T M Glaus

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (102)131.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) developed secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) in an 8-year-old cat with a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Vascular reactivity was tested prior to shunt ligation by treatment with oxygen and sildenafil. This treatment was associated with a significant decrease in pulmonary artery pressure as assessed by echocardiography. Subsequently surgical shunt ligation was planned. During thoracotomy, digital occlusion of the PDA was performed for 10 minutes with simultaneous catheter measurement of right ventricular pressure, which did not increase. Permanent shunt ligation resulted in a complete and sustained clinical recovery. A lung biopsy sample obtained during thoracotomy demonstrated histopathological arterial changes typical of PH. Cats can develop clinically severe PH and right-sided CHF secondary to a left-to-right PDA even at an advanced age. Assuming there is evidence of pulmonary reactivity, PDA occlusion might be tolerated and can potentially produce long-term clinical benefits.
    Journal of Veterinary Cardiology 09/2014;
  • Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/2014; 244(12):1384-6. · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Tony Glaus, Nuala Summerfield
    The Veterinary Journal 02/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus parasitizes the respiratory tract and can heavily affect the breathing and general condition of cats. Experimental infections of six cats were initiated by intragastric administration with 100 or 800 third-stage larvae (L3) obtained from the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa. First-stage larvae were isolated from faecal samples after 35-41 days post infection (dpi) in five animals and until end of study (84 dpi) in two cats. Cough and respiratory sounds were observed starting from 28 to 41 dpi and dyspnoea and panting starting from 52 dpi. All cats had enlarged lymph nodes and, starting from 56 dpi, reduced body weight, and four cats showed intermittent reduced general condition with apathia and anorexia. Eosinophilia and leucocytosis partially with massive lymphocytosis, and occasional basophilia and monocytosis were observed. Mild anaemia was present in five cats, while alterations in coagulation parameters suggested stimulation of the coagulation cascade with increased consumption of coagulation factors (delayed PT, hypofibrinogenemia). Adult A. abstrusus specimens were isolated from the five patent cats at necropsy and all six cats showed pathological changes in the lungs, including disseminated inflammatory cell infiltrates, often associated with incorporated larvae and eggs. There was some degree of overlap between the severity and the inoculation doses. Infections starting from 100 L3 of A. abstrusus had an impact on the lung tissues and on the health of the cats, despite the presence of only mild haematological abnormalities. Due to the worldwide occurrence of feline lung worms, parasitic infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung diseases regardless of the presence of clinical signs and larval excretion.
    Parasitology Research 02/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. To compare, throughout the period of follow-up of dogs that had not yet reached the primary endpoint, the longitudinal effects of pimobendan versus benazepril hydrochloride treatment on quality-of-life (QoL) variables, concomitant congestive heart failure (CHF) treatment, and other outcome variables in dogs suffering from CHF secondary to MMVD. A total of 260 dogs in CHF because of MMVD. A prospective single-blinded study with dogs randomized to receive pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/day) or benazepril hydrochloride (0.25-1.0 mg/kg/day). Differences in outcome variables and time to intensification of CHF treatment were compared. A total of 124 dogs were randomized to pimobendan and 128 to benazepril. No difference was found between groups in QoL variables during the trial. Time from inclusion to 1st intensification of CHF treatment was longer in the pimobendan group (pimobendan 98 days, IQR 30-276 days versus benazepril 59 days, IQR 11-121 days; P = .0005). Postinclusion, dogs in the pimobendan group had smaller heart size based on VHS score (P = .013) and left ventricular diastolic (P = .035) and systolic (P = .0044) dimensions, higher body temperature (P = .030), serum sodium (P = .0027), and total protein (P = .0003) concentrations, and packed cell volume (P = .030). Incidence of arrhythmias was similar in treatment groups. Pimobendan versus benazepril resulted in similar QoL during the study, but conferred increased time before intensification of CHF treatment. Pimobendan treatment resulted in smaller heart size, higher body temperature, and less retention of free water.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 09/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In dogs, a mean broncho-arterial ratio of 1.45 ± 0.21 has been previously defined as normal. These values were obtained in dogs under general inhalational anesthesia using a single breath-hold technique. The purpose of the study was to determine whether ventilation technique and bronchial diameter have an effect on broncho-arterial ratios. Four healthy Beagle dogs were scanned twice, each time with positive-pressure inspiration and end expiration. For each ventilation technique, broncho-arterial ratios were grouped into those obtained from small or large bronchi using the median diameter of the bronchi as the cutoff value. Mean broncho-arterial ratios obtained using positive-pressure inspiration (1.24 ± 0.23) were statistically greater than those obtained at end expiration (1.11 ± 0.20) P = 0.005. There was a strong positive correlation between bronchial diameter and broncho-arterial ratios for both ventilation techniques (positive-pressure inspiration rs = .786, P < 0.0005 and end expiration rs = .709, P < 0.0005). Mean broncho-arterial ratio for the large bronchi obtained applying positive-pressure inspiration was 1.39 cm ± 0.20 and during end expiration was 1.22 cm ± 0.20. Mean broncho-arterial ratio for the small bronchi obtained during positive-pressure inspiration was 1.08 cm ± 0.13 and during end expiration was 1.01 cm ± 0.13. There was a statistically significant difference between these groups (F = 248.60, P = 0.005). Findings indicated that reference values obtained using positive-pressure inspiration or from the larger bronchi may not be applicable to dogs scanned during end expiration or to the smaller bronchi.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 07/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection is common in endemic areas and may cause severe respiratory clinical signs. Computed tomography (CT) is an important tool to diagnose pulmonary disease, because it allows detection of small lesions and discrimination of superimposed structures. The purpose of this study was to characterize by CT and angiographic CT the pulmonary lesions in six cats before, and 48 and 81 days after inoculation with 100 or 800 A. abstrusus infective larvae. Histological examination of the accessory lung lobe was performed to determine the microscopic, pathomorphologic correlate of the CT findings. The predominant CT lesion consisted of multiple nodules of varying size distributed throughout the lungs, severity depending on infectious dose. The histological correlate of the nodular lesions was multifocal dense granulomatous to mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates, including eosinophils distributed in the parenchyma and obliterating the alveoli. Marked, multifocal, dose-dependent thickening of the bronchi and adjacent interstitial changes blurred the margins of the outer serosal surface of the bronchi and vessels. Histologically, this was due to peribronchial mixed cell inflammation. During the course of infection some of the nodular and peribronchial changes were replaced by areas of ground-glass opacity. In addition to providing detailed depiction of pulmonary lesions resulting from an infectious cause and clearly defining lesions with respect to time and severity of infection, CT allowed quantitative assessment of bronchial thickness and lymph node size during the course of disease. Findings indicated that CT characteristics of this disease are consistent with pathologic findings.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 05/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intoxication with the beta2-agonist Albuterol may lead to immediate signs of beta-adrenergic stimulation like excitation, tachypnea and tachycardia. Furthermore, it typically causes severe hypokalemia, which then leads to muscle weakness and which predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias. We describe a dog where albuterol intoxication caused runs of fast paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia that persisted after normalization of the hypokalemia. Based on a markedly elevated serum troponin I level acute myocardial damage was identified as cause of the tachyarrhythmia. Repeated Troponin I measurements and Holter-ECGs were the means to document complete cure.
    SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 07/2012; 154(7):302-5. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to evaluate if (1) Angiostrongylus vasorum-infected dogs recruit pulmonary arteriovenous (AV) shunts attenuating the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), detectable using saline contrast echocardiography, (2) anthelmintic therapy causes an acute increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), (3) Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) allows detection of mild changes in right ventricular function secondary to pulmonary (vascular) disease. 6 healthy Beagle dogs, each infected with 200 A. vasorum larvae. Conventional, TDI and contrast echocardiography, invasive PAP measurements before (T0), 7-12 weeks post infection (wpi, T1), and 1-5 days post therapy (dpt, T2). All dogs had patent infections 7-8 wpi and respiratory signs 6-9 wpi. PAP was mildly but significantly increased at T2. Saline contrast echo was positive in 3/6 dogs at T1 and 4/6 dogs at T2. Pulmonary transit time did not change. Of all numeric echocardiographic parameters, only a non-significant decrease in the E' wave and inversion of E'/A' ratio in 3 dogs at T2 could be observed. Two of these had mild PH and negative saline contrast echocardiography. A. vasorum infection causes only a mild increase in PAP following inoculation and anthelmintic therapy. The absence of important PH may in part be explained by the recruitment of AV shunts in the presence of vascular obstructive disease. TDI echocardiographic parameters may be more sensitive to detect mild changes in RV function than conventional parameters.
    Journal of veterinary cardiology: the official journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology 05/2012; 14(2):313-22.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of twice-daily oral administration of hydrocortisone on the bile acids composition of gallbladder bile in dogs. 6 placebo-treated control dogs and 6 hydrocortisone-treated dogs. Dogs received hydrocortisone (median dose, 8.5 mg/kg) or a gelatin capsule (control group) orally every 12 hours for 84 days. Gallbladder bile samples were obtained via percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis from each dog before (day 0 [baseline]), during (days 28, 56, and 84), and after (days 28p, 56p, and 84p) treatment for differentiated quantification of unconjugated bile acids and taurine-conjugated and glycine-conjugated bile acids via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Treatment with hydrocortisone for 84 days resulted in significant and reversible increases in the concentrations of unconjugated bile acids (ie, cholic, chenodeoxycholic, and deoxycholic acids) and a significant and reversible decrease in the concentration of total taurine-conjugated bile acids, compared with baseline or control group values. Treatment with hydrocortisone had no effect on bile concentrations of glycine-conjugated bile acids. In dogs, hydrocortisone administration caused reversible shifts toward higher concentrations of the more hydrophobic unconjugated bile acids (chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) and toward lower concentrations of the amphipathic taurine-conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile. These data suggest that similar bile acids changes could cause major alterations in gallbladder structure or function over time in hypercortisolemic dogs.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/2011; 72(12):1607-12. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A six-year-old Rottweiler with chronic ascites and moderate panhypoproteinaemia that had been treated with large volume paracentesis over several months duration was diagnosed with a large bi-atrial mass and hepatic fibrosis. For palliative treatment, a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system with an integrated chargeable battery and an integrated computer to control pump function and to transmit data transcutaneously was implanted by coeliotomy. The pump was left in place for 10 weeks, eliminating the need for further paracentesis during this time. At the end of this period, no ascites was discernible and serum protein concentrations had returned to their respective reference intervals. As a complication, decubitus with skin perforation had developed above the pump. Besides palliative treatment of chronic refractory ascites, this pump may have application in other conditions characterised by chronic cavity effusion or in peritoneal dialysis.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 11/2011; 53(2):126-31. · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • T M Glaus, J M Matos, P Baloi, M Wenger
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    ABSTRACT: Tracheal collapse is a progressive disease particularly of small breed dogs. In the terminal stage, when dyspnea becomes the dominating sign and is no longer manageable with medical treatment, a surgical procedure is necessary. With increasing frequency intraluminal tracheal stents are implanted minimal-invasively. In individual animals this is a lifesaving procedure, leading to immediate elimination of dyspnea. In most dogs cough for some time has to be anticipated as the stent acts as a foreign body, but severe complications like excessive formation of granulation tissue, stent migration or stent fracture are rare. Stents represent an attractive treatment modality for tracheal collapse in dogs with dyspnea.
    SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 11/2011; 153(11):505-8. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To noninvasively evaluate physiologic postprandial adaptations of the heart in snakes. 6 juvenile Paraguay anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). The heart of each anaconda was echocardiographically evaluated after food was withheld for 28 days as well as 3 and 10 days after feeding. Physical measurements included body length, weight, and circumference at the level of the heart. Echocardiographic measurements included heart rate and 2-D total and internal ventricular area. From these measurements, total ventricular volume as well as the myocardial area as a surrogate of myocardial mass was calculated. No significant changes in body length, weight, and circumference were found. Significant increases in heart rate (from 45 to 58 beats/min), total ventricular volume (from 4.63 to 5.54 mL), and myocardial area (from 0.7 to 0.81 cm(2)) were detected 10 days after feeding, compared with results obtained prior to feeding after food had been withheld for 28 days. No pericardial effusion was detected at any time point. Echocardiographic evaluation of the heart of anacondas was performed, and feeding resulted in concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Physiologic fluctuation of cardiac dimensions should be considered when cardiac imaging is performed in snakes.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 09/2011; 72(9):1253-8. · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • K Tomsa, A Major, T M Glaus
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    ABSTRACT: Atresia ani is the most common anorectal anomaly in small animals. In the present study, an anal stricture (atresia ani type I) in five 3 to 8 weeks old kittens and one 4 month old puppy was treated by balloon dilation. In 4 kittens and the puppy the stricture was eliminated permanently and without complications by a single intervention. Only the smallest kitten with the most severe stenosis developed a rectal fistula as a complication of repeated balloon dilation, which necessitated surgical correction. Balloon dilation proved to be an efficient therapeutic method for anal atresia type I, and can be recommended as the treatment of choice.
    SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 06/2011; 153(6):277-80. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) features of thoracic lesions caused by infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum, pre- and postcontrast CT was performed in six experimentally infected Beagles 13 weeks postinoculation and in four of these 9 weeks postchemotherapy. Findings were compared with survey radiographs and necropsy findings. A multicentric bronchoalveolar pattern more pronounced at the lung periphery was present radiographically. On CT, the predominant abnormality underlying this alveolar pattern was multiple large nodules merging to areas of consolidation, and containing air bronchograms of varying extent. These nodular changes corresponded to histopathologic granulomata, consisting mainly of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and lymphocytes that had accumulated around larvae and eggs. Morphologically, no bronchial changes were observed on CT or histologically. Quantitatively, however, on CT there was evidence of bronchial thickening at 13 weeks postinoculation and mild very peripheral bronchiectasia 9 weeks postchemotherapy. Regional lymph nodes were enlarged after infection, and smaller after treatment. On postcontrast CT, several suspicious intraluminal filling defects suggestive of thrombosis were found; however, the tortuosity of some pulmonary arteries seen radiographically was not present in CT images. After treatment, the consolidations and large nodules had almost completely disappeared. A remaining radiographic interstitial pattern was characterized on CT as ground-glass opacifications, subpleural interstitial thickening, subpleural lines, and interface signs. These interstitial changes reflected fibrosis as documented histopathologically. CT allowed very detailed and accurate characterization of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, bronchi, and lymphnodes and closely reflected histopathological changes.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 05/2011; 52(3):289-94. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An association between gallbladder mucoceles and hypercortisolism (HC) was recently described in dogs. Because the formation of a mucocele from clear bile without the transitional formation of microprecipitates appears unlikely, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of iatrogenic HC on sludge formation and changes in the biochemical composition of bile. Bile samples from 6 dogs obtained by percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis before (day 0), during (days 28, 56, and 84), and after (days 28p, 56p, and 84p) oral administration of hydrocortisone (8 mg/kg every 12 h) were analysed for calcium, cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations and pH. In addition the gallbladder was examined ultrasonographically for sludge. Six dogs receiving a placebo served as controls. Although gallbladder sludge was observed in all treated dogs at day 56, it was also noted in 50% of control dogs, and no significant differences were seen between groups at any sampling time. Bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly and reversibly during treatment, and calcium concentration showed a similar trend. Bile pH was consistently slightly alkaline during iatrogenic HC, whereas it was slightly acidic in control animals. A 3-month period of iatrogenic HC does not lead to ultrasonographically detectable gallbladder sludge or to an increase in bile constituents that are commonly implicated in sludge formation in humans.
    The Veterinary Journal 02/2011; 191(2):225-30. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.
    Parasitology Research 11/2010; 107(6):1471-80. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 07/2010; 152(07):319-324. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Boxer are predisposed to subaortic (SAS) and pulmonic stenosis (PS). To decrease the prevalence, pre-breeding cardiologic exams were performed in the last years. In our study the results of 309 pre-breeding exams of boxers presented between 1999 and 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. The overall prevalence of heart murmurs was 26.5 %. A SAS was diagnosed in 25 (8.1 %) and a PS in 10 (3.3 %) dogs. A combination of both defects was found in 7 (2.3 %) Boxers. Animals with a heart murmur of at least grade 3/6 had a significantly higher peak aortic flow velocity (VmaxAo) than animals without or only soft heart murmurs. Over the study period both the frequency of heart murmurs and diagnosis of SAS and PS decreased.
    SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 07/2010; 152(7):319-24. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH), together with its accompanying clinical signs and underlying causes, e.g. pulmonary thrombosis, are more and more recognized as an important clinical entity also in dogs. This article characterizes the clinical picture of 3 dogs with PH caused by natural infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum. All 3 dogs were of small breeds ( < 10 kg), the age at the time of diagnosis was 1, 2 and 11 years. Clinically, dyspnea and exercise intolerance were the predominating signs, 2 dogs developed hemoptysis, 1 dog developed right sided congestive heart failure. Severe arterial hypoxemia (PaO2 41 - 53 mmHg) reflected the severity of pulmonary parenchymal and vascular damage. Severe hyperglobulinemia (59 und 88 g/l) in two dogs implicated a long lasting infection. Anthelmintic treatment in 2 dogs resulted in quick clinical, radiographic and echocardiographic normalization. PH is the consequence of multiple causes and pathomechanisms, and the recognition of PH is primarily of differential diagnostic relevance. Prognosis and therapy in cases with PH mainly depend on the underlying cause, rather than on the PH and on its degree.
    SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 07/2010; 152(7):331-8. · 0.38 Impact Factor