrate, at a very high level, how LQCD calculations are performed and how nuclear scattering data are extracted from these calculations, emphasizing the overlap between traditional nuclear many-body theory and LQCD calculations. I look at the Ω-Ω- system as a concrete example, and in so doing demonstrate the predictive nature of LQCD calculations as applied to nuclear physics.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 12/2012; 403(1):2041-.
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    ABSTRACT: The low-energy nΣ^{-} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m_{π}∼389  MeV in two large lattice volumes and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from lattice QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties and strengthen model-dependent theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2012; 109(17):172001. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The binding energies of a range of nuclei and hypernuclei with atomic number A <= 4 and strangeness |s| <= 2, including the deuteron, di-neutron, H-dibaryon, 3He, Lambda 3He, Lambda 4He, and Lambda Lambda 4He, are calculated in the limit of flavor-SU(3) symmetry at the physical strange quark mass with quantum chromodynamics (without electromagnetic interactions). The nuclear states are extracted from Lattice QCD calculations performed with n_f=3 dynamical light quarks using an isotropic clover discretization of the quark-action in three lattice volumes of spatial extent L ~ 3.4 fm, 4.5 fm and 6.7 fm, and with a single lattice spacing b ~ 0.145 fm.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 06/2012; 87(03).
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    ABSTRACT: The π+π+ s-wave scattering phase shift is determined below the inelastic threshold using lattice QCD. Calculations were performed at a pion mass of mπ∼390 MeV with an anisotropic nf=2+1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L∼2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.9 fm, and with a lattice spacing of bs∼0.123 fm in the spatial direction and bt∼bs/3.5 in the time direction. The phase shift is determined from the energy eigenvalues of π+π+ systems with both zero and nonzero total momentum in the lattice volume using Lüscher’s method. Our calculations are precise enough to allow for a determination of the threshold scattering parameters, the scattering length a, the effective range r, and the shape parameter P, in this channel and to examine the prediction of two-flavor chiral perturbation theory: mπ2ar=3+O(mπ2/Λχ2). Chiral perturbation theory is used, with the lattice QCD results as input, to predict the scattering phase shift (and threshold parameters) at the physical pion mass. Our results are consistent with determinations from the Roy equations and with the existing experimental phase shift data.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 02/2012; 85(3).
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the interactions of two strangeness -3 baryons in multiple spin channels with lattice QCD. This system provides an ideal laboratory for exploring the interactions of multi-baryon systems with minimal dependence on light quark masses. Model calculations of the two-$\Omega^-$ system in two previous works have obtained conflicting results, which can be resolved by lattice QCD. The lattice calculations are performed using two different volumes with $L\sim2.5$ and 3.9 fm on anisotropic clover lattices at $m_\pi \sim 390$ MeV with a lattice spacing of $a_s \sim 0.123$ fm in the spatial direction and $a_t\sim{a}_s/3.5$ in the temporal direction. Using multiple interpolating operators from a non-displaced source, we present scattering information for two ground state $\Omega^-$ baryons in both the S=0 and S=2 channels. For S=0, $k\cot\delta$ is extracted at two volumes, which lead to an extrapolated scattering length of $a^{\Omega\Omega}_{S=0}=0.16 \pm 0.22 \ \text{fm}$, indicating a weakly repulsive interaction. Additionally, for S=2, two separate highly repulsive states are observed. We also present results on the interactions of the excited strangeness -3, spin-1/2 states with the ground spin-3/2 states for the spin-1 and spin-2 channels. Results for these interactions are consistent with attractive behavior.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 01/2012; 85(9).
  • 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Results of a high-statistics, multi-volume Lattice QCD exploration of the deuteron, the di-neutron, the H-dibaryon, and the Xi-Xi- system at a pion mass of m ~ 390 MeV are presented. Calculations were performed with an anisotropic n_f = 2+1 Clover discretization in four lattice volumes of spatial extent L ~ 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with a lattice spacing of b_s ~ 0.123 fm in the spatial-direction, and b_t ~ b_s/3.5 in the time-direction. The Xi-Xi- is found to be bound by B_{Xi-Xi-} = 14.0(1.4)(6.7) MeV, consistent with expectations based upon phenomenological models and low-energy effective field theories constrained by nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon scattering data at the physical light-quark masses. We find weak evidence that both the deuteron and the di-neutron are bound at this pion mass, with binding energies of B_d = 11(05)(12) MeV and B_{nn} = 7.1(5.2)(7.3) MeV, respectively. With an increased number of measurements and a refined analysis, the binding energy of the H-dibaryon is B_H = 13.2(1.8)(4.0) MeV at this pion mass, updating our previous result.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 09/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis of the pion mass and pion decay constant is performed using mixed-action Lattice QCD calculations with domain-wall valence quarks on ensembles of rooted, staggered n_f = 2+1 MILC configurations. Calculations were performed at two lattice spacings of b~0.125 fm and b~0.09 fm, at two strange quark masses, multiple light quark masses, and a number of lattice volumes. The ratios of light quark to strange quark masses are in the range 0.1 <= m_l / m_s <= 0.6, while pion masses are in the range 235 < m_\pi < 680 MeV. A two-flavor chiral perturbation theory analysis of the Lattice QCD calculations constrains the Gasser-Leutwyler coefficients bar{l}_3 and bar{l}_4 to be bar{l}_3 = 4.04(40)(+73-55) and bar{l}_4 = 4.30(51)(+84-60). All systematic effects in the calculations are explored, including those from the finite lattice space-time volume, the finite lattice spacing, and the finite fifth dimension in the domain-wall quark action. A consistency is demonstrated between a chiral perturbation theory analysis at fixed lattice spacing combined with a leading order continuum extrapolation, and the mixed-action chiral perturbation theory analysis which explicitly includes the leading order discretization effects. Chiral corrections to the pion decay constant are found to give f_\pi / f = 1.062(26)(+42-40) where f is the decay constant in the chiral limit. The most recent scale setting by the MILC Collaboration yields a postdiction of f_\pi = 128.2(3.6)(+4.4-6.0)(+1.2-3.3) MeV at the physical pion mass.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 08/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence for the existence of a bound H dibaryon, an I=0, J=0, s=-2 state with valence quark structure uuddss, at a pion mass of m(π)∼389  MeV. Using the results of lattice QCD calculations performed on four ensembles of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations, with spatial extents of L∼2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.9 fm at a spatial lattice spacing of b(s)∼0.123  fm, we find an H dibaryon bound by B(∞)(H)=16.6±2.1±4.6  MeV at a pion mass of m(π)∼389  MeV.
    Physical Review Letters 04/2011; 106(16):162001. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with n_f=2+1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ~ 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.9 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ~ 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_pi ~ 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is ~0.2%, enabling a precise exploration of the volume dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann--Okubo mass relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison of the volume dependence with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R and SU(3)_L X SU(3)_R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the Delta-N-pi axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and etas. At a given value of m_pi L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_pi ~ 140 MeV than at m_pi ~ 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ~ m_pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.
    Physical Review D 04/2011; 84(01). · 4.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current constraints from lattice QCD on the existence of the H-dibaryon are discussed. With only two significant lattice QCD calculations of the H-dibaryon binding energy at approximately the same lattice spacing, the forms of the chiral and continuum extrapolations to the physical point are not determined. In this brief report, we consider the constraints on the H-dibaryon imposed by two simple chiral extrapolations. In both instances, the extrapolation to the physical pion mass allows for a bound H-dibaryon or a near-threshold scattering state. Further lattice QCD calculations are required to clarify this situation.
    Modern Physics Letters A 03/2011; 26(34). · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    Thomas Luu, Martin J. Savage
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    ABSTRACT: L\"uscher's method is routinely used to determine meson-meson, meson-baryon and baryon-baryon s-wave scattering amplitudes below inelastic thresholds from Lattice QCD calculations - presently at unphysical light-quark masses. In this work we review the formalism and develop the requisite expressions to extract phase-shifts describing meson-meson scattering in partial-waves with angular-momentum l<=6 and l=9. The implications of the underlying cubic symmetry, and strategies for extracting the phase-shifts from Lattice QCD calculations, are presented, along with a discussion of the signal-to-noise problem that afflicts the higher partial-waves.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created by a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and reaction rates in a model-independent way, we use lattice QCD data and a hierarchy of effective field theories. We find that the measured Helium-4 abundances put a bound of -1 % <~ d m_q/m_q <~ 0.7 % on a possible variation of quark masses. The effect of quark mass variations on the deuterium abundances can be largely compensated by changes of the baryon-to-photon ratio eta. Including bounds on the variation of eta coming from WMAP results and adding some additional assumptions further narrows the range of allowed values of d m_q/m_q.
    Physical Review C 12/2010; · 3.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

533 Citations
64.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich
      Jülich, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006–2013
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      • Physical & Life Sciences Directorate
      Livermore, California, United States
  • 2012
    • University of New Hampshire
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, NH, United States