Susan E Richardson

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (133)482.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reactivation of HSV and VZV is common following HSCT. Consensus guidelines do not support the use of routine screening for viremia following HSCT in adults, but no such clear guidelines exist in pediatrics. In our center, routine practice was to screen patients weekly for HSV and VZV viremia until engraftment in autologous transplant patients and up to day +100 in allogeneic transplant patients. We conducted a retrospective study of over 500 patients to establish whether this screening identified any patients with HSV or VZV viremia who would not have been identified by clinical signs or symptoms. Over a 4.5-yr period, routine screening identified three cases of HSV viremia and one case of VZV viremia. Two patients had persistent, unexplained fever and two patients had skin or mucosal lesions suggestive of HSV/VZV. We conclude that routine screening for HSV and VZV viremia in pediatric HSCT patients has a very low yield and that viremia can be reliably identified by targeted testing in patients with vesicular skin lesions, oral or genital ulceration, unexplained fever, neurological symptoms, or unexplained abnormal liver transaminases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Pediatric Transplantation 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/petr.12551 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/cid/civ473 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of Colletotrichum truncatum species complex fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in an 87-year-old immunocompetent male in whom oral triazole antifungals were contraindicated. The patient had recently returned from 4 months in Jamaica with a one month history of progressively increasing pain and inflammation in his left eye. Corneal samples grew a filamentous fungus and internal transcribed spacer sequencing polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of C. truncatum species complex. Samples showed no microbial growth.
    06/2015; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.mmcr.2015.06.001
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    ABSTRACT: The recent emergence of severe respiratory disease by enterovirus D68 prompted investigation into whether Canadian hospital and provincial laboratories can detect this virus using commercial and laboratory developed assays. This study demonstrated analytical sensitivity differences between both commercial and laboratory developed assays for the detection of enterovirus D68. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2015; 53(5). DOI:10.1128/JCM.03686-14 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    Ari Bitnun, Susan E Richardson
    The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 03/2015; 26(2):69-72. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common mechanism of azole (itraconazole and voriconazole) resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is a mutation at the cyp51A locus. The aim of our study was to determine the rate of cyp51A mutations in lung transplant recipients (LTR) undergoing targeted antifungal prophylaxis with 12 weeks of voriconazole. We conducted a prospective study that included 22 LTR with A. fumigatus between October 2008 and November 2011. Of those, 10 LTR were colonized with A. fumigatus and 12 had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Four patients were found to have A. fumigatus isolates with a cyp51A mutation, two had colonization and two had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The remaining 18 LTR had WT cyp51A A. fumigatus isolates. All A. fumigatus isolates (except one due to mixed growth) were tested for antifungal susceptibility. A total of nine LTR were exposed to azoles prior to A. fumigatus isolation for a median duration of 249 (IQR 99-524) days. Azole exposure preceded the isolation of two mutant isolates and seven WT isolates. None of the cyp51A mutant isolates conferred phenotypic resistance to azoles. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis in LTR did not lead to cyp51A resistance mutations in this cohort. Data on larger cohorts who receive universal antifungal prophylaxis are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/jac/dku528 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection were identified. The incidence increased from 3.2/10,000 patient days in 2007 to 5.2/10,000 patient days in 2011 (p < 0.001). Of 169 isolates, the most common North American Pulsed-Field (NAP) types were NAP4 (n = 43; (25.4%), and NAP1 (n = 25;14.8%) while 55 (32.6%) were non-assigned NAP types.
    01/2015; DOI:10.1093/jpids/piv011
  • S.A. Asner, W Rose, A Petrich, S Richardson, D J Tran
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular assays have resulted in increased detection of viral respiratory infections, including virus coinfection, from children with acute respiratory infections. Yet the clinical severity of virus coinfection compared to single virus infection remains uncertain. We performed a retrospective study of children presenting with acute respiratory infections comparing clinical severity of single respiratory virus infection to virus coinfection, detected on midturbinate swabs by molecular assays. Patient characteristics and measures of clinical severity were abstracted from health records. A total of 472 virus-infected children were included, 391 with a single virus infection and 81 with virus coinfection. Virus status did not affect admission to hospital (odds ratio (OR) = 0.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.5–1.4; p 0.491) or clinical disease severity among inpatients (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.5–1.5; p 0.515) after adjusting for age and underlying comorbidities. However, children infected with rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) alone were more likely to be admitted to the hospital compared to those coinfected with HRV/ENT and at least another virus, although this was not significant in multivariable analyses (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22–1.0; p 0.051). In multivariable analyses, children coinfected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viruses were significantly more likely to present with radiologically confirmed pneumonia compared to those with an isolated RSV infection (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.07–9.34, p 0.037). Equivalent clinical severity was observed between children with single virus infection and virus coinfection, although children coinfected with RSV and other viruses presented more frequently with pneumonia than those with single RSV infection. Increased disease severity observed among children with single HRV/ENT infection requires further investigation.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1016/j.cmi.2014.08.024 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre® RAPMYCO microdilution panel (Thermofisher Inc., formerly TREK Diagnostic Systems). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim/sufamethoxazole was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species-specific with isolates of N. otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica, displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely-encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T) and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre® RAPMYCO panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. Reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2014; 59(1). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02770-14 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric aspirate (GA) cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found in 7% of 285 patients who underwent GA. Positive GA cultures were associated with disseminated disease and intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, but not isolated airspace or pleural disease. Nontuberculous mycobacterial species isolated from GA in twelve patients did not reflect the pathogens causing disease in three children and were not associated with clinical disease in any patient.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2014; DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000498 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the spectrum of central nervous system complications of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in children admitted to The Hospital for Sick Children between January 1999 and December 2012. Study design Children aged 1 month to 18 years (n = 84) admitted with neurologic manifestations associated with a characteristic VZV rash or a confirmatory laboratory test (positive lesion scraping or cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction) were included in the study. Acute neurologic complications were included if they occurred within 4 weeks of VZV infection. Stroke was considered related to VZV if it occurred within 6 months of VZV infection, the neuroimaging was characteristic, and other causes were excluded. Results Clinical syndromes included acute cerebellar ataxia (n = 26), encephalitis (n = 17), isolated seizures (n = 16), stroke (n = 10), meningitis (n = 10), Guillain-Barre syndrome (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (n = 1). In those with acute complications (nonstroke), neurologic symptoms occurred a median of 5 days after rash onset (range -6 to +16). The time between rash onset and stroke ranged from 2 weeks to 26 weeks (median 16.0 weeks). Three children with encephalitis died. Residual neurologic sequelae at one year occurred in 9 of 39 (23%) of children with follow-up data. Only 4 children were reported to have received the varicella vaccine. Conclusion Neurologic complications of VZV infection continue to occur despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Neurologic symptom onset can predate the appearance of the VZV exanthem and in rare cases may occur in the absence of an exanthem.
    Journal of Pediatrics 07/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.06.014 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manipulation of Blastomyces dermatitidis requires the use of containment level 3 (CL3) practices. However, access to CL3 laboratories is limited and working conditions are restrictive. We describe the validation of a "heat-killing" method to inactivate B. dermatitidis, thus allowing cellular material to be removed from the CL3 laboratory for subsequent DNA isolation that is suitable for genetic applications.
    Medical Mycology 07/2014; 52(7). DOI:10.1093/mmy/myu040 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background This multicenter prospective study of invasive candidiasis (IC) was carried out to determine the risk factors for, incidence of, clinical and laboratory features, treatment and outcome of IC in infants of birth weight <1250 g. Methods Neonates <1250 g with IC and their matched controls (2:1) were followed longitudinally and descriptive analysis was performed. Survivors underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at 18 to 24 months corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as blindness, deafness, moderate to severe cerebral palsy, or a score <70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 2nd edition. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine risk factors for IC and predictors of mortality and NDI. Results Cumulative incidence rates of IC were 4.2%, 2.2% and 1.5% for birth-weight categories <750 g, <1000 g, <1500 g, respectively. Forty nine infants with IC and 90 controls were enrolled. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was the only independent risk factor for IC (p = 0.03). CNS candidiasis occurred in 50% of evaluated infants, while congenital candidiasis occurred in 31%. Infants with CNS candidiasis had a higher mortality rate (57%) and incidence of deafness (50%) than the overall cohort of infants with IC. NDI (56% vs. 33%; p = 0.017) and death (45% vs. 7%; p = 0.0001) were more likely in cases than in controls, respectively. IC survivors were more likely to be deaf (28% vs. 7%; p = 0.01). IC independently predicted mortality (p = 0.0004) and NDI (p = 0.018). Conclusion IC occurred in 1.5% of VLBW infants. Preceding NEC increased the risk of developing IC. CNS candidiasis is under-investigated and difficult to diagnose, but portends a very poor outcome. Mortality, deafness and NDI were independently significantly increased in infants with IC compared to matched controls.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 14(1):327. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-327 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) infection occurs almost universally during the first 5 years of life and is rarely accompanied by central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such as febrile seizures. The present retrospective study investigated the role of primary HHV-7 infection in CNS disease in children, including adolescents. The study included all children who had neurologic disease aged younger than 18 years seen at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, between April 1, 1998 and December 31, 2011, whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was found by polymerase chain reaction to contain HHV-7 DNA. Where sera were available, HHV-7 IgG antibody titers and avidity were measured to differentiate primary from past infection. HHV-7 DNA was detected in the CSF of 57 (1.9%) of the 2972 children tested. In 3 adolescents primary HHV-7 infection (low avidity IgG) was confirmed as the cause of neurologic disease, 2 who had encephalitis and 1 who had Guillain-Barré syndrome. Eighteen children had possible HHV-7 disease (no alternative cause identified and indeterminate antibody result or serum not available), 7 encephalitis, 8 meningitis, and 3 demyelinating disorders. HHV-7 disease was excluded in 36 children on the basis of past infection (high IgG avidity) and/or an alternative cause. Primary HHV-7 infection delayed into adolescence can cause serious neurologic disease. HHV-7 DNA in CSF alone is insufficient to prove an etiologic association. Combining CSF polymerase chain reaction with serology is essential to prove primary infection when investigating HHV-7 CNS disease.
    PEDIATRICS 05/2014; 133(6). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3344 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) infections are commonly identified in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), but data on their clinical severity remain limited.Objectives We compared the clinical severity of HRV/ENT to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A/B (FLU), and other common respiratory viruses in children.Patients/Methods Retrospective study of children with ARIs and confirmed single positive viral infections on mid-turbinate swabs by molecular assays. Outcome measures included hospital admission and, for inpatients, a composite endpoint consisting of intensive care admission, hospitalization >5 days, oxygen requirements or death.ResultsA total of 116 HRV/ENT, 102 RSV, 99 FLU, and 64 other common respiratory viruses were identified. Children with single HRV/ENT infections presented with significantly higher rates of underlying immunosuppressive conditions compared to those with RSV (37·9% versus 13·6%; P < 0·001), FLU (37·9% versus 22%; P = 0·018) or any other single viral infection (37·9% versus 22·5%; P = 0·024). In multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying conditions and age, children with HRV/ENT infections had increased odds of hospitalization compared to children with RSV infections (OR 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·8; P < 0·003) or FLU infections (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6, 5·8; <0·001) and increased odds of severe clinical disease among inpatients (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6,5·6; P = 0·001) when compared to those with FLU infections.Conclusions Children with HRV/ENT had a more severe clinical course than those with RSV and FLUA/B infections and often had significant comorbidities. These findings emphasize the importance of considering HRV/ENT infection in children presenting with severe acute respiratory tract infections.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 05/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1111/irv.12255 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The significance of HHV6 DNAemia after solid organ transplantation has not been fully determined. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of HHV6 DNAemia in pediatric liver transplant recipients and to describe the associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. This was a retrospective case-control study. Eligible liver transplant patients aged ≤ 18 yr with HHV6 DNAemia were matched with two subjects without HHV6 DNAemia. Matching was by age ± 6 months. Among 154 subjects, 25 patients (16%) had HHV6 DNAemia detected by PCR in whole blood or plasma (M:F ratio = 0.9:1). While 28% of subjects with DNAemia (7/25) had symptoms consistent with HHV6 infection, active infection was detected in only four subjects (2.6% of liver transplant patients). The major symptoms/signs were fever, vomiting, lethargy, splenomegaly, bone marrow suppression, and elevated transaminases. The prevalence of DNAemia due to other herpesviruses in cases vs. controls was EBV 56% vs. 60%, CMV 12% vs. 12%, HHV7 20% vs. 12%; p value is not significant for all pairwise comparisons. HHV6 DNAemia in pediatric liver transplant patients is not an uncommon entity. While the clinical relevance is still not entirely established, active HHV6 infection and attributable symptoms are relatively rare.
    Pediatric Transplantation 02/2014; 18(1):47-51. DOI:10.1111/petr.12176 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory viral infections (RVI) are important in HSCT and knowledge regarding incidence, morbidity, mortality and long term pulmonary complications is limited. We report a study to evaluate incidence and outcome, short and long term, of RVI in children receiving HSCT. Between January 2000-December 2012, 844 patients underwent HSCT in SickKids. Allogeneic (allo=491), autologous (auto=353). Screening for causes of death in the first year post HSCT in the 844 patients, RVI as a cause of death was only evident in the first 100 days post HSCT. Fifty-four (6.5%) patients were found to have RVI within the first 100 days post HSCT (allo=32 and auto=22). Upper and lower respiratory tract infections were documented in 31 (57%) and 23 (43%) patients, respectively. Viruses were; parainfluenza 35%, RSV 28%, influenza 22%, adenovirus 7%, human metapneumovirus 4%, coronavirus 2%, and rhinovirus 2%. Three patients relapsed with their primary disease before day 100 and were excluded. The overall mortality for the remaining 51 patients was 10% (allo=4 and auto=1). All five deaths were directly attributable to RVI and all five deaths occurred in patients with a lower respiratory tract infection. The remaining patients were followed for a median of 4.3 years (1.4-11.8) and no chronic pulmonary complications were observed. Clear seasonal pattern for contracting RVI was evident with 65% of total RVI occurred between October-March (35/427 vs 19/417, p=0.03). Given the significant mortality from RVI and the challenges in preventing them, choosing the time to start HSCT, whenever possible, may help preventing them and improve outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2014; 20(2):S196-S197. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.12.325 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of health care-associated diarrhea in children and adults. Although serious complications of CDI have been reported to be increasing in adults, this trend has not yet been demonstrated in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the features of CDI in a pediatric population, with special attention to the occurrence of CDI-related severe outcomes. A chart review was conducted for patients with C. difficile infection detected by cytotoxin assay between August, 2008 and July, 2012. Basic demographics, mode of acquisition (nosocomial versus community), laboratory and clinical features, treatment, and outcome data were collected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction detection of toxin A (tcdA), toxin B (tcdB), binary toxin (cdtB) and tcdC genes were performed on isolates from nosocomial cases by the National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Ninety percent of children with CDI experienced resolution of symptoms by 30 days after disease onset and 2% experienced a severe outcome. There were no cases where colectomy was performed for CDI, and only one case where CDI contributed to death. Various combinations of clinical and laboratory features were not predictive of a severe outcome. Seventy-four percent of cases were nosocomial-associated. Among all cultured strains, the NAP4 strain occurred most frequently (24%), followed by NAP1 (11%). There was no association between strain type and clinical outcome; however, relapses were significantly more frequent in NAP4-infected children. Severe outcomes due to CDI are uncommon in children compared to adults. Further prospective pediatric studies on CDI in community and hospital settings are required to better understand risk factors, optimal treatment and the significance of NAP4 in pediatric CDI.
    BMC Pediatrics 01/2014; 14(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-14-28 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1995, a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccination program for 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was introduced in Ontario. Conjugate vaccines were authorized in 2001 (PCV7), 2009 (PCV10) and 2010 (PCV13). From 1995-2011, active, population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in Metropolitan Toronto and Peel Region, Canada. 6404 IPD cases were included. After PPV23 program implementation in 1995, IPD due to PPV23 strains decreased 49% in older adults prior to PCV7 introduction. Estimated PPV23 efficacy in vaccine eligible adults was 42.2% (95% CI; 28.6-53.2%). IPD incidence due to PCV7 serotypes in children <5 years decreased significantly after PCV7 authorization and before introduction of a publicly funded PCV7 program. Seven years after PCV7 program implementation, the incidence of IPD due to PCV7 serotypes decreased to zero in children and by 88% in adults, however, overall IPD incidence remained unchanged in adults. In 2011, the incidence of IPD was 4.5 per 100,000 in adults aged 15-64 and 19.9 per 100,000 in adults aged over 65 years, with 45 serotypes causing disease. Between 1995 and 2011, the case fatality rate of IPD in adults decreased 2% per year (95% CI, -0.9% to -3.2%). In multivariable analysis, predictors of mortality included older age, chronic conditions, nursing home residence, current smoking, bacteraemia, and illness due to serotypes 3,11A, 19A, and 19F. While vaccination programs resulted in substantial public health benefits, herd immunity benefits of PCV7 were seen at low pediatric vaccination rates, and the case fatality rate of IPD has decreased, IPD will continue to be a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in adults.
    Vaccine 10/2013; 31(49). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.049 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. Data on the risk factors for acquisition and outcomes from RSV infections in this population are limited. METHODS:: This retrospective-cohort study (2006 - 2011) included RSV-positive immunocompromised pediatric inpatients. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for RSV by direct immunofluorescence. Purposeful multiple regression was used to assess risk factors associated with community-acquired RSV (CA-RSV) infections and their outcomes compared with nosocomial (N-RSV) infections. Means and medians were compared using Student's t test and a non-parametric test, respectively. Proportions were compared using chi-square or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS:: There were 117 RSV-positive patients of whom 42 (35.9%) presented with (N-RSV) infection. Overall, more than a third presented with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) which resulted in a 28% admission rate to the intensive care unit (ICU) and a mortality rate of 5%, the latter solely among patients with community-acquired infection. Subjects with CA-RSV presented with more advanced clinical evidence of lower tract disease with respiratory distress (e.g., intercostal recession; OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.1-5.6; p=0.03) compared with those with N-RSV. Subjects with CA-RSV infections were less likely to have a prolonged hospital admission (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.8; p< 0.0001) relative to those with N-RSV infections. CONCLUSIONS:: RSV-related infections in immunocompromised children may result in poor outcomes, including mortality. Differences in mortality rates among those with CA-RSV compared with N-RSV warrant further study, with enhanced opportunities for prevention and early detection of infection.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2013; 32(10). DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e31829dff4d · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
482.13 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Laboratory Medicine Program
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987–2015
    • SickKids
      • • Division of Microbiology
      • • Department of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine (DPLM)
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Public Health Agency of Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
      • Department of Microbiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • Saint Michael's Medical Center
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 2004
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • University Health Network
      • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997
    • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada