Tae Woo Kim

Korea Forest Research Institute, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (129)398.58 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To explore the possibility of cyclodextrin click clusters (CCCs) as a new cyclodextrin-based excipient, we prepared three different CCCs; heptakis{6-(4-hydroxymethyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)-6-deoxy}-β-cyclodextrin (HT-β-CD), heptakis{6-(4-hydroxymethyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)-6-deoxy}{2,3-di-O-methyl}-β-cyclodextrin (HT-β-CD(OMe)2), and heptakis{6-(4-sulfonylmethyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)-6-deoxy}-β-cyclodextrin (ST-β-CD). The CCCs were prepared using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition from 6-azido-6-deoxy-β-CD and their water solubility, cytotoxicity, and drug-solubilizing effect were investigated. Water turbidity testing of the CCCs showed that the minimum water solubility of the CCCs is at least 20 times higher than that of β-CD. An MTT cell viability assay performed on HeLa cells demonstrated a low cytotoxicity of the CCCs compared with 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin. HT-β-CD(OMe)2 and ST-β-CD did not demonstrate any cytotoxicity within the experimental concentration (∼5 mM) like 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. A phase-solubility study of prednisolone with the CCCs suggested that CCCs showed increased solubility of prednisolone in the presence of increasing concentrations of the CCCs. The comparison between the conventional CD derivatives and CCCs on solubility, cytotoxicity, and binding property implies that CCCs are alternative cyclodextrin derivatives useful for overcoming the restrictions of conventional cyclodextrin chemistry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 08/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, we present a fluorescent-peptide drug delivery system composed of biotin-naphthalimide-HJ inhibitor peptide2, prodrug 1. Treatment of 1 to biotin receptor-positive HepG2 cells, which are resistant to high concentrations of the HJ inhibitor peptide2, decreased cell viability and increased intracellular fluorescence.
    Chemical communications (Cambridge, England). 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of the pavement design parameters on the behaviour of orthotropic steel bridge deck pavements under traffic loading using a three-dimensional finite element model. Four types of paving materials were considered in this analysis: polymer concrete, epoxy asphalt concrete, polymer-modified stone mastic asphalt concrete and mastic asphalt concrete. The maximum transverse tensile strain was developed at the bottom of the pavement under a tyre of dual tyres or on top of the pavement between two tyres. From the sensitivity analysis, better interface bonding between the deck plate and pavement led to a significant enhancement of bottom-up fatigue cracking resistance, especially for 40-mm-thick pavements. As pavement temperature increased from − 20 to 60°C, critical tensile strain increased significantly, and corresponding locations moved from the bottom to the top of the deck pavement.
    International Journal of Pavement Engineering 05/2014; 15(5). · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past few decades, the development of chemosensors for neurotransmitters has emerged as a research area of significant importance, which attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to its high sensitivity and rapid response. This current review focuses on various neurotransmitter detection based on fluorescent or colorimetric spectrophotometry published for the last 12 years, covering biogenic amines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine), amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine and tyrosine), and adenosine.
    Chemical Society Reviews 04/2014; · 24.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A case controlled study with prospective data collection. To evaluate the early influence and the final consequence of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) on auto-local bone as a graft enhancer in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). DBM is known as an osteoinductive material; however, it has not been clearly recognized to enhance auto-local bone with a small amount. Patients who had a PLIF were allocated into two groups. Group I (70 cases) used auto-local bone chips and group II (44 cases) used DBM as an additive to auto-local bone, 1 mL per a segment. Group selection was alternated. Early assessment was performed by computed tomography at 6 months and final assessment was done by simple radiography after 24 months at least. The degree of bone formation was assessed by 4 grade scale. The subjects of both groups were homogenous and had similar Oswestry Disability Index at final assessment. The ratio of auto-local bone chips and DBM was 6:1. The degree of bone formation at 6 months after surgery was superior in group II. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the final assessment. DBM was not recognized to enhance auto-local bone with small amount.
    Asian spine journal 04/2014; 8(2):129-37.
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    ABSTRACT: Heptakis{6-(4-hydroxymethyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)-6-deoxy}-β-cyclodextrin (HTβCD) and heptakis{6-(4-sulfonylmethyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)-6-deoxy}-β-cyclodextrin (STβCD) were prepared using copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition between 6-azido-6-deoxy-β-CD and one of two alkynes, propargyl alcohol, and sodium propargyl sulfonate, respectively. The structures of HTβCD and STβCD were characterized by NMR techniques. NMR interpretations and computer modeling suggested that the limited freedom of rotation of the triazole moieties keeps HTβCD and STβCD rigid and compact. Water solubility tests of HTβCD and STβCD showed that the minimum water solubility of HTβCD and STβCD is at least 20times higher than that of β-CD. MTT assay showed that HTβCD and STβCD did not influence the cell viability under 1mM. A phase-solubility study of prednisolone with the CD derivatives showed increased solubility of prednisolone in the presence of increasing concentrations of HTβCD and STβCD.
    Carbohydrate research 03/2014; 391C:22-28. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in blood glucose and cortisol levels after glucocorticoid injections into the epidural space or the glenohumeral joint in patients with or without diabetes. Twenty-nine patients with sciatic or shoulder pain were included. Fasting plasma glucose and cortisol levels were measured at baseline. After glucocorticoid injection, the levels were measured again after 1, 7, and 21 days. The patients were divided into four subgroups according to the presence of diabetes and site of injection. In all subgroups, fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly higher 1 day after injection but returned to baseline 7 days after the injection. Compared with baseline, cortisol levels were markedly reduced 1 and 7 days after the injection. For both the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, this drop was significantly larger in the epidural injection than the glenohumeral joint injection. At 21 days after injection, cortisol levels returned to baseline in all subgroups except in the diabetic patients treated with epidural injections. These findings indicate a need for caution when using local glucocorticoid injection therapy in diabetic patients, most notably when an epidural injection is given. It is also recommended that diabetic patients take more time off before receiving a succeeding epidural glucocorticoid injection.
    American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 02/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    Ji Young Choi, Tae Woo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the fatigue performance of Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) modified mastic asphalt mixtures used for bridge deck pavements. The effect of the type and content of newly developed SBS modifiers was investigated using typical binder tests. Four-point bending beam fatigue and indirect strength tests were conducted to examine fatigue and fracture behaviors of the SBS modified mastic asphalt mixtures. The SBS odifiers without C@C double bonds enhanced the mechanical properties of the mastic asphalt binder and mixtures: lower stiffness after short- and long-term oxidation, significantly greater fatigue resistance at a higher strain level, and higher crack development resistance.
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    ABSTRACT: Distribution of spiders will be changed as climate warms. Abundance of spider species was predicted nationwide. Abundance of spiders was projected using temperature species distribution model based on a nationwide data (366 forest sites) according to climate scenario RCP 4.5 and 8.5. The model predicts that 9 out of 17 species will increase in abundance while 8 species will decrease. Based on this finding, a qualitative prediction (increase or decrease) was conducted on the species with more than 1% occurrence: 68 species are expected to decrease, 9 to increase, and 8 to change a little. In pooled estimation, 76 species (75%) are expected to decrease, 18 species (18%) to increase, and by 8 species (8%) to have little change. The projection indicates that majority of spider species will decrease, but minority of species will increase as climate warms, suggesting great increase of remained species in lowlands.
    Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To translate the English version of the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ) into Korean and to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the PDQ (K-PDQ) in patients suffering chronic disabling musculoskeletal disorders (CDMDs). The English version of the PDQ was translated into Korean. Ten patients with CDMDs were randomly selected for a pilot study to assess the comprehensibility of the pre-final version. One hundred and thirty-nine patients suffering from CDMDs for more than 3 months were enrolled in this study. Follow-up questionnaires were obtained to examine the test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the visual analogue scale (VAS). Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the K-PDQ with the brief form of the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) using Pearson correlation coefficient. Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 70 patients, with an average time interval of 12 days. The ICC was 0.958 (p<0.001). Internal consistency reached Cronbach's alpha of 0.933 for the functional component and 0.870 for the psychosocial component. The correlation coefficient for the K-PDQ when compared with the VAS was 0.834 in the first assessment and 0.831 in the second assessment. All domains of the WHOQOL-BREF showed a significant negative correlation with the K-PDQ. The K-PDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring disability and can be used to assess disability and treatment outcomes in Korean patients with CDMD.
    Annals of rehabilitation medicine. 12/2013; 37(6):814-23.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patterns of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects and the degree of myopia in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with high myopia (42 eyes; spherical equivalent [SE] < -6.0 diopters [D]), low to moderate myopia (93 eyes; SE -6.0D ~ and -0.5D), and emmetropia (65 eyes; SE -0.5D ~ +0.5D), all of which were diagnosed as having NTG with localized RNFL defects. On RNFL photographs, the proximity of the RNFL defect to the center of the fovea (angle I) and the sum of the angular width of the defects (angle II) were determined. The patterns of localized RNFL defects were then compared with respect to differences in angles I and II. Angle I was significantly smaller in the high myopia group than in the low to moderate myopia group (p = 0.028) and the emmetropia group (p = 0.044), while angle II was significantly larger in the high myopia group compared with the low to moderate myopia group and the emmetropia group (p < 0.001, p = 0.007). Among subjects with NTG, localized RNFL defects are wider and closer to the fovea in eyes with high myopia than those with low to moderate myopia or emmetropia.
    BMC Ophthalmology 11/2013; 13(1):67. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MTO1 and MRPL41 are nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes encoding a mitochondrial tRNA-modifying enzyme and a mitochondrial ribosomal protein, respectively. Although both genes have been known to have potential roles in cancer, little is known about their molecular regulatory mechanism, particularly from an epigenetic approach. In this study, we aimed to address their epigenetic regulation through the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer. Digital differential display (DDD) was conducted to identify mammary gland-specific gene candidates including MTO1 and MRPL41. Promoter CpG methylation and expression in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were examined by methylation-specific PCR and real time RT-PCR. Effect of estradiol (E2), tamoxifen, and trichostatin A (TSA) on gene expression was examined in ER + and ER- breast cancer cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify binding and influencing of the ER to the promoters. Examination of both cancer tissues and cell lines revealed that the two genes showed an opposite expression pattern according to ER status; higher expression of MTO1 and MRPL41 in ER- and ER+ cancer types, respectively, and their expression levels were inversely correlated with promoter methylation. Tamoxifen, E2, and TSA upregulated MTO1 expression only in ER+ cells with no significant changes in ER- cells. However, these chemicals upregulated MRPL41 expression only in ER- cells without significant changes in ER+ cells, except for tamoxifen that induced downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay identified binding and influencing of the ER to the promoters and the binding profiles were differentially regulated in ER+ and ER- cells. These results indicate that different epigenetic status including promoter methylation and different responses through the ER are involved in the differential expression of MTO1 and MRPL41 in breast cancer.
    BMC Cancer 10/2013; 13(1):502. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new type of efficient CO2 absorbent with improved thermal stability is synthesized via self-assembly between 2D inorganic nanosheets and two kinds of 0D inorganic nanoclusters. In these self-assembled nanohybrids, the nanoclusters of CdO and Cr2O3 are commonly interstratified with layered titanate nanosheets, leading to the formation of highly microporous pillared structure with increased basicity of pore wall. The co-pillaring of basic CdO with Cr2O3 is fairly effective at increasing a proportion of micropores and reactivity for CO2 molecules and at improving the thermal stability of the resulting porous structure. Of prime importance is that the present inorganic-pillared nanohybrids show highly efficient CO2 adsorption capacity, which is much superior to those of many other absorbents and compatible to those of CO2 adsorbing metal−organic framework (MOF) compounds. Taking into account an excellent thermal stability of the present nanohybrids, these materials are very promising CO2 adsorbents usable at elevated temperature. This is the first example of efficient CO2 adsorbent from pillared materials. The co-pillaring of basic metal oxide nanoclusters employed in this study can provide a very powerful way of developing thermally stable CO2 adsorbents from many known pillared systems.
    Advanced Functional Materials 09/2013; 23(35). · 10.44 Impact Factor
  • Young Suk You, Tae Woo Kim, Sung Ho Kang
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    ABSTRACT: Consecutive intramolecular desymmetrization and kinetic resolution of 2-substituted N-phenoxycarbonylserinols have been achieved in one-pot by a single chiral catalyst, bisox)-CuCl2, to form oxazolidinones with remarkable enantioselectivities (94-99% ee) as tert-alkylamine building blocks. The process culminates in a dual-function of the chiral catalyst.
    Chemical Communications 09/2013; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate and compare diagnostic capabilities of time-domain (Stratus) and spectral-domain (Cirrus) optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect diffuse retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy. This study assessed 101 eyes from 101 glaucoma patients with diffuse RNFL atrophy and 101 eyes from 101 age-matched healthy individuals. Two experienced glaucoma specialists graded red-free RNFL photographs of eyes with diffuse RNFL atrophy using a four-level grading system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of normal eyes was compared with that of eyes with diffuse atrophy. Sensitivity and specificity of each OCT device were calculated on the basis of its internal normative database. The largest AUC for Stratus and Cirrus were obtained for average RNFL thicknesses (0.96 and 0.94, respectively). Comparison of the AUC with different RNFL atrophy grades revealed no significant difference between the two OCT devices. Using an internal normative database at a <5 % level, the overall sensitivity of Stratus ranged from 58.0 to 84.0 %, whereas that of Cirrus ranged from 75.0 to 87.0 %. According to the normative database, the highest Stratus sensitivity was obtained with the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) thickness graph, and the highest Cirrus sensitivity with the TSNIT thickness graph and the deviation map. The AUC obtained from Cirrus were comparable with those from Stratus. On the basis of their normative databases, these devices had similar diagnostic accuracy. Our results suggest that the diagnostic capabilities of the two instruments to detect diffuse RNFL atrophy are similar.
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 09/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patient-specific CT-based instrumentation may reduce implant malpositioning and improve alignment in TKA. However, it is not known whether this innovation is an advance that benefits patients. We evaluated (1) the precision of patient-specific TKA by comparing the incidence of outliers in postoperative alignment between TKAs using patient-specific instruments and TKAs using conventional instruments, and (2) the reliability of patient-specific instruments by intraoperatively investigating whether the surgery could be completed with patient-specific instruments alone. In this randomized controlled trial, we compared patient-specific TKA instruments from one manufacturer (n = 50) with conventional TKA instruments (n = 50). Postoperative hip-knee-ankle angles, femoral component rotation, and coronal and sagittal alignments of each component were measured. The validity of the patient-specific instrument was examined using cross-checking procedures with conventional instruments during the surgeries. When the procedure could not be completed accurately with patient-specific instruments, the procedure was converted to TKA using conventional instruments, and the frequency of this occurrence was tallied. Outliers in the hip-knee-ankle angle were comparable between groups (12% in the patient-specific instrument group and 10% in the conventional instrument group). Other parameters such as sagittal alignment and femoral component rotation did not differ in terms of outliers. Patient-specific guides were abandoned in eight knees (16%) during the surgery because of malrotation of the femoral components and decreased slope of the tibia. Accuracy was comparable between TKAs done with patient-specific instruments and those done with conventional instruments. However, the patient-specific instrument procedures had to be aborted frequently, incurring expenses that did not benefit patients. Level II, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 08/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new prompt room temperature synthetic route to 2D nanostructured metal oxide-graphene-hybrid electrode materials can be developed by the application of colloidal reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets as an efficient reaction accelerator for the synthesis of δ-MnO2 2D nanoplates. Whereas the synthesis of the 2D nanostructured δ-MnO2 at room temperature requires treating divalent manganese compounds with persulfate ions for at least 24 h, the addition of RGO nanosheet causes a dramatic shortening of synthesis time to 1 h, underscoring its effectiveness for the promotion of the formation of 2D nanostructured metal oxide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the accelerated synthesis of 2D nanostructured hybrid material induced by the RGO nanosheets. The observed acceleration of nanoplate formation upon the addition of RGO nanosheets is attributable to the enhancement of the oxidizing power of persulfate ions, the increase of the solubility of precursor MnCO3 , and the promoted crystal growth of δ-MnO2 2D nanoplates. The resulting hybridization between RGO nanosheets and δ-MnO2 nanoplates is quite powerful not only in increasing the surface area of manganese oxide nanoplate but also in enhancing its electrochemical activity. Of prime importance is that the present δ-MnO2 -RGO nanocomposites show much superior electrode performance over most of 2D nanostructured manganate systems including a similar porous assembly of RGO and layered MnO2 nanosheets. This result underscores that the present RGO-assisted solution-based synthesis can provide a prompt and scalable method to produce nanostructured hybrid electrode materials.
    Chemistry 04/2013; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective experimental study. To evaluate bacterial contamination during surgery. The participants of surgery and ventilation system have been known as the most significant sources of contamination. Two pairs of air culture blood agar plate for G(+) bacteria and MacConkey agar plate for G(-) bacteria were placed at 3 different locations in a conventional operation room: in the surgical field, under the airflow of local air conditioner, and pathway to door while performing spine surgeries. One pair of culture plates was retrieved after one hour and the other pair was retrieved after 3 hours. The cultured bacteria were identified and number of colonies was counted. There was no G(-) bacteria identified. G(+) bacteria grew on all 90 air culture blood agar plates. The colony count of one hour group was 14.5±5.4 in the surgical field, 11.3±6.6 under the local air conditioner, and 13.1±8.7 at the pathway to the door. There was no difference among the 3 locations. The colony count of 3 hours group was 46.4±19.5, 30.3±12.9, and 39.7±15.2, respectively. It was more at the surgical field than under the air conditioner (p=0.03). The number of colonies of one hour group was 13.0±7.0 and 3 hours group was 38.8±17.1. There was positive correlation between the time and the number of colonies (r=0.76, p=0.000). Conventional operation room was contaminated by G(+) bacteria. The degree of contamination was most high at the surgical field. The number of bacteria increased right proportionally to the time.
    Asian spine journal 03/2013; 7(1):8-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple classes of pharmacologic agents have the potential to induce the expression and release of pro-inflammatory factors from dying tumor cells. As a result, these cells can in theory elicit an immune response through various defined mechanisms to permanently eradicate disseminated cancer. However, the impact of chemotherapy on the tumor-specific immune response in the context of the tumor microenvironment is largely unknown. Within the tumor microenvironment, the immune response promoted by chemotherapy is antagonized by an immune-suppressive milieu, and the balance of these opposing forces dictates the clinical course of disease. Here we report that high antigen exposure within the tumor microenvironment following chemotherapy is sufficient to skew this balance in favor of a productive immune response. In elevating antigen exposure, chemotherapy can achieve long-term control of tumor progression without the need of an additional adjuvant. We found that chemotherapy initiated this phenomenon in the tumor microenvironment through an accumulation of dendritic cells, which stimulated CD8+ T cells and the type-I interferon pathway. From this conceptual base, we developed a simple approach to cancer therapy combining chemotherapy and vaccination that may be widely applicable.
    Cancer Research 02/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A water-soluble, dual reactive hydrazide/click crosslinker (EH) was synthesized and characterized. A model antibody, human IgG was ethynylated by conventional oxidation/hydrazide reactions with the hydrazide moiety of EH. The terminal alkyne conjugated to the glycan of human IgG was easily functionalized by quantitative and bioorthogonal copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The potential of the hydrazide/click crosslinker as a reagent to functionalize antibodies was demonstrated with fluorophore labeling and antibody immobilization.
    Analytical Biochemistry 01/2013; · 2.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

660 Citations
398.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Korea Forest Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Construction Technology
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • Department of East-West Medical Science
      • • Graduate School of East-West Medical Science
      • • Research Institute for Basic Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gangneung Asan Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Sejong University
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gangneung-Wonju National University
      • Department of Biochemical Engineering
      Gangneung, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2013
    • Ewha Womans University
      • • Department of Chemistry Nano Science
      • • Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials(CINBM)
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Korea University
      • • Graduate School of Medicine
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dongguk University
      • Department of Life Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2012
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Seoul National University Dental Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 1999–2008
    • Seoul National University
      • • College of Dentistry
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Sungshin Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2007
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Konkuk University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Utah State University
      Logan, Ohio, United States
  • 2002
    • Kookmin University
      • School of Mechanical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea