[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may have an important role in tumor immunity. We studied the activation state of TAMs in cutaneous SCC, the second most common human cancer. CD163 was identified as a more abundant, sensitive, and accurate marker of TAMs when compared with CD68. CD163(+) TAMs produced protumoral factors, matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 11 (MMP9 and MMP11), at the gene and protein levels. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to evaluate M1 and M2 macrophage gene sets in the SCC genes and to identify candidate genes in order to phenotypically characterize TAMs. There was coexpression of CD163 and alternatively activated "M2" markers, CD209 and CCL18 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18). There was enrichment for classically activated "M1" genes in SCC, which was confirmed in situ by colocalization of CD163 and phosphorylated STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1), IL-23p19, IL-12/IL-23p40, and CD127. Also, a subset of TAMs in SCC was bi-activated as CD163(+) cells expressed markers for both M1 and M2, shown by triple-label immunofluorescence. These data support heterogeneous activation states of TAMs in SCC, and suggest that a dynamic model of macrophage activation would be more useful to characterize TAMs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which vascular pathology plays an important role. Since the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) is a critical factor in this disease, we examined its relationship to fibrin clot formation in AD. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that fibrin clots formed in the presence of Abeta are structurally abnormal and resistant to degradation. Fibrin(ogen) was observed in blood vessels positive for amyloid in mouse and human AD samples, and intravital brain imaging of clot formation and dissolution revealed abnormal thrombosis and fibrinolysis in AD mice. Moreover, depletion of fibrinogen lessened cerebral amyloid angiopathy pathology and reduced cognitive impairment in AD mice. These experiments suggest that one important contribution of Abeta to AD is via its effects on fibrin clots, implicating fibrin(ogen) as a potential critical factor in this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although in vitro studies suggest a role for sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) in cholesterol trafficking and metabolism, the physiological significance of these observations remains unclear. This issue was addressed by examining the response of mice overexpressing physiologically relevant levels of SCP-2 to a cholesterol-rich diet. While neither SCP-2 overexpression nor cholesterol-rich diet altered food consumption, increased weight gain, hepatic lipid, and bile acid accumulation were observed in wild-type mice fed the cholesterol-rich diet. SCP-2 overexpression further exacerbated hepatic lipid accumulation in cholesterol-fed females (cholesterol/cholesteryl esters) and males (cholesterol/cholesteryl esters and triacyglycerol). Primarily in female mice, hepatic cholesterol accumulation induced by SCP-2 overexpression was associated with increased levels of LDL-receptor, HDL-receptor scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1) (as well as PDZK1 and/or membrane-associated protein 17 kDa), SCP-2, liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, without alteration of other proteins involved in cholesterol uptake (caveolin), esterification (ACAT2), efflux (ATP binding cassette A-1 receptor, ABCG5/8, and apolipoprotein A1), or oxidation/transport of bile salts (cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, sterol 27alpha-hydroxylase, Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporter, Oatp1a1, and Oatp1a4). The effects of SCP-2 overexpression and cholesterol-rich diet was downregulation of proteins involved in cholesterol transport (L-FABP and SR-B1), cholesterol synthesis (related to sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 and HMG-CoA reductase), and bile acid oxidation/transport (via Oapt1a1, Oatp1a4, and SCP-x). Levels of serum and hepatic bile acids were decreased in cholesterol-fed SCP-2 overexpression mice, especially in females, while the total bile acid pool was minimally affected. Taken together, these findings support an important role for SCP-2 in hepatic cholesterol homeostasis.
The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2009; 50(7):1429-47. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M900020-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor