Tina M Iverson

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Michigan, United States

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Publications (48)260.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: G protein activation by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the critical steps for many cellular signal transduction pathways. Previously, we and other groups reported that the alpha 5 (α5) helix in the G protein alpha subunit plays a major role during this activation process. However, the precise signaling pathway between the α5 helix and the GDP binding pocket remains elusive. Here, using structural, biochemical and computational techniques, we probed different residues around the α5 helix for their role in signaling. Our data showed that perturbing the F336 (α5) residue disturbs hydrophobic interactions with the β2-β3 strands and α1 helix, leading to high basal nucleotide exchange. However, mutations in β strands β5 and β6 do not perturb G protein activation. We have highlighted critical residues that leverage F336 as a relay. Conformational changes are transmitted starting from F336 via β2-β3/α1 to Switch I and the P-loop, decreasing the stability of the GDP binding pocket and triggering nucleotide release. When the α1 and α5 helices were cross-linked, inhibiting the receptor-mediated displacement of the C-terminal α5 helix, mutation of F336 still leads to high basal exchange. This suggests that unlike receptor mediated activation, helix 5 rotation and translocation is not necessary for GDP release from the α subunit. Rather, destabilization of the backdoor region of the Gα subunit is sufficient for triggering the activation process.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 07/2014;
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    Dataset: cPLA2
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    ABSTRACT: Concatenation of engineered biocatalysts into multistep pathways markedly increases their utility, but the development of generalizable assembly methods remains a major challenge. Herein we evaluate 'bioretrosynthesis', which is an application of the retrograde evolution hypothesis, for biosynthetic pathway construction. To test bioretrosynthesis, we engineered a pathway for synthesis of the antiretroviral nucleoside analog didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyinosine). Applying both directed evolution- and structure-based approaches, we began pathway construction with a retro-extension from an engineered purine nucleoside phosphorylase and evolved 1,5-phosphopentomutase to accept the substrate 2,3-dideoxyribose 5-phosphate with a 700-fold change in substrate selectivity and threefold increased turnover in cell lysate. A subsequent retrograde pathway extension, via ribokinase engineering, resulted in a didanosine pathway with a 9,500-fold change in nucleoside production selectivity and 50-fold increase in didanosine production. Unexpectedly, the result of this bioretrosynthetic step was not a retro-extension from phosphopentomutase but rather the discovery of a fortuitous pathway-shortening bypass via the engineered ribokinase.
    Nature Chemical Biology 03/2014; · 12.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor-mediated activation of the Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins requires allosteric communication between the receptor-binding and the guanine nucleotide-binding sites, which are separated by over 30 Å. Structural changes in the allosteric network connecting these sites are predicted to be transient in the wild-type Gα subunit, making studies of these connections challenging. In the current work, site-directed mutants that alter the energy barriers between the activation states are used as tools to better understand transient features of allosteric signaling in the Gα subunit. The observed differences in relative receptor affinity for intact Gαi1 subunits versus C-terminal Gαi1 peptides harboring the K345L mutation are consistent with this mutation modulating the allosteric network in the protein subunit. Measurement of nucleotide exchange rates, affinity for meta II, and thermostability suggest that the K345L Gαi1 variant has reduced stability in both the GDP-bound and nucleotide-free states as compared to wild-type, but exhibits similar stability in the GTPγS-bound state. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures reveal conformational changes accompanying the destabilization of the GDP-bound state. Of these, a new conformation for Switch I was stabilized by an ionic interaction with the P-loop. Further site-directed mutagenesis suggests that this interaction between Switch I and the P-loop is important for receptor-mediated nucleotide exchange in the wild-type Gαi subunit.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins of Gram-positive bacteria comprise a large family of cell wall proteins. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) expresses either Srr1 or Srr2 on its surface, depending on the strain. Srr1 has recently been shown to bind fibrinogen, and this interaction contributes to the pathogenesis of GBS meningitis. Although strains expressing Srr2 appear to be hypervirulent, no ligand for this adhesin has been described. We now demonstrate that Srr2 also binds human fibrinogen, and that this interaction promotes GBS attachment to endothelial cells. Recombinant Srr1 and Srr2 bound fibrinogen in vitro, with affinities of KD = 2.1 × 10-5 M and 3.7 × 10-6 M, respectively, as measured by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The binding site for Srr1 and Srr2 was localized to tandem repeats 6-8 of the fibrinogen Aα chain. The structures of both the Srr1 and Srr2 binding regions were determined and in combination with mutagenesis studies, suggest that both Srr1 and Srr2 interact with a segment of these repeats via a dock, lock, and latch mechanism. Moreover, properties of the latch region may account for the increased affinity between Srr2 and fibrinogen. Together, these studies identify how greater affinity of Srr2 for fibrinogen may contribute to the increased virulence associated with Srr2-expressing strains.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory processes often use quinone oxidoreduction to generate a transmembrane proton gradient, making the 2H+/2e- quinone chemistry important for ATP synthesis. There are a variety of quinones used as electron carriers between bioenergetic proteins, and some respiratory proteins can functionally interact with more than one quinone type. In the case of complex II homologs, which couple quinone chemistry to the interconversion of succinate and fumarate, the redox potentials of the biologically available ubiquinone and menaquinone aid in driving the chemical reaction in one direction. In the complex II homolog quinol:fumarate reductase, it has been demonstrated that menaquinol oxidation requires at least one proton shuttle, but many of the remaining mechanistic details of menaquinol oxidation are not fully understood and little is known about ubiquinone reduction. In the current study structural and computational studies suggest that the sequential removal of the two menaquinol protons may be accompanied by a rotation of the naphthoquinone ring to optimize the interaction with a second proton shuttling pathway. However, kinetic measurements of site-specific mutations of quinol:fumarate reductase variants show that ubiquinone reduction does not use the same pathway. Computational docking of ubiquinone followed by mutagenesis instead suggested redundant proton shuttles lining the ubiquinone binding site or from direct transfer from solvent. These data show that the quinone binding site provides an environment that allows multiple amino acid residues to participate in quinone oxidoreduction. This suggests that the quinone-binding site in complex II is inherently plastic and can robustly interact with different types of quinones.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solution NMR spectroscopy of labeled arrestin-1 was used to explore its interactions with dark-state phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh), phosphorylated opsin (P-opsin), unphosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin (Rh*), and phosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin (P-Rh*). Distinct sets of arrestin-1 elements were seen to be engaged by Rh* and inactive P-Rh, which induced conformational changes that differed from those triggered by binding of P-Rh*. Although arrestin-1 affinity for Rh* was seen to be low (K(D) > 150 μM), its affinity for P-Rh (K(D) ∼80 μM) was comparable to the concentration of active monomeric arrestin-1 in the outer segment, suggesting that P-Rh generated by high-gain phosphorylation is occupied by arrestin-1 under physiological conditions and will not signal upon photo-activation. Arrestin-1 was seen to bind P-Rh* and P-opsin with fairly high affinity (K(D) of ∼50 and 800 nM, respectively), implying that arrestin-1 dissociation is triggered only upon P-opsin regeneration with 11-cis-retinal, precluding noise generated by opsin activity. Based on their observed affinity for arrestin-1, P-opsin and inactive P-Rh very likely affect the physiological monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium of arrestin-1, and should therefore be taken into account when modeling photoreceptor function. The data also suggested that complex formation with either P-Rh* or P-opsin results in a global transition in the conformation of arrestin-1, possibly to a dynamic molten globule-like structure. We hypothesize that this transition contributes to the mechanism that triggers preferential interactions of several signaling proteins with receptor-activated arrestins.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2012; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arrestin-1 preferentially binds active phosphorylated rhodopsin. Previously, a mutant with enhanced binding to unphosphorylated active rhodopsin (Rh*) was shown to partially compensate for lack of rhodopsin phosphorylation in vivo. Here we show that reengineering of the receptor-binding surface of arrestin-1 further improves the binding to Rh* while preserving protein stability. In mammals, arrestin-1 readily self-associates at physiological concentrations. The biological role of this phenomenon can only be elucidated by replacing wild type arrestin-1 in living animals with a non-oligomerizing mutant retaining all other functions. We demonstrate that constitutively monomeric forms of arrestin-1 are sufficiently stable for in vivo expression. We also tested the idea that individual functions of arrestin-1 can be independently manipulated to generate mutants with the desired combinations of functional characteristics. We show that this approach is feasible: stable forms of arrestin-1 with high Rh* binding can be generated with or without the ability to self-associate. These novel molecular tools open the possibility of testing of the biological role of arrestin-1 self-association, and pave the way to elucidation of full potential of compensational approach to gene therapy of gain-of-function receptor mutations.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acetate kinases (ACKs) are members of the acetate and sugar kinase/hsp70/actin (ASKHA) superfamily and catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of acetate, with ADP/ATP the most common phosphoryl acceptor/donor. While prokaryotic ACKs have been the subject of extensive biochemical and structural characterization, there is a comparative paucity of information on eukaryotic ACKs, and prior to this report, no structure of an ACK of eukaryotic origin was available. We determined the structures of ACKs from the eukaryotic pathogens Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptococcus neoformans. Each active site is located at an interdomain interface, and the acetate and phosphate binding pockets display sequence and structural conservation with their prokaryotic counterparts. Interestingly, the E. histolytica ACK has previously been shown to be pyrophosphate (PP(i))-dependent, and is the first ACK demonstrated to have this property. Examination of its structure demonstrates how subtle amino acid substitutions within the active site have converted cosubstrate specificity from ATP to PP(i) while retaining a similar backbone conformation. Differences in the angle between domains surrounding the active site suggest that interdomain movement may accompany catalysis. Taken together, these structures are consistent with the eukaryotic ACKs following a similar reaction mechanism as is proposed for the prokaryotic homologs.
    Journal of Structural Biology 11/2012; · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • T M Iverson
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    ABSTRACT: Over a decade has passed since the elucidation of the first X-ray crystal structure of any complex II homolog. In the intervening time, the structures of five additional integral-membrane complex II enzymes and three homologs of the soluble domain have been determined. These structures have provided a framework for the analysis of enzymological studies of complex II superfamily enzymes, and have contributed to detailed proposals for reaction mechanisms at each of the two enzyme active sites, which catalyze dicarboxylate and quinone oxidoreduction, respectively. This review focuses on how structural data have augmented our understanding of catalysis by the superfamily. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Tina M Iverson, Elena Maklashina, Gary Cecchini
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    ABSTRACT: Complex II couples oxidoreduction of succinate and fumarate at one active site with that of quinol/quinone at a second distinct active site over 40 Å away. This process links the Krebs cycle to oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis. The pathogenic mutation or inhibition of human complex II or its assembly factors is often associated with neurodegeneration or tumor formation in tissues derived from the neural crest. This brief overview of complex II correlates the clinical presentations of a large number of symptom-associated alterations in human complex II activity and assembly with the biochemical manifestations of similar alterations in the complex II homologs from Escherichia coli. These analyses provide clues to the molecular basis for diseases associated with aberrant complex II function.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(42):35430-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prokaryotic phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are di-Mn(2+) enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of α-D-ribose 5-phosphate and α-D-ribose 1-phosphate at an active site located between two independently folded domains. These prokaryotic PPMs belong to the alkaline phosphatase superfamily, but previous studies of Bacillus cereus PPM suggested adaptations of the conserved alkaline phosphatase catalytic cycle. Notably, B. cereus PPM engages substrates when the active site nucleophile, Thr-85, is phosphorylated. Further, the phosphoenzyme is stable throughout purification and crystallization. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase engages substrates when the active site nucleophile is dephosphorylated, and the phosphoenzyme reaction intermediate is only stably trapped in a catalytically compromised enzyme. Studies were undertaken to understand the divergence of these mechanisms. Crystallographic and biochemical investigations of the PPM(T85E) phosphomimetic variant and the neutral corollary PPM(T85Q) determined that the side chain of Lys-240 underwent a change in conformation in response to active site charge, which modestly influenced the affinity for the small molecule activator α-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate. More strikingly, the structure of unphosphorylated B. cereus PPM revealed a dramatic change in the interdomain angle and a new hydrogen bonding interaction between the side chain of Asp-156 and the active site nucleophile, Thr-85. This hydrogen bonding interaction is predicted to align and activate Thr-85 for nucleophilic addition to α-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, favoring the observed equilibrium phosphorylated state. Indeed, phosphorylation of Thr-85 is severely impaired in the PPM(D156A) variant even under stringent activation conditions. These results permit a proposal for activation of PPM and explain some of the essential features that distinguish between the catalytic cycles of PPM and alkaline phosphatase.
    Biochemistry 03/2012; 51(9):1964-75. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) use a complex series of intramolecular conformational changes to couple agonist binding to the binding and activation of cognate heterotrimeric G protein (Gαβγ). The mechanisms underlying this long-range activation have been identified using a variety of biochemical and structural approaches and have primarily used visual signal transduction via the GPCR rhodopsin and cognate heterotrimeric G protein transducin (G(t)) as a model system. In this chapter, we review the methods that have revealed allosteric signaling through rhodopsin and transducin. These methods can be applied to a variety of GPCR-mediated signaling pathways.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 796:133-74. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2012; 102(3):31-. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GspB is a serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii that mediates binding of this organism to human platelets via its interaction with sialyl-T antigen on the receptor GPIbα. This interaction appears to be a major virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. To address the mechanism by which GspB recognizes its carbohydrate ligand, we determined the high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of the GspB binding region (GspB(BR)), both alone and in complex with a disaccharide precursor to sialyl-T antigen. Analysis of the GspB(BR) structure revealed that it is comprised of three independently folded subdomains or modules: 1) an Ig-fold resembling a CnaA domain from prokaryotic pathogens; 2) a second Ig-fold resembling the binding region of mammalian Siglecs; 3) a subdomain of unique fold. The disaccharide was found to bind in a pocket within the Siglec subdomain, but at a site distinct from that observed in mammalian Siglecs. Confirming the biological relevance of this binding pocket, we produced three isogenic variants of S. gordonii, each containing a single point mutation of a residue lining this binding pocket. These variants have reduced binding to carbohydrates of GPIbα. Further examination of purified GspB(BR)-R484E showed reduced binding to sialyl-T antigen while S. gordonii harboring this mutation did not efficiently bind platelets and showed a significant reduction in virulence, as measured by an animal model of endocarditis. Analysis of other SRR proteins revealed that the predicted binding regions of these adhesins also had a modular organization, with those known to bind carbohydrate receptors having modules homologous to the Siglec and Unique subdomains of GspB(BR). This suggests that the binding specificity of the SRR family of adhesins is determined by the type and organization of discrete modules within the binding domains, which may affect the tropism of organisms for different tissues.
    PLoS Pathogens 07/2011; 7(7):e1002112. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be activated by various extracellular stimuli, including hormones, peptides, odorants, neurotransmitters, nucleotides, or light. After activation, receptors interact with heterotrimeric G proteins and catalyze GDP release from the Gα subunit, the rate limiting step in G protein activation, to form a high affinity nucleotide-free GPCR-G protein complex. In vivo, subsequent GTP binding reduces affinity of the Gα protein for the activated receptor. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and structural characteristics of the prototypical GPCR, rhodopsin, and its signaling partner, transducin (G(t)), in bicelles to better understand the effects of membrane composition on high affinity complex formation, stability, and receptor mediated nucleotide release. Our results demonstrate that the high-affinity complex (rhodopsin-G(t)(empty)) forms more readily and has dramatically increased stability when rhodopsin is integrated into bicelles of a defined composition. We increased the half-life of functional complex to 1 week in the presence of negatively charged phospholipids. These data suggest that a membrane-like structure is an important contributor to the formation and stability of functional receptor-G protein complexes and can extend the range of studies that investigate properties of these complexes.
    Biochemistry 03/2011; 50(15):3193-203. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to map the disease gene in a colony of Beagle dogs with inherited POAG to within a single 4 Mb locus on canine chromosome 20. The Beagle POAG locus is syntenic to a previously mapped human quantitative trait locus for intraocular pressure on human chromosome 19. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the entire canine POAG locus revealed a total of 2,692 SNPs segregating with disease. Of the disease-segregating SNPs, 54 were within exons, 8 of which result in amino acid substitutions. The strongest candidate variant causes a glycine to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the metalloproteinase ADAMTS10. Western blotting revealed ADAMTS10 protein is preferentially expressed in the trabecular meshwork, supporting an effect of the variant specific to aqueous humor outflow. The Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 found in the POAG Beagles suggests that altered processing of extracellular matrix and/or defects in microfibril structure or function may be involved in raising intraocular pressure, offering specific biochemical targets for future research and treatment strategies.
    PLoS Genetics 02/2011; 7(2):e1001306. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex II superfamily members catalyze the kinetically difficult interconversion of succinate and fumarate. Due to the relative simplicity of complex II substrates and their similarity to other biologically abundant small molecules, substrate specificity presents a challenge in this system. In order to identify determinants for on-pathway catalysis, off-pathway catalysis, and enzyme inhibition, crystal structures of Escherichia coli menaquinol:fumarate reductase (QFR), a complex II superfamily member, were determined bound to the substrate, fumarate, and the inhibitors oxaloacetate, glutarate, and 3-nitropropionate. Optical difference spectroscopy and computational modeling support a model where QFR twists the dicarboxylate, activating it for catalysis. Orientation of the C2–C3 double bond of activated fumarate parallel to the C(4a)–N5 bond of FAD allows orbital overlap between the substrate and the cofactor, priming the substrate for nucleophilic attack. Off-pathway catalysis, such as the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate or the activation of the toxin 3-nitropropionate may occur when inhibitors bind with a similarly activated bond in the same position. Conversely, inhibitors that do not orient an activatable bond in this manner, such as glutarate and citrate, are excluded from catalysis and act as inhibitors of substrate binding. These results support a model where electronic interactions via geometric constraint and orbital steering underlie catalysis by QFR.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(4):3047-3056. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex II superfamily members catalyze the kinetically difficult interconversion of succinate and fumarate. Due to the relative simplicity of complex II substrates and their similarity to other biologically abundant small molecules, substrate specificity presents a challenge in this system. In order to identify determinants for on-pathway catalysis, off-pathway catalysis, and enzyme inhibition, crystal structures of Escherichia coli menaquinol:fumarate reductase (QFR), a complex II superfamily member, were determined bound to the substrate, fumarate, and the inhibitors oxaloacetate, glutarate, and 3-nitropropionate. Optical difference spectroscopy and computational modeling support a model where QFR twists the dicarboxylate, activating it for catalysis. Orientation of the C2-C3 double bond of activated fumarate parallel to the C(4a)-N5 bond of FAD allows orbital overlap between the substrate and the cofactor, priming the substrate for nucleophilic attack. Off-pathway catalysis, such as the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate or the activation of the toxin 3-nitropropionate may occur when inhibitors bind with a similarly activated bond in the same position. Conversely, inhibitors that do not orient an activatable bond in this manner, such as glutarate and citrate, are excluded from catalysis and act as inhibitors of substrate binding. These results support a model where electronic interactions via geometric constraint and orbital steering underlie catalysis by QFR.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(4):3047-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are alkaline phosphatase superfamily members that interconvert α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (ribose 5-phosphate) and α-D-ribose 1-phosphate (ribose 1-phosphate). We investigated the reaction mechanism of Bacillus cereus PPM using a combination of structural and biochemical studies. Four high resolution crystal structures of B. cereus PPM revealed the active site architecture, identified binding sites for the substrate ribose 5-phosphate and the activator α-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (glucose 1,6-bisphosphate), and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate increased phosphorylation of the active site residue Thr-85. The phosphorylation of Thr-85 was confirmed by Western and mass spectroscopic analyses. Biochemical assays identified Mn(2+)-dependent enzyme turnover and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment increases enzyme activity. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation activates the enzyme, which supports an intermolecular transferase mechanism. We confirmed intermolecular phosphoryl transfer using an isotope relay assay in which PPM reactions containing mixtures of ribose 5-[(18)O(3)]phosphate and [U-(13)C(5)]ribose 5-phosphate were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This intermolecular phosphoryl transfer is seemingly counter to what is anticipated from phosphomutases employing a general alkaline phosphatase reaction mechanism, which are reported to catalyze intramolecular phosphoryl transfer. However, the two mechanisms may be reconciled if substrate encounters the enzyme at a different point in the catalytic cycle.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2010; 286(10):8043-54. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
260.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Division of Clinical Pharmacology
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2003
    • Imperial College London
      • Division of Molecular Biosciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2002
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Pasadena, CA, United States