Takayuki Abe

Keio University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (47)144.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare renal cyst pseudoenhancement between virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) and conventional polychromatic 120-kVp images obtained during the same abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination and among images reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR).Our institutional review board approved this prospective study; each participant provided written informed consent. Thirty-one patients (19 men, 12 women; age range, 59-85 years; mean age, 73.2 ± 5.5 years) with renal cysts underwent unenhanced 120-kVp CT followed by sequential fast kVp-switching dual-energy (80/140 kVp) and 120-kVp abdominal enhanced CT in the nephrographic phase over a 10-cm scan length with a random acquisition order and 4.5-second intervals. Fifty-one renal cysts (maximal diameter, 18.0 ± 14.7 mm [range, 4-61 mm]) were identified. The CT attenuation values of the cysts as well as of the kidneys were measured on the unenhanced images, enhanced VMS images (at 70 keV) reconstructed using FBP and ASIR from dual-energy data, and enhanced 120-kVp images reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. The results were analyzed using the mixed-effects model and paired t test with Bonferroni correction.The attenuation increases (pseudoenhancement) of the renal cysts on the VMS images reconstructed using FBP/ASIR (least square mean, 5.0/6.0 Hounsfield units [HU]; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-7.4/3.6-8.4 HU) were significantly lower than those on the conventional 120-kVp images reconstructed using FBP/ASIR/MBIR (least square mean, 12.1/12.8/11.8 HU; 95% confidence interval, 9.8-14.5/10.4-15.1/9.4-14.2 HU) (all P < .001); on the other hand, the CT attenuation values of the kidneys on the VMS images were comparable to those on the 120-kVp images.Regardless of the reconstruction algorithm, 70-keV VMS images showed a lower degree of pseudoenhancement of renal cysts than 120-kVp images, while maintaining kidney contrast enhancement comparable to that on 120-kVp images.
    Medicine 04/2015; 94(15):e754. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000754 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes between increasing versus maintaining the dose of mirtazapine in patients with depression without initial improvement. Data from a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of mirtazapine in major depressive disorder (DSM-IV) conducted from November 2004 to December 2005 were used. Percentages of remitters (ie, a score of ≤ 7 in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS-17]) and HDRS-17 score changes from baseline to week 6 were compared in the following 2 pairs, using Fisher exact test or mixed-effects model for repeated measures: (1) subjects who failed to show a ≥ 20% decrease in the HDRS-17 total scores at week 1 but were assigned to continue 15 mg/d (stay15 group) versus those who were assigned to increase the dose to 30 mg/d (increase30 group) and (2) subjects who failed to show a ≥ 20% decrease in the HDRS-17 total scores with 30 mg/d at week 2 but were assigned to continue 30 mg/d (stay30 group) versus those who were assigned to increase the dose to 45 mg/d (increase45 group). The increase30 group showed a numerically but not significantly higher remission rate and a significantly greater decrease in the HDRS-17 total score at week 6 than the stay(15) group (34.7% [8 of 23 patients] vs 14.3% [3 of 21 patients], P = .2; least squares mean, -15.8 vs -10.9, P = .003). No significant differences were found between the increase45 and stay30 groups. Dose increase of mirtazapine from 15 mg/d to 30 mg/d may be effective for patients with depression without initial improvement. However, effectiveness may not be the case beyond 30 mg/d. JapicCTI identifier: 152830. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2015; 76(4):434-439. DOI:10.4088/JCP.14m09201 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous models for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) include procedure-related variables in addition to pre-procedural variables. We sought to develop a risk model for CI-AKI based on pre-procedural variables and compare its predictability with a conventional risk model and also to develop an integer score system based on selected variables. A total of 5,936 consecutive PCIs registered in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database were analyzed (derivation cohort, n = 3,957; validation cohort, n = 1,979). CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 50% or 0.3 mg/dl compared with baseline. From the derivation cohort, 2 different CI-AKI risk models were generated using logistic regression analyses: a pre-procedural model and a conventional model including both pre-procedural and procedure-related variables. The predictabilities of the models were compared by c-statistics. An integer score was assigned to each variable in proportion to each estimated regression coefficient for the final model. In our derivation cohort, the proportion of CI-AKI was 9.0% (n = 358). Predictors for CI-AKI included older age, heart failure, diabetes, previous PCI, hypertension, higher baseline creatinine level, and acute coronary syndrome. Presence of procedure-related complications and insertion of intra-aortic balloon pumping were included as procedure-related variables in the conventional model. Both the conventional model (c-statistics 0.789) and the pre-procedural model (c-statistics 0.799) demonstrated reasonable discrimination. The integer risk-scoring method demonstrated good agreement between the expected and observed risks of CI-AKI in the validation cohort. In conclusion, the pre-procedural risk model for CI-AKI had acceptable discrimination compared with the conventional model and may aid in risk stratification of CI-AKI before PCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American journal of cardiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.03.004 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating data show the efficacy of catheter ablation (CA) for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, postoperative recurrence is not uncommon. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of AF recurrence in patients undergoing CA. We studied 100 patients with symptomatic paroxysmal (68) or persistent (32) AF who underwent CA preceded by transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Of these, 50 had sinus rhythm during echocardiography (Group NSR) and 50 had AF rhythm (Group AF). The left atrial (LA) strain was measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters were compared between the patients with AF recurrence and no recurrence. During 12 months of follow-up, 26 of 100 patients (11 in Group NSR and 15 in Group AF) had AF recurrence; these patients had significantly longer AF duration, a lower LA global strain (LA-GS), lower LA lateral total strain (LA-LS), and larger maximum LA volume index (LAVImax) than those who maintained sinus rhythm. Multivariate logistic regression identified basal LA-LS and LAVImax as independent predictors of AF recurrence. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that basal LA-LS was the most useful parameter for predicting AF recurrence [area under the curve (AUC): 0.84 vs. 0.74 in LAVImax]. Subanalyses showed that LAVImax was another independent predictor of AF recurrence in Group AF, but not in Group NSR, while basal LA-LS was a significant predictor in both groups. LA myocardial function assessed by basal LA-LS could predict AF recurrence after CA. Notably, such an assessment could be applicable even during AF rhythm, suggesting its convenience in the clinical setting without defibrillation before analysis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev028 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at risk for metabolic bone disease, studies analyzing this correlation have identified various risk factors, including disease phenotype, age, sex and steroid therapy. Furthermore, few studies have assessed risk factors for bone loss in Japanese IBD patients. This study analyzed risk factors for metabolic bone disease in Japanese IBD patients. This cross-sectional study assessed 388 patients with IBD aged 20-50 years, including 232 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 156 with Crohn's disease (CD). Bone mineral density of the femoral neck, total femur and lumbar spine was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The blood concentrations of bone metabolism markers were measured. History of smoking and bone fracture, and nutritional intake were assessed using questionnaires. Of the 388 patients with IBD, 78 (20.1%; UC, 17.2%; CD, 24.4%) had osteopenia and 17 (4.4%; UC, 3.4%; CD, 5.8%) had osteoporosis, as assessed by T-score. Bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae was lower in males than in females. Multivariate regression analysis showed that risk factors for bone loss in UC patients were male sex, low body mass index (BMI), high steroid dose and disease location. Risk factors for bone loss in CD patients were male sex and low BMI. Among Japanese patients with IBD, male sex and low BMI were associated with increased risk for metabolic bone disease. In addition, Steroid therapy shouldn't be indiscriminate in UC patients. These findings may help identify patients at particularly high risk of metabolic bone disease and may help implement appropriate therapies in a timely manner and improve long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2015.01.003 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. This study examined the association between the severity of visual field defects and the prevalence of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This is a cross-sectional study. Japanese patients who have had driver’s licence between 40 and 85 years of age were screened for eligibility. Participants answered a questionnaire about MVCs experienced during the previous 5 years. Subjects with POAG were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe visual field defect. We evaluated associations between the severity of POAG and the prevalence of MVCs by logistic regression models. Results. The prevalence of MVCs was significantly associated with the severity of POAG categorized by worse eye MD (control: 30/187 = 16.0%; mild POAG: 17/92 = 18.5%; moderate POAG: 14/60 = 23.3%; severe POAG: 14/47 = 29.8%; , Cochran-Armitage trend test). Compared to the control group, the adjusted OR for MVC prevalence in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe POAG in the worse eye was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.55 to 2.10), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.68 to 3.08), and 2.28 (95% CI: 1.07 to 4.88). Conclusions. There is a significant association between the severity of glaucoma in the worse eye MD and the prevalence of MVCs.
    Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2015; 2015:1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/497067 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the relationships among indices of glycemic variability obtained by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). CGM was performed in 88 patients with diabetes (20 type 1 and 68 type 2 diabetes, age 59 ± 15 years) admitted to our hospital (Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan) between 2010 and 2012. Mean glucose, glucose standard deviation (SDglu) and other glycemic indices such as index of glycemic control (ICG), J-index, mean of daily differences (MODD), continuous overlapping net glycemic action 1 (CONGA1), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and M value were calculated from CGM data, and the correlations among these indices were assessed. There were strong correlations between SDglu and the indices MAGE, CONGA1, MODD and M value (all r > 0.8, P < 0.05). On the other hand, mean glucose was strongly correlated with J index and M value (both r > 0.8, P < 0.05). SDglu and other glycemic variability indices were more strongly correlated with hypoglycemia than was mean glucose, and the combination of mean glucose and SDglu was useful for predicting hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the characteristics of various glycemic variability indices in relation to mean glucose and SDglu. This information will help physicians to understand the characteristics of various glycemic variability indices and to select an appropriate index for their purpose. Our results also underpin the importance of glycemic variability in relation to risk of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes.
    Primary Care Diabetes 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pcd.2014.10.001 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here we compared the diagnostic rates of ocular GVHD, including its severity, prognosis and the agreement, obtained using three grading scales: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) eye score, Japanese dry eye score, and dry eye workshop score, by retrospectively reviewing the records of 82 patients who underwent HSCT. Tear dynamics and ocular surface assessments made 6-9 months after HSCT were used to determine ocular GVHD severity with the three scales. By the three scales, ocular GVHD was diagnosed in 56 patients (68.3%), 51 patients (62.2%), and 52 patients (63.4%), respectively. The Kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the agreement between scales for diagnosing ocular GVHD. The severity progression within two years after onset was also assessed by tear dynamics and ocular surface examination. The patients were categorized as no change, improved, or progressive. The three grading scales showed good agreement (Kappa = 0.87 to 0.97) in diagnosing patients with ocular GVHD, and the scores by all three were significantly associated with the patients' prognosis (p < 0.01). We recommend that multi-center research is needed for further validation and investigation.
    Scientific Reports 10/2014; 4:6680. DOI:10.1038/srep06680 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16 weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218.
    BMJ Open 10/2014; 4(10):e006359. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006359 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To compare quantitative and subjective image quality between virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) and conventional polychromatic 120-kVp imaging performed during the same abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination. Materials and methods Our institutional review board approved this prospective study; each participant provided written informed consent. Fifty-one patients underwent sequential fast kVp-switching dual-energy (80/140 kVp, volume CT dose index: 12.7 mGy) and single-energy (120 kVp, 12.7 mGy) abdominal enhanced CT over an 8-cm scan length with a random acquisition order and a 4.3-s interval. VMS images with filtered back projection (VMS-FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (so-called hybrid IR) (VMS-ASIR) (at 70 keV), as well as 120-kVp images with FBP (120-kVp-FBP) and ASIR (120-kVp-ASIR), were generated from dual-energy and single-energy CT data, respectively. The objective image noises, signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-to-noise ratios of the liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, portal vein and aorta, and the lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-kidney contrast-to-noise ratios were measured. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed the subjective image quality. The results were analyzed using the paired t -test, Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and mixed-effects model with Bonferroni correction. Results VMS-ASIR images were superior to 120-kVp-FBP, 120-kVp-ASIR and VMS-FBP images for all the quantitative assessments and the subjective overall image quality (all P < 0.001), while VMS-FBP images were superior to 120-kVp-FBP and 120-kVp-ASIR images (all P < 0.004). Conclusions VMS images at 70 keV have a higher image quality than 120-kVp images, regardless of the application of hybrid IR. Hybrid IR can further improve the image quality of VMS imaging.
    European Journal of Radiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2014.06.004 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Dual-energy CT technology enables acquisition of virtual unenhanced (VUE) images from contrast-enhanced scans. Objective To assess the feasibility of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on VUE images derived from fast kVp-switching dual-energy coronary CT angiography. Methods Twenty-seven patients underwent true non-contrast CAC scoring CT followed by routine single-energy (120-kVp) and fast kVp-switching dual-energy coronary CT angiography, in a random acquisition order, on the same day. We calculated the CAC scores on true non-contrast and VUE images. The image noises, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of the aorta and coronary arteries were measured on both the single-energy coronary CT angiography images and dual-energy coronary CT angiography images (70-keV virtual monochromatic spectral images). Pearson’s correlation coefficient test and paired t-test were used for the statistical analysis. Results Excellent correlation was observed between the CAC scores on the true non-contrast and those on the VUE images (r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Compared with single-energy coronary CT angiography, dual-energy coronary CT angiography showed significantly reduced image noise and increased signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in all regions (all P < 0.001). The effective dose of dual-energy coronary CT angiography (4.3 ± 0.3 mSv) was significantly lower than that of true non-contrast CAC scoring CT plus single-energy coronary CT angiography (5.4 ± 0.7 mSv) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Excellent correlation was observed between the CAC scores on the VUE images and true non-contrast images. Thus, fast kVp-switching dual-energy coronary CT angiography could allow prediction of the true CAC scores, potentially reducing the total radiation exposure and image acquisition time by obviating the need for true non-contrast CAC scoring CT.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jcct.2014.08.005 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionLittle is known about oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels in the cerebral tissue during the development of anoxic and ischemic brain injury. We hypothesized that the estimated cerebral oxy-Hb level, a product of Hb and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), determined at hospital arrival may reflect the level of neuroprotection in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS).Methods The Japan Prediction of neurological Outcomes in patients with Post cardiac arrest (J-POP) registry is a prospective, multicenter, cohort study to test whether rSO2 predicts neurological outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This study assessed a subgroup of consecutive patients who fulfilled the J-POP registry criteria and successfully achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from OHCA. The primary outcome measure was the neurological status at 90 days.ResultsWe analyzed data from 495 consecutive comatose survivors who were successfully resuscitated from OHCA, including 119 comatose patients with prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC; 24.0%) and 376 cardiac arrests at hospital arrival. In total, 75 patients (15.1%) presented with good neurological outcomes. Univariate analysis revealed that the cerebral oxy-Hb levels were significantly higher in patients with good outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression using the backward elimination method confirmed that the oxy-Hb level was a significant predictor of good neurological outcomes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 to 1.46). Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) revealed that an oxy-Hb cut-off of 5.5 provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for predicting good neurological outcomes (AUC: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.91; sensitivity: 77.3%; specificity: 85.6%). The oxy-Hb level appeared to be an excellent prognostic indicator with significant advantages over rSO2 and base excess according to AUC analysis. The significant trend for good neurological outcomes was consistent, even in the subgroup of patients who achieved return of spontaneous circulation upon hospital arrival (1st quartile: 0%; 2nd quartile: 16.7%; 3rd quartile: 29.4%; 4th quartile: 53.3%, P <0.05).Conclusions The cerebral oxy-Hb level may predict neurological outcomes and is a simple and excellent indicator of neuroprotection in patients with PCAS.Trial registrationUMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000005065. Registered 1 April 2011.
    Critical care (London, England) 08/2014; 18(4):500. DOI:10.1186/s13054-014-0500-6
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    ABSTRACT: Dry eye disease (DED) is defined as a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability, with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is thought to be associated with reduced quality of life (QOL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DED on health-related QOL in Japanese university sedentary office workers who are daily users of visual display terminal. In this study, 163 university staff (99 male and 64 female), aged 23-69 years, served as study subjects. Subjects were asked to answer the following three questions. (1) How often do your eyes feel dry? (2) How often do your eyes feel irritated? (3) Have you ever been diagnosed by a clinician as having dry eye syndrome? Sixty-eight subjects who answered "constantly," "often", or "sometimes" to both questions 1 and 2 were classified as the DED Group, and the remaining 95 were defined as the Non-DED Group. QOL was assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, which consisted of 36 items to produce three summary scores, namely, mental, physical, and role/social component summary scores. For males, the DED Group had significantly lower scores than the Non-DED Group for mental component summary (MCS) (P = 0.005). In multiple regression analysis, MCS scores were adversely related to DED in males (P = 0.015). DED was associated with worsened QOL. DED should be regarded as a factor that can lead to deterioration of mental health.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2014; 233(3):215-20. DOI:10.1620/tjem.233.215 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 04/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000112 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between baseline beta cell function and future glycated albumin (GA) to glycated hemoglobin ratio (GA/HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our retrospective cohort, 210 type 2 diabetic patients who had been admitted to our hospital and in whom HbA1c and GA had been measured at baseline and 2 years after admission were included in this study. Baseline beta cell function was assessed by postprandial C-peptide immunoreactivity index (PCPRI) during admission. With intensification of treatment during admission, HbA1c and GA were significantly decreased 1 year and 2 years after admission. While baseline HbA1c was not significantly correlated with HbA1c after 2 years, baseline GA/HbA1c was strongly correlated with GA/HbA1c after 2 years (r = 0.575, P <0.001). When the patients were divided into two groups according to median PCPRI, patients with low PCPRI showed higher GA/HbA1c both at baseline and after 2 years compared to those with high PCPRI. There was a significant negative correlation between PCPRI and GA/HbA1c after 2 years (r = -0.379, P <0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that PCPRI was an independent predictor of GA/HbA1c after 2 years. In conclusion, our findings suggest that lower beta cell function is associated with sustained higher GA/HbA1c ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Endocrine Journal 11/2013; DOI:10.1507/endocrj.EJ13-0376 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] To determine if glaucomatous visual field defect severity is associated with fear of falling. [Methods] This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 387 consecutive subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were enrolled in this study along with 293 ocular disease-free control subjects, who were screened at the same institutions. We defined mild POAG as mean deviation (MD) of -6 dB or better, moderate POAG as MD of -6 to -12 dB, and severe POAG as MD of -12 dB or worse in the better eye. All participants were requested to answer a questionnaire on fear of falling. Associations between POAG severity and the prevalence of fear of falling were evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Multivariable factors including age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the prevalence of fear of falling and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated with logistic regression models. [Results] The prevalence of fear of falling was 35/293 (11.9%) in the control group, 38/313 (12.1%) in the mild POAG group, 12/48 (25.0%) in the moderate POAG group, and 6/26 (23.1%) in the severe POAG group, and the trend was statistically significant (P=0.028 Cochran-Armitage trend test). The adjusted ORs for prevalence in the mild, moderate, and severe POAG groups compared with that in the control group were 1.44 (95% CI: 0.83 to 2.51), 2.33 (95% CI: 1.00 to 5.44) and 4.06 (95% CI: 1.39 to 11.90), respectively. [Conclusions] Among patients with POAG, the severity of visual field defects is associated with fear of falling.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2013; 54(12). DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-12079 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome. We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years) who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1%) developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria and 53 (7.1%) developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO) in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome. Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73430. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073430 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the long-term effects of postoperative flat anterior chamber (FAC) development on outcomes following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. This was a retrospective cohort study. Data on 383 consecutive patients (383 eyes) who underwent trabeculectomy at our institution between 1999 and 2009 were followed up. Patients who developed FAC after trabeculectomy and patients with maintained anterior chamber were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was the success of the initial trabeculectomy, which was defined at 3 different levels by the achievement of the following intraocular pressure (IOP)-related criteria without secondary IOP-lowering surgery: (a) IOP ≤ 12 mmHg and ≤30 % reduction in IOP from the preoperative level; (b) IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and ≤20 % reduction in IOP; and (c) IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the failure of trabeculectomy caused by FAC within 5 years of surgery were examined in conjunction with the Cox proportional hazards regression model. FAC was observed in 90 of the 383 eyes examined (23.4 %). Postoperative mild FAC was associated with the long-term success of trabeculectomy when evaluated according to our strictest success criterion, Criterion-A [HR = 0.72 (95 % CI 0.53-0.98); P = 0.04]. In contrast, severe FAC was inversely associated with the long-term success of the surgery when evaluated according to our most lenient criterion, Criterion-C [HR = 1.93 (95 % CI 1.16-3.22); P = 0.01]. Mild postoperative FAC after trabeculectomy is associated with a favorable long-term outcome, whereas severe postoperative FAC leads to an unfavorable prognosis.
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 08/2013; 57(6). DOI:10.1007/s10384-013-0274-4 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It remains unclear regarding the contribution of each individual symptom in predicting the outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate trajectories of individual symptoms over time to identify which specific depressive item(s) could predict subsequent clinical response. The data of 2874 outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who received citalopram for up to 14 weeks in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial were analyzed. Average trajectories of individual symptoms over time were estimated for remitters and non-remitters. Moreover, specific symptoms whose improvement at week 2 predicted remission were identified, using binary logistic regression analysis. Trajectories were significantly different between remitters and non-remitters in all depressive symptoms. All depressive symptoms in the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) in the two groups, except for hypersomnia and weight change in non-remitters, substantially improved within 2 weeks and gradually continued to improve thereafter throughout the 14 weeks. Early improvements in the following five symptoms, in order of magnitude, in the QIDS-SR16 were significantly associated with remission: sad mood, negative self-view, feeling slowed down, low energy, and restlessness (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.001, P=0.004, P=0.021). The participants were limited to the nonpsychotic MDD outpatients who received citalopram. Further, symptomatology was not evaluated at the very beginning of treatment. While the data pertain to citalopram and replication is necessary for other antidepressants, early improvements in certain core depressive symptoms may serve as a predictor of subsequent remission.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2013; 151(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.035 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impact of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function has not been investigated in stable patients with schizophrenia. In this open-label, 28-week, randomized controlled trial, stable patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone or olanzapine were randomly assigned to the reduction group (dose reduced by 50% in 4 weeks and then maintained) or maintenance group (dose kept constant). Assessments at baseline and week 28 included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). Sixty-one patients were enrolled; 2 of 31 (6.5%) and 5 of 30 (16.7%) patients prematurely withdrew from the study in the reduction and maintenance groups, respectively. While no significant differences in change in the PANSS total score were observed between the 2 groups, the reduction group showed significantly greater improvements in the RBANS and DIEPSS total scores compared with the maintenance group (mean ± SD, +7.0±7.1 vs -0.1±8.0, P < .001; -0.9±1.7 vs +0.1±1.2, P = .010, respectively). This 6-month pilot study suggests that risperidone or olanzapine dose reduction of 50% can improve cognitive function for stable patients with schizophrenia. Due to the open-label design, small sample size, and short study duration, however, there is a need to confirm the finding through double-blind, larger scale trials with longer follow-up periods. Moreover, potential risks of relapse following antipsychotic dose reduction should be thoroughly investigated in longer term studies.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 07/2013; 39(5). DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt090 · 8.61 Impact Factor