Susan F Slovin

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (108)764.55 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition are limited by feedback reactivation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in phosphatase and tensin homolog-null tumors. Thus, this study tested the combination of mTOR inhibition (everolimus) and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (gefitinib) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In phase 1, 12 patients (10 with CRPC and 2 with glioblastoma) received daily gefitinib (250 mg) with weekly everolimus (30, 50, or 70 mg). In phase 2, 27 CRPC patients received gefitinib with everolimus (70 mg). Phase 1 revealed no pharmacokinetic interactions and no dose-limiting toxicities. In phase 2, 18 of 27 patients (67%) discontinued treatment before the 12-week evaluation because of progression as evidenced by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (n = 6) or imaging (n = 5) or because of a grade 2 or higher toxicity (n = 7). Thirteen of the 37 CRPC patients (35%) exhibited a rapidly rising PSA level after they had begun treatment, and this declined upon discontinuation. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography 24 to 72 hours after the initiation of treatment showed a decrease in the standardized uptake value consistent with mTOR inhibition in 27 of the 33 evaluable patients (82%); there was a corresponding rise in PSA in 20 of these 27 patients (74%). The combination of gefitinib and everolimus did not result in significant antitumor activity. The induction of PSA in tumors treated with mTOR inhibitors was consistent with preclinical data showing that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling feedback inhibits the androgen receptor (AR). This clinical evidence of relief of feedback inhibition promoting enhanced AR activity supports future studies combining PI3K pathway inhibitors and second-generation AR inhibitors in CRPC. Cancer 2015 © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/cncr.29578 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e1038. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.523 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer immunotherapy induces a variety of auto-inflammatory responses, including those against the thyroid gland, which can be exploited to predict clinical outcomes. Considering the paucity of information about thyroid autoimmunity in patients receiving cancer vaccines, we designed the present study to assess the development of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patients treated with GVAX and/or ipilimumab and correlated seroconversion with survival. Using both in house and commercial ELISA assays, we measured TgAbs in patients with pancreatic (No. = 53), prostate (No.= 35), or colon (No.= 8) cancer, before and after treatment with GVAX only (No= 34), GVAX plus ipilimumab (No = 42), or ipilimumab (No =20), and correlated their levels with patient's survival, disease status, and T cell surface markers. Antibodies to thyroperoxidase, myeloperoxidase, proteinase 3, insulin and actin were also measured. TgAbs specifically developed after GVAX, independent of the underlying cancer (81% in prostate, 75% colon cancer, and 76% pancreatic cancer) and co-administration of ipilimumab (75% in GVAX only and 78% in GVAX plus ipilimumab). This TgAbs seroconversion could be detected mainly by the in house assay, suggesting that the thyroglobulin epitopes recognized by the antibodies induced by GVAX are different from the epitopes seen in the classic form of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Notably, TgAbs seroconversion was associated with significantly prolonged survival (p=0.01 for pancreas and p= 0.005 for prostate cancer). In conclusion, GVAX immunotherapy induces the appearance of TgAbs that recognize a unique antigenic repertoire and associate with prolonged survival. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 136(1). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28973 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Susan F Slovin
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    ABSTRACT: Despite multiple immunologic approaches with peptide, protein, and DNA vaccines, no single therapy has induced complete remission or maintained durability of response in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Historically, immunotherapy has had limited effect on solid tumors with the exception of melanoma and renal cell carcinomas, which have been deemed as immunologic cancers given their potential for remissions either spontaneously or after removal of the primary lesion. There is considerable excitement about using an immunotherapy in combination with biologic agents such as checkpoint inhibitors, cytokines, other vaccines, or chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T represents one of several novel immunologic therapeutic approaches to treat prostate cancer in addition to other solid tumors. It is the first in its class of autologous cellular therapies to demonstrate safety and an overall survival benefit in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic CRPC and represents a unique treatment method that may be further enhanced with other agents. Although sipuleucel-T can be used as a foundation on which to build and enhance future immunologic clinical trials, other exciting strategies are in development that may be easily integrated into the algorithm of current care.
    01/2015; 35:e275-83. DOI:10.14694/EdBook_AM.2015.35.e275
  • Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.clgc.2014.11.008 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer survivors with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level have few treatment options, experience a heightened state of uncertainty about their disease trajectory that might include the possibility of cancer metastasis and death, and often experience elevated levels of distress as they have to deal with a disease they thought they had conquered. Guided by self-regulation theory, the present study examined the cognitive and affective processes involved in shared decision making between physicians and patients who experience a rising PSA after definitive treatment for prostate cancer.
    Medical Decision Making 11/2014; 35(4). DOI:10.1177/0272989X14558424 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To endorse the American Urological Association (AUA)/American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guideline on adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines developed by other professional organizations.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2014; 32(34). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.58.8525 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and circulating tumor cells. The first seven fully characterized organoid lines recapitulate the molecular diversity of prostate cancer subtypes, including TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, SPOP mutation, SPINK1 overexpression, and CHD1 loss. Whole-exome sequencing shows a low mutational burden, consistent with genomics studies, but with mutations in FOXA1 and PIK3R1, as well as in DNA repair and chromatin modifier pathways that have been reported in advanced disease. Loss of p53 and RB tumor suppressor pathway function are the most common feature shared across the organoid lines. The methodology described here should enable the generation of a large repertoire of patient-derived prostate cancer lines amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.
    Cell 09/2014; 159(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2014.08.016 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Prostate cancer survivors approach 2.8 million in number and represent 1 in 5 of all cancer survivors in the United States. While guidelines exist for timely treatment and surveillance for recurrent disease, there is limited availability of guidelines that facilitate the provision of posttreatment clinical follow-up care to address the myriad of long-term and late effects that survivors may face. Based on recommendations set forth by a National Cancer Survivorship Resource Center expert panel, the American Cancer Society developed clinical follow-up care guidelines to facilitate the provision of posttreatment care by primary care clinicians. These guidelines were developed using a combined approach of evidence synthesis and expert consensus. Existing guidelines for health promotion, surveillance, and screening for second primary cancers were referenced when available. To promote comprehensive follow-up care and optimal health and quality of life for the posttreatment survivor, the guidelines address health promotion, surveillance for prostate cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, long-term and late effects assessment and management, psychosocial issues, and care coordination among the oncology team, primary care clinicians, and nononcology specialists. A key challenge to the development of these guidelines was the limited availability of published evidence for management of prostate cancer survivors after treatment. Much of the evidence relies on studies with small sample sizes and retrospective analyses of facility-specific and population databases. CA Cancer J Clin 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 06/2014; DOI:10.3322/caac.21234 · 162.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor-mediated transcription is directly coupled with the induction of DNA damage, and castration-resistant tumor cells exhibit increased activity of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, a DNA repair enzyme. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of low dose oral PARP inhibitor veliparib (ABT-888) and temozolomide (TMZ) in docetaxel-pretreated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in a single-arm, open-label, pilot study. Patients with mCRPC progressing on at least one docetaxel-based therapy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 2 ng/mL were treated with veliparib 40 mg twice daily on days 1-7 and TMZ once daily (150 mg/m(2)/day cycle 1; if well tolerated then 200 mg/m(2)/day cycle 2 onwards) on days 1-5 q28 days. Patients received 2 (median) treatment cycles (range, 1-9). The primary endpoint was confirmed PSA response rate (decline ≥ 30 %). Twenty-six eligible patients were enrolled, 25 evaluable for PSA response. Median baseline PSA was 170 ng/mL. Two patients had a confirmed PSA response (8.0 %; 95 % CI: 1.0-26.0), 13 stable PSA, and 10 PSA progression. The median progression-free survival was 9 weeks (95 % CI: 7.9-17) and median overall survival 39.6 weeks (95 % CI: 26.6-not estimable). The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were thrombocytopenia (77 %), anemia (69 %), fatigue (50 %), neutropenia (42 %), nausea (38 %), and constipation (23 %). Grade 3/4 AEs occurring in > 10 % of patients were thrombocytopenia (23 %) and anemia (15 %). Veliparib and TMZ combination was well tolerated but with modest activity. Biomarker analysis supported the proof of concept that this combination has some antitumor activity in mCRPC.
    Investigational New Drugs 04/2014; 32(5). DOI:10.1007/s10637-014-0099-0 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypophysitis is a chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland of unknown (primary forms) or recognizable (secondary forms) etiology, such as the use of ipilimumab in cancer immunotherapy. Ipilimumab, which blocks the T cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4), induces hypophysitis in about 4% of patients through unknown mechanisms. We first established a model of secondary hypophysitis by repeated injections of a CTLA-4 blocking antibody into SJL/J or C57BL/6J mice, and showed that they developed lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland and circulating pituitary antibodies. We next assessed the prevalence of pituitary antibodies in a cohort of 20 patients with advanced melanoma or prostate cancer, 7 with a clinical diagnosis of hypophysitis, before and after ipilimumab administration. Pituitary antibodies, negative at baseline, developed in the 7 patients with hypophysitis but not in the 13 without it; these antibodies predominantly recognized thyrotropin-, follicle-stimulating hormone-, and corticotropin-secreting cells. We then hypothesized that the injected CTLA-4 antibody could cause pituitary toxicity if bound to CTLA-4 antigen expressed "ectopically" on pituitary endocrine cells. Pituitary glands indeed expressed CTLA-4 at both RNA and protein levels, particularly in a subset of prolactin- and thyrotropin-secreting cells. Notably, these cells became the site of complement activation, featuring deposition of C3d and C4d components and an inflammatory cascade akin to that seen in type II hypersensitivity. In summary, the study offers a mechanism to explain the pituitary toxicity observed in patients receiving ipilimumab, and highlights the utility of measuring pituitary antibodies in this form of secondary hypophysitis.
    Science translational medicine 04/2014; 6(230):230ra45. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3008002 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is often associated with metastases to bone and/or soft tissue. The progression to metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer is a seminal event in disease progression affecting treatment decisions. A multidisciplinary group was convened to review the currently available imaging guidelines for metastatic disease in prostate cancer and found no consensus on eligibility criteria, type of imaging modality, and the frequency of scanning for detecting metastatic disease. The aim of this review was to present the recommendations from the group to identify optimal strategies for early identification of metastases in patients with prostate cancer.
    Urology 03/2014; 83(3). DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2013.10.026 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Susan F Slovin
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies administered either alone or in a unique construct that can enhance targeting, immunologic recognition and cell killing, remain an area of active interest for a variety of solid tumors. Prostate cancer has unique characteristics as a target for immune-mediated therapies, particularly since it has not only a wide array of antigens expressed on its cell surface, but also has an associated biomarker, which not only can monitor the disease status but also its response to therapy. A number of unique cell surface antigens, as well as internally mediated cell molecules, have shown their clinical activity and efficacy as prostate cancer treatments. The continued evolution of novel antibody-drug and antibody-imaging constructs will probably offer more efficient ways to deliver a therapeutic to the tumor and enhance imaging of active or treated sites of disease.
    Immunotherapy 12/2013; 5(12):1347-1355. DOI:10.2217/imt.13.140 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) encode 8% of the human genome. While HERVs may play a role in autoimmune and neoplastic disease, no mechanistic association has yet been established. We studied the expression and immunogenicity of a HERV-K GAG protein encoded on chromosome 22q11.23 in relation to the clinical course of prostate cancer. Experimental design: In vitro expression of GAG-HERV-K was analyzed in panels of normal and malignant tissues, microarrays, and cell lines, and effects of demethylation and androgen stimulation were evaluated. Patient sera were analyzed for seroreactivity to GAG-HERV-K and other self-antigens by ELISA and seromics (protein array profiling). GAG-HERV-K expression was most frequent in prostate tissues, and regulated both by demethylation of the promoter region and by androgen stimulation. Serum screening revealed that antibodies to GAG-HERV-K are found in a subset of prostate cancer patients (33/483, 6.8%), but rarely in male healthy donors (1/55, 1.8%). Autoantibodies to GAG-HERV-K occurred more frequently in advanced prostate cancer patients (29/191 in stage III-IV, 21.0%) than in early prostate cancer (4/292 in stage I-II, 1.4%). Presence of GAG-HERV-K serum antibody was correlated with worse survival of prostate cancer patients, with a trend for faster biochemical recurrence in patients with antibodies to GAG-HERV-K. Preferential expression of GAG-HERV-K ch22q11.23 in prostate cancer tissue and increased frequency of autoantibodies observed in advanced prostate cancer patients make this protein one of the first bona fide retroviral cancer antigens in humans, with potential as a biomarker for progression and biochemical recurrence rate of prostate cancer.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2013; 19(22). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3580 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ARN-509 is a novel androgen receptor (AR) antagonist for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). ARN-509 inhibits AR nuclear translocation and AR binding to androgen response elements and, unlike bicalutamide, does not exhibit agonist properties in the context of AR overexpression. This first-in-human phase I study assessed safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of ARN-509 in men with metastatic CRPC. Thirty patients with progressive CRPC received continuous daily oral ARN-509 at doses between 30 and 480 mg, preceded by administration of a single dose followed by a 1-week observation period with pharmacokinetic sampling. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was conducted to monitor [(18)F]fluoro-α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT) binding to AR in tumors before and during treatment. Primary objective was to determine pharmacokinetics, safety, and recommended phase II dose. Pharmacokinetics were linear and dose proportional. Prostate-specific antigen declines at 12 weeks (≥ 50% reduction from baseline) were observed in 46.7% of patients. Reduction in FDHT uptake was observed at all doses, with a plateau in response at ≥ 120-mg dose, consistent with saturation of AR binding. The most frequently reported adverse event was grade 1/2 fatigue (47%). One dose-limiting toxicity event (grade 3 abdominal pain) occurred at the 300-mg dose. Dose escalation to 480 mg did not identify a maximum-tolerated dose. ARN-509 was safe and well tolerated, displayed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, and demonstrated pharmacodynamic and antitumor activity across all dose levels tested. A maximum efficacious dose of 240 mg daily was selected for phase II exploration based on integration of preclinical and clinical data.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; 31(28). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.50.1684 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: β-emitting bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have historically been administered for pain palliation whereas docetaxel prolongs life in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In combination, these agents simultaneously target the bone stroma and cancer cell to optimize antitumor effects. The toxicity and efficacy when each agent is combined at full, recommended doses, in a repetitive fashion is not well established. METHODS: Patients with progressive mCRPC and ≥3 bone lesions received (153) Sm-EDTMP (samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) at a dose of 1.0 mCi/kg every 9 weeks and docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. In the absence of unacceptable toxicity, patients were allowed to continue additional cycles, defined by 9 weeks of treatment, until intolerance or biochemical/radiographic disease progression. RESULTS: Of the 30 patients treated, approximately 50% were considered to be taxane-naive, 36.7% were taxane-refractory, and 13.3% had previously been exposed to taxanes but were not considered refractory. Patients received on average 2.5 cycles of treatment (6.5 doses of docetaxel and 2.5 doses of (153) Sm-EDTMP). Twelve patients (40%) demonstrated a decline in their prostate-specific antigen level of ≥50%. The median progression-free survival (biochemical or radiographic) was 7.0 months and the overall survival was 14.3 months. Nine patients (30%) did not recover platelet counts >100 K/mm(3) after a median of 3 cycles to allow for additional treatment, with 4 patients experiencing prolonged thrombocytopenia. The most common reasons for trial discontinuation were progressive disease and hematologic toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that (153) Sm-EDTMP can be safely combined with docetaxel at full doses on an ongoing basis in patients with mCRPC. Although thrombocytopenia limited therapy for some patients, preliminary efficacy supports the strategy of combining a radiopharmaceutical with chemotherapy, which is an appealing strategy given the anticipated availability of α emitters that can prolong survival. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 09/2013; 119(17). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28103 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Alexandra Snyder, Jaron E Tepper, Susan F Slovin
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    ABSTRACT: The goals of any cancer therapy are to improve disease control, palliate pain and improve overall survival. We are fortunate to have in our cancer armamentarium two new immune-directed therapies which not only impact on disease control but also on overall survival. The first, sipuleucel-T, a cellular-based vaccine, was approved for prostate cancer and was shown to be safe with minimal toxicity. The second, ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to an immunologic checkpoint molecule, showed a survival benefit in patients with advanced melanoma. Benefit appeared to correlate in some cases with the development of autoimmune events, signaling that the immune system is in overdrive against the cancer. Where we are and where we will likely go are the topics to be discussed in this review.
    Seminars in Oncology 06/2013; 40(3):347-360. DOI:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2013.04.009 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: (223)Ra-Dichloride ((223)Ra) is a novel bone-seeking alpha-emitter that prolongs survival in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. We conducted a study to better profile the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and biodistribution of this agent. METHODS: Ten patients received either 50, 100, or 200 kBq of (223)Ra per kilogram of body weight. Subsequently, six of these ten patients received a second dose of 50 kBq/kg. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were assessed by serial blood sampling, planar imaging, and whole-body counting. Pharmacodynamic assessment was based on measurements of prostate-specific antigen, bone alkaline phosphatase, and serum N-telopeptide. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic studies showed rapid clearance of (223)Ra from the vasculature, with a median of 14 % (range 9-34 %), 2 % (range 1.6-3.9 %), and 0.5 % (range 0.4-1.0 %) remaining in plasma at the end of infusion, after 4 h, and after 24 h, respectively. Biodistribution studies showed early passage into the small bowel and subsequent fecal excretion with a median of 52 % of administered (223)Ra in the bowel at 24 h. Urinary excretion was relatively minor (median of 4 % of administered (223)Ra). Bone retention was prolonged. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Pharmacodynamic effects were observed (alkaline phosphatase and serum N-telopeptides) in a significant fraction of patients. CONCLUSION: (223)Ra cleared rapidly from plasma and rapidly transited into small bowel, with fecal excretion the major route of elimination. Administered activities up to 200 kBq/kg were associated with few side effects and appeared to induce a decline in serum indicators of bone turnover.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2013; 40(9). DOI:10.1007/s00259-013-2427-6 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background This phase I/II study in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) explored ipilimumab as monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy, based on the preclinical evidence of synergistic antitumor activity between anti-CTLA-4 antibody and radiotherapy.Patients and methodsIn dose escalation, 33 patients (≥6/cohort) received ipilimumab every 3 weeks × 4 doses at 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg or at 3 or 10 mg/kg + radiotherapy (8 Gy/lesion). The 10-mg/kg cohorts were expanded to 50 patients (ipilimumab monotherapy, 16; ipilimumab + radiotherapy, 34). Evaluations included adverse events (AEs), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline, and tumor response.ResultsCommon immune-related AEs (irAEs) among the 50 patients receiving 10 mg/kg ± radiotherapy were diarrhea (54%), colitis (22%), rash (32%), and pruritus (20%); grade 3/4 irAEs included colitis (16%) and hepatitis (10%). One treatment-related death (5 mg/kg group) occurred. Among patients receiving 10 mg/kg ± radiotherapy, eight had PSA declines of ≥50% (duration: 3-13+ months), one had complete response (duration: 11.3+ months), and six had stable disease (duration: 2.8-6.1 months).Conclusions In mCRPC patients, ipilimumab 10 mg/kg ± radiotherapy suggested clinical antitumor activity with disease control and manageable AEs. Two phase III trials in mCRPC patients evaluating ipilimumab 10 mg/kg ± radiotherapy are ongoing. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00323882.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2013; 24(7). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt107 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PSMA-VRP is a propagation defective, viral replicon vector system encoding PSMA under phase I evaluation for patients with castration resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC). The product is derived from an attenuated strain of the alphavirus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and incorporates multiple redundant safety features. In this first in human trial, two cohorts of 3 patients with CRPC metastatic to bone were treated with up to five doses of either 0.9×10(7)IU or 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18, followed by an expansion cohort of 6 patients treated with 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18. No toxicities were observed. In the first dose cohort, no PSMA specific cellular immune responses were seen but weak PSMA-specific signals were observed by ELISA. The remaining 9 patients, which included the higher cohort and the extension cohort, had no PSMA specific cellular responses. PSMA-VRP was well-tolerated at both doses. While there did not appear to be clinical benefit nor robust immune signals at the two doses studied, neutralizing antibodies were produced by both cohorts suggesting that dosing was suboptimal.
    Vaccine 12/2012; 31(6). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.096 · 3.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
764.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2015
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Genitourinary Oncology Service
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Medicine
      Итак, New York, United States
    • Merck
      Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States