Publications (2)7.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial use is recognized as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outbreaks. We studied the relationship between PCR ribotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance in response to exposure to antimicrobial agents. C. difficile isolates were cultured from 133 CDI patients for whom recent antimicrobial drug exposure had been recorded. Isolates were ribotyped by PCR and assessed for their susceptibility to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) group of compounds (erythromycin and clindamycin) and fluoroquinolone antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin). Where relevant, the genetic basis of resistance was determined. Prevalent ribotypes (including 027, 001 and 106) exhibited significantly greater antimicrobial resistance compared with ribotypes 078 and 014, among others. Clindamycin-resistant ribotype 078 was detected for the first time. Ribotypes 027 and 001 were more likely to exhibit MLS(B) resistance, a feature that was associated with the erm(B) gene. Exposure to MLS(B) or fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds in the 8 weeks prior to the onset of infection was not associated with specific genetic markers of resistance. Single amino acid substitutions in the A and B subunits of DNA gyrase were noted and were ribotype specific and linked to resistance to moxifloxacin. Resistance to MLS(B) and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds is common among prevalent ribotypes of C. difficile. The genetic basis for antimicrobial resistance appears to be ribotype specific and conserved in the absence of recent antimicrobial selection pressure.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2011; 66(9):1976-82. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkr275 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A repetitive-extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) subtyping method (DiversiLab) in conjunction with ribotyping, toxinotyping and antimicrobial-susceptibility testing was used to detect subtypes within Clostridium difficile ribotypes 027 and 078. Clinical isolates of ribotypes 027 (toxinotype III) (n = 30) and 078 (toxinotype V) (n = 23) were provided by health-care facilities across the Republic of Ireland over 2 months in 2006 and 1 month in 2009. Ribotype 027 isolates were significantly more related to each other (9 different subtype profiles) when compared to ribotype 078 isolates (14 different profiles) (P = 0.001; cut-off >90 % similarity). Almost half of ribotype 078 isolates (45.5 %) showed no relationship to each other. The clonality of ribotype 027 isolates suggests effective adaptation to the human niche, whereas the considerable genetic diversity within ribotype 078 isolates suggests that they may have originated from a variety of sources. Subtyping correlated well with antimicrobial susceptibility, in particular clindamycin susceptibility for ribotype 027, but diverse antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles were seen in ribotype 078 isolates, even within a single health-care facility. Between 2006 and 2009, a change in the predominant subtype of ribotype 027 was seen, with the recent clone representing half of all ribotype 027 isolates studied. This strain exhibited 89 % similarity to a rep-PCR profile of the North American NAP-1 strain.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 04/2011; 60(Pt 8):1080-7. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.029983-0 · 2.27 Impact Factor