T Savage

Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (3)11.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate (1) the effect of running and drop landing interventions on knee cartilage deformation and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration and (2) if the changes in cartilage volume correlate with the changes in serum COMP level. Knee joint cartilage volume and thickness were determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as COMP concentration from serum samples before and after in vivo loading of 14 healthy adults (seven male and seven female). Participants performed different loading interventions of 30 min duration on three different days: (1) 100 vertical drop landings from a 73 cm high platform, (2) running at a velocity of 2.2m/s (3.96 km), and (3) resting on a chair. Blood samples were taken immediately before, immediately after and 0.5h, 1h, 2h and 3h post intervention. Pre- and post-loading coronal and axial gradient echo MR images with fat suppression were used to determine the patellar, tibial and femoral cartilage deformation. Serum COMP levels increased immediately after the running (+30.7%, pre: 7.3U/l, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.6, 8.9, post: 9.1U/l, 95% CI: 7.2, 11.0, P=0.001) and after drop landing intervention (+32.3%, pre: 6.8U/l, 95% CI: 5.3, 8.4; post: 8.9U/l, 95% CI: 6.8, 10.9, P=0.001). Cartilage deformation was more pronounced after running compared to drop landing intervention, with being significant (volume: P=0.002 and thickness: P=0.001) only in the lateral tibia. We found a significant correlation (r(2)=0.599, P=0.001) between changes in serum COMP (%) and in cartilage volume (%) after the drop landing intervention, but not after running. In vivo exercise interventions differentially regulate serum COMP concentrations and knee cartilage deformations. The relation between changes in COMP and in cartilage volume seems to depend on both mechanical and biochemical factors.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 05/2011; 19(8):1003-10. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of all joint structures, affecting over 50% of the population over the age of 65 in the US. Joint injury, a common outcome of sport participation, and high impact loading, such as that experienced in landing and running, are associated with an increased risk of cartilage degeneration and OA development. However, joint loading is also important to cartilage matrix health. The relationship between mechanical loading and joint degeneration is not clear. Objective To investigate the response of biological markers of cartilage metabolism to moderate cyclical and high impact loading activities. Design Comparative cohort study. Setting High level athletes. Participants 10 impact athletes (five women and five men) and 14 adult non-athletic controls (seven women and seven men). Interventions Data were collected and compared between three experimental conditions: complete rest; moderate cyclical loading (slow jog); and high impact loading (landing). The duration of intervention was 30 min and subjects were supervised throughout the intervention. Main outcome measurements Blood samples were collected from each subject at baseline and 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after three interventions. Blood samples were allowed to clot, centrifuged to separate the serum and aliquots were stored at -80° until testing. Serum concentrations of glucosaminoglycans, C-propeptide of collagen II (CP2), cleavage of collagen II (C2C) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were evaluated using commercially available Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits. Results A significant change in serum biomarker concentration in response to the loading intervention was observed for COMP. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that serum CP2 and C2C concentrations were not influenced by the loading interventions at the analysed time points. However, COMP increased immediately after the loading interventions. Future studies should investigate the role of biomarkers as a diagnostic tool for evidence based workload assessment.
    British journal of sports medicine 04/2011; 45(4):326. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Coactivation of the hamstrings and quadriceps has been identified as the most effective stabilising pattern of the knee. The risk of knee injury is increased in landing compared to running and may be associated with a different muscular response to the loading pattern. Objective The aim of this study was to compare coactivation patterns of the knee flexors and extensors during two common athletic activities. Design Kinetic and EMG analysis. Setting Competitive athletes. Participants Eight young adult athletes (5 male/3 female). Interventions Data were collected from two running interventions (2.5 and 3.0 m/s) and expected landings from a height of 73 cm. Main outcome measurements Muscular activation of selected quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was determined using normalised RMS of surface EMG. The relative amount of knee flexor and extensor activity was determined using a coactivation ratio (CCR, Sum RMS Hams/Sum RMS Quads). For the running trials, the stance phase was normalised and mean muscle activity calculated during three intervals: weight acceptance (WA); middle stance (MS); and late stance (LS). Landing trials were divided into two phases: initial contact (IC, the first 100 ms after touchdown) and eccentric (EC, from 100 ms until maximal knee flexion). Results The CCR was significantly greater (p<0.001) during running (WA=0.56, MS=0.49) than landing (IC=0.20, EC=0.32). Muscular activity observed during landing greatly favoured the quadriceps while hamstring activity was highest during LS in running. There was a trend for an increase in CCR with running velocity, however only during LS was CCR significantly higher (p<0.05) (2.5 m/s=1.67, 3 m/s=2.14). Conclusion Quadriceps activity was observed to be much higher than the hamstrings in landing than running and this has been hypothesised as a mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The Quadriceps contract eccentrically to control landing and a low hamstring contribution may affect joint stability and loading patterns.
    British journal of sports medicine 04/2011; 45(4):328. · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5 Citations
11.60 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany