Torsten Schöneberg

University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (149)839.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Phosphofructokinase-1 (Pfk) acts as the main control point of flux through glycolysis. It is involved in complex allosteric regulation and Pfk mutations have been linked to cancer development. Whereas the 3D structure and structural basis of allosteric regulation of prokaryotic Pfk has been studied in great detail, our knowledge about the molecular basis of the allosteric behaviour of the more complex mammalian Pfk is still very limited. To characterize the structural basis of allosteric regulation, the subunit interfaces and the functional consequences of modifications in Tarui's disease and cancer, we analysed the physiological homotetramer of human platelet Pfk at up to 2.67 Å resolution in two crystal forms. The crystallized enzyme is permanently activated by a deletion of the 22 C-terminal residues. Complex structures with ADP and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and with ATP suggest a role of three aspartates in the deprotonation of the OH-nucleophile of F6P and in the co-ordination of the catalytic magnesium ion. Changes at the dimer interface, including an asymmetry observed in both crystal forms, are the primary mechanism of allosteric regulation of Pfk by influencing the F6P-binding site. Whereas the nature of this conformational switch appears to be largely conserved in bacterial, yeast and mammalian Pfk, initiation of these changes differs significantly in eukaryotic Pfk. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
    Biochemical Journal 08/2015; 469(3):421-32. DOI:10.1042/BJ20150251 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Kiwi, comprising five species from the genus Apteryx, are endangered, ground-dwelling bird species endemic to New Zealand. They are the smallest and only nocturnal representatives of the ratites. The timing of kiwi adaptation to a nocturnal niche and the genomic innovations, which shaped sensory systems and morphology to allow this adaptation, are not yet fully understood. Results We sequenced and assembled the brown kiwi genome to 150-fold coverage and annotated the genome using kiwi transcript data and non-redundant protein information from multiple bird species. We identified evolutionary sequence changes that underlie adaptation to nocturnality and estimated the onset time of these adaptations. Several opsin genes involved in color vision are inactivated in the kiwi. We date this inactivation to the Oligocene epoch, likely after the arrival of the ancestor of modern kiwi in New Zealand. Genome comparisons between kiwi and representatives of ratites, Galloanserae, and Neoaves, including nocturnal and song birds, show diversification of kiwi’s odorant receptors repertoire, which may reflect an increased reliance on olfaction rather than sight during foraging. Further, there is an enrichment of genes influencing mitochondrial function and energy expenditure among genes that are rapidly evolving specifically on the kiwi branch, which may also be linked to its nocturnal lifestyle. Conclusions The genomic changes in kiwi vision and olfaction are consistent with changes that are hypothesized to occur during adaptation to nocturnal lifestyle in mammals. The kiwi genome provides a valuable genomic resource for future genome-wide comparative analyses to other extinct and extant diurnal ratites.
    Genome biology 07/2015; 16(147). DOI:10.1186/s13059-015-0711-4 · 10.47 Impact Factor
  • Lilian M Demberg · Sven Rothemund · Torsten Schöneberg · Ines Liebscher
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    ABSTRACT: The epididymis-specific adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) GPR64/ADGRG2 has been shown to be a key-player in the male reproductive system. As its disruption leads to infertility, GPR64 has drawn attention as potential target for male fertility control or improvement. Like the majority of aGPCRs GPR64 is an orphan receptor regarding its endogenous agonist and signal transduction. In this study we examine the G protein-coupling abilities of GPR64 and show that it is activated through a tethered agonist sequence, which we have previously identified as the Stachel sequence. Synthetic peptides derived from the Stachel region can activate the receptor, opening for the first time the possibility to externally manipulate the receptor activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.07.020 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most in vivo effects of 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) have been thus far thought to be mediated by binding at the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Inconsistently, the 3-T1AM induced hypothermic effect still persist in Taar1 knockout mice, suggesting additional receptor targets. In support of this general assumption, it has previously been reported that 3-T1AM also binds to the alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) modulating insulin secretion. However, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. We tested two different scenarios as explanation: the sole action of 3-T1AM at ADRA2A and a combined action of 3-T1AM at ADRA2A and TAAR1, which is also expressed in pancreatic islets. We first investigated a potential general signaling modification using the label-free EPIC-technology and then specified changes in signaling by cAMP inhibition and MAPK (ERK1/2) determination. We found that 3-T1AM induces Gi/o activation at ADRA2A and reduced the nor-epinephrine (NorEpi) induced MAPK activation. Interestingly, in ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers application of NorEpi resulted in uncoupling of the Gi/o signaling pathway, but did not affect MAPK activation. However, 3-T1AM application in mice over a period of six days at the daily dose of 5 mg/Kg had no significant effects on glucose homeostasis. In summary, we report an agonistic effect of 3-T1AM on the ADRA2A mediated Gi/o pathway, but an antagonistic effect on MAPK induced by NorEpi. Moreover, in ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers the capacity of NorEpi to stimulate Gi/o-signaling is reduced by co-stimulation with 3-T1AM. This study, therefore, points to a complex spectrum of signaling modification mediated by 3-T1AM at different GPCRs.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 04/2015; 54(3). DOI:10.1530/JME-15-0003 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with microencephaly, cognitive and behavioural deficits, and growth retardation. Some of the mechanisms of ethanol-induced injury, such as high level oxidative stress and overexpression of pro-apoptotic genes, can increase the sensitivity of fetal neurons towards hypoxic/ischemic stress associated with normal labour. Thus, alcohol-induced sequelae may be the cumulative result of direct ethanol toxicity and increased neuronal vulnerability towards metabolic stressors, including hypoxia. We examined the effects of ethanol exposure on the fetal cerebellar granular neurons' susceptibility to hypoxic/hypoglycemic damage. A chronic ethanol exposure covered the entire prenatal period and 5 days postpartum through breastfeeding, a time interval partially extending into the third-trimester equivalent in humans. After a binge-like alcohol exposure at postnatal day 5, glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons were cultured and grown for 7 days in vitro, then exposed to a 3-hour oxygen-glucose deprivation to mimic a hypoxic/ischemic condition. Cellular viability was monitored by dynamic recording of propidium iodide fluorescence over 20 hours reoxygenation. We explored differentially expressed genes on microarray data from a mouse embryonic ethanol-exposure model and validated these by real-time PCR on the present model. In the ethanol-treated cerebellar granule neurons we find an increased expression of genes related to apoptosis (Mapk8 and Bax), but also of genes previously described as neuroprotective (Dhcr24 and Bdnf), which might suggest an actively maintained viability. Our data suggest that neurons exposed to ethanol during development are more vulnerable to in vitro hypoxia/hypoglycemia and have higher intrinsic death susceptibility than unexposed neurons. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain research 04/2015; 1614. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.04.009 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
    Pharmacological reviews 04/2015; 67(2):338-67. DOI:10.1124/pr.114.009647 · 18.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, proposes a unified nomenclature for Adhesion GPCRs. The new names have ADGR as common dominator followed by a letter and a number to denote each subfamily and subtype, respectively. The new names, with old and alternative names within parentheses, are: ADGRA1 (GPR123), ADGRA2 (GPR124), ADGRA3 (GPR125), ADGRB1 (BAI1), ADGRB2 (BAI2), ADGRB3 (BAI3), ADGRC1 (CELSR1), ADGRC2 (CELSR2), ADGRC3 (CELSR3), ADGRD1 (GPR133), ADGRD2 (GPR144), ADGRE1 (EMR1, F4/80), ADGRE2 (EMR2), ADGRE3 (EMR3), ADGRE4 (EMR4), ADGRE5 (CD97), ADGRF1 (GPR110), ADGRF2 (GPR111), ADGRF3 (GPR113), ADGRF4 (GPR115), ADGRF5 (GPR116, Ig-Hepta), ADGRG1 (GPR56), ADGRG2 (GPR64, HE6), ADGRG3 (GPR97), ADGRG4 (GPR112), ADGRG5 (GPR114), ADGRG6 (GPR126), ADGRG7 (GPR128), ADGRL1 (latrophilin-1, CIRL-1, CL1), ADGRL2 (latrophilin-2, CIRL-2, CL2), ADGRL3 (latrophilin-3, CIRL-3, CL3), ADGRL4 (ELTD1, ETL), and ADGRV1 (VLGR1, GPR98). This review covers all major biologic aspects of Adhesion GPCRs, including evolutionary origins, interaction partners, signaling, expression, physiologic functions, and therapeutic potential.
    Pharmacological reviews 04/2015; 67(2):338–367. · 18.55 Impact Factor
  • Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 03/2015; 122(03). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1547778 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Application of 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) results in decreased body temperature and body weight in rodents. The trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) 1, a family A G protein-coupled receptor, is a target of 3-T1AM. However, 3-T1AM effects still persist in mTaar1 knockout mice, which suggest so far unknown further receptor targets that are of physiological relevance. TAAR5 is a highly conserved TAAR subtype among mammals and we here tested TAAR5 as a potential 3-T1AM target. First, we investigated mouse Taar5 (mTaar5) expression in several brain regions of the mouse in comparison to mTaar1. Secondly, to unravel the full spectrum of signaling capacities, we examined the distinct Gs-, Gi/o-, G12/13-, Gq/11- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling pathways of mouse and human TAAR5 under ligand-independent conditions and after application of 3-T1AM. We found overlapping localization of mTaar1 and mTaar5 in the amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus of the mouse brain. Second, the murine and human TAAR5 (hTAAR5) display significant basal activity in the Gq/11 pathway but show differences in the basal activity in Gs and MAP kinase signaling. In contrast to mTaar5, 3-T1AM application at hTAAR5 resulted in significant reduction in basal IP3 formation and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, our data suggest that the human TAAR5 is a target for 3-T1AM, exhibiting inhibitory effects on IP3 formation and MAP kinase signaling pathways, but does not mediate Gs signaling effects as observed for TAAR1. This study also indicates differences between TAAR5 orthologs with respect to their signaling profile. In consequence, 3-T1AM-mediated effects may differ between rodents and humans.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117774. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117774 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myelin ensheathes axons to allow rapid propagation of action potentials and proper nervous system function. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) radially sort axons into a 1:1 relationship before wrapping an axonal segment to form myelin. SC myelination requires the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126, which undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a seven-transmembrane-containing C-terminal fragment (CTF). Here we show that GPR126 has domain-specific functions in SC development whereby the NTF is necessary and sufficient for axon sorting, whereas the CTF promotes wrapping through cAMP elevation. These biphasic roles of GPR126 are governed by interactions with Laminin-211, which we define as a novel ligand for GPR126 that modulates receptor signaling via a tethered agonist. Our work suggests a model in which Laminin-211 mediates GPR126-induced cAMP levels to control early and late stages of SC development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 02/2015; 85(4):755-69. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.057 · 15.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the first intron of FTO have been robustly replicated for associations with obesity. In the Sorbs, a Slavic population resident in Germany, the strongest effect on body mass index (BMI) was found for a variant in the third intron of FTO (rs17818902). Since this may indicate population specific effects of FTO variants, we initiated studies testing FTO for signatures of selection in vertebrate species and human populations. First, we analyzed the coding region of 35 vertebrate FTO orthologs with Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML, ω = dN/dS) to screen for signatures of selection among species. Second, we investigated human population (Europeans/CEU, Yoruba/YRI, Chinese/CHB, Japanese/JPT, Sorbs) SNP data for footprints of selection using DnaSP version 4.5 and the Haplotter/PhaseII. Finally, using ConSite we compared transcription factor (TF) binding sites at sequences harbouring FTO SNPs in intron three. PAML analyses revealed strong conservation in coding region of FTO (ω<1). Sliding-window results from population genetic analyses provided highly significant (p<0.001) signatures for balancing selection specifically in the third intron (e.g. Tajima's D in Sorbs = 2.77). We observed several alterations in TF binding sites, e.g. TCF3 binding site introduced by the rs17818902 minor allele. Population genetic analysis revealed signatures of balancing selection at the FTO locus with a prominent signal in intron three, a genomic region with strong association with BMI in the Sorbs. Our data support the hypothesis that genes associated with obesity may have been under evolutionary selective pressure.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117093. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117093 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) comprise the second largest yet least studied class of the GPCR superfamily. aGPCRs are involved in many developmental processes and immune and synaptic functions, but the mode of their signal transduction is unclear. Here, we show that a short peptide sequence (termed the Stachel sequence) within the ectodomain of two aGPCRs (GPR126 and GPR133) functions as a tethered agonist. Upon structural changes within the receptor ectodomain, this intramolecular agonist is exposed to the seven-transmembrane helix domain, which triggers G protein activation. Our studies show high specificity of a given Stachel sequence for its receptor. Finally, the function of Gpr126 is abrogated in zebrafish with a mutated Stachel sequence, and signaling is restored in hypomorphic gpr126 zebrafish mutants upon exogenous Stachel peptide application. These findings illuminate a mode of aGPCR activation and may prompt the development of specific ligands for this currently untargeted GPCR family. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 12/2014; 9(6):2018-26. DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.036 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GPR34 is a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the nucleotide receptor P2Y12-like group. This receptor is highly expressed in microglia, however, the functional relevance of GPR34 in these glial cells is unknown. Previous results suggested an impaired immune response in GPR34-deficient mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we show that GPR34 deficiency results in morphological changes in retinal and cortical microglia. RNA sequencing analysis of microglia revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts involved in cell motility and phagocytosis. We found no differences in microglial motility after entorhinal cortex lesion and in response to laser lesion. However, GPR34-deficient microglia showed reduced phagocytosis activity in both retina and acutely isolated cortical slices. Our study identifies GPR34 as an important signaling component controlling microglial function, morphology and phagocytosis. GLIA 2014
    Glia 08/2014; 63(2). DOI:10.1002/glia.22744 · 6.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas the three-dimensional structure and the structural basis of the allosteric regulation of prokaryotic 6-phosphofructokinases (Pfks) have been studied in great detail, knowledge of the molecular basis of the allosteric behaviour of the far more complex mammalian Pfks is still very limited. The human muscle isozyme was expressed heterologously in yeast cells and purified using a five-step purification protocol. Protein crystals suitable for diffraction experiments were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P6222 and diffracted to 6.0 Å resolution. The 3.2 Å resolution structure of rabbit muscle Pfk (rmPfk) was placed into the asymmetric unit and optimized by rigid-body and group B-factor refinement. Interestingly, the tetrameric enzyme dissociated into a dimer, similar to the situation observed in the structure of rmPfk.
    Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications 05/2014; 70(Pt 5):578-82. DOI:10.1107/S2053230X14008723
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    ABSTRACT: Inter-individual differences in many behaviors are partly due to genetic differences, but the identification of the genes and variants that influence behavior remains challenging. Here, we studied an F2 intercross of two outbred lines of rats selected for tame and aggressive behavior towards humans for more than 64 generations. By using a mapping approach that is able to identify genetic loci segregating within the lines, we identified four times more loci influencing tameness and aggression than by an approach that assumes fixation of causative alleles, suggesting that many causative loci were not driven to fixation by the selection. We used RNA sequencing in 150 F2 animals to identify hundreds of loci that influence brain gene expression. Several of these loci colocalize with tameness loci and may reflect the same genetic variants. Through analyses of correlations between allele effects on behavior and gene expression, differential expression between the tame and aggressive rat selection lines, and correlations between gene expression and tameness in F2 animals, we identify the genes Gltscr2, Lgi4, Zfp40 and Slc17a7 as candidate contributors to the strikingly different behavior of the tame and aggressive animals.
    Genetics 04/2014; 198(3). DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.168948 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RGS9-deficient mice show drug-induced dyskinesia but normal locomotor activity under unchallenged conditions. Genes related to Ca2+ signaling and their functions were regulated in RGS9-deficient mice. Changes in Ca2+ signaling that compensate for RGS9 loss-of-function can explain the normal locomotor activity in RGS9-deficient mice under unchallenged conditions. Identified signaling components may represent novel targets in antidyskinetic therapy. The long splice variant of the regulator of G-protein signaling 9 (RGS9-2) is enriched in striatal medium spiny neurons and dampens dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Lack of RGS9-2 can promote while its overexpression prevents drug-induced dyskinesia. Other animal models of drug-induced dyskinesia rather pointed towards overactivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling. To evaluate changes in signaling pathways mRNA expression levels were determined and compared in wild-type and RGS9-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, expression levels of dopamine receptors were unchanged in RGS9-deficient mice, while several genes related to Ca2+ signaling and long-term depression were differentially expressed when compared to wild type animals. Detailed investigations at the protein level revealed hyperphosphorylation of DARPP32 at Thr34 and of ERK1/2 in striata of RGS9-deficient mice. Whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that spontaneous synaptic events are increased (frequency and size) in RGS9-deficient mice while long-term depression is reduced in acute brain slices. These changes are compatible with a Ca2+-induced potentiation of dopamine receptor signaling which may contribute to the drug-induced dyskinesia in RGS9-deficient mice.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92605. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092605 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The myelin sheath surrounding axons ensures that nerve impulses travel quickly and efficiently, allowing for the proper function of the vertebrate nervous system. We previously showed that the adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) Gpr126 is essential for peripheral nervous system myelination, although the molecular mechanisms by which Gpr126 functions were incompletely understood. aGPCRs are a significantly understudied protein class, and it was unknown whether Gpr126 couples to G-proteins. Here, we analyze Dhh(Cre);Gpr126(fl/fl) conditional mutants, and show that Gpr126 functions in Schwann cells (SCs) for radial sorting of axons and myelination. Furthermore, we demonstrate that elevation of cAMP levels or protein kinase A activation suppresses myelin defects in Gpr126 mouse mutants and that cAMP levels are reduced in conditional Gpr126 mutant peripheral nerve. Finally, we show that GPR126 directly increases cAMP by coupling to heterotrimeric G-proteins. Together, these data support a model in which Gpr126 functions in SCs for proper development and myelination and provide evidence that these functions are mediated via G-protein-signaling pathways.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 11/2013; 33(46):17976-85. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1809-13.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Simone Prömel · Gabriela Aust · Tobias Langenhan · Torsten Schöneberg
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    ABSTRACT: Among the five classes of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) adhesion- GPCRs (aGPCRs) comprise the second largest but most mysterious one. Its 33 human members are giant membrane proteins with extracellular N-termini up to 6,000 amino acids long containing numerous and diverse domains potentially involved in adhesion. Although most of the aGPCRs are orphans, several studies in the past five years revealed interesting facets of their unusual and complex molecular structure and signal transduction as well as essential functions in developmental, neurophysiological and immunological processes.
    BioSpektrum 11/2013; 19(7):717-719. DOI:10.1007/s12268-013-0379-9
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) is associated with pigmentation diversity in wild and domesticated populations of vertebrates, including several species of birds. Among domestic bird species, pigmentation variation in the rock pigeon (Columbalivia) is particularly diverse. To determine the potential contribution of Mc1r variants to pigment diversity in pigeons, we sequenced Mc1r in a wide range of pigeon breeds and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms, including a variant that codes for an amino acid substitution (Val85Met). In contrast to the association between Val85Met and eumelanism in other avian species, this change was associated with pheomelanism in pigeons. In vitro cAMP accumulation and protein expression assays revealed that Val85Met leads to decreased receptor function and reduced cell surface expression of the mutant protein. The reduced in vitro function is consistent with the observed association with reduced eumelanic pigmentation. Comparative genetic and cellular studies provide important insights about the range of mechanisms underlying diversity among vertebrates, including different phenotypic associations with similar mutations in different species.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e74475. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074475 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
839.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2015
    • University of Leipzig
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1996–2003
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • • Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Pharmacology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1995
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry (LBC)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 1994–1995
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany